tea and pastries making skills
Tea making skills, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, local traditional handicraft, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Tea dessert making techniques are handmade by traditional methods, adhere to the traditional fermentation techniques of flour fertilizer, take shape by rubbing, wrapping, rolling, kneading, etc. The filling is fresh, pay attention to the originality, with different accessories, create different flavors.
On June 14, 2008, tea-making skills were approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, item number: _-161. On May 15, 2018, this technique was selected as the first national revitalization catalogue of traditional crafts.
In 1885, the founder of Fuchun Tea Club was Chen Lanting, a native of Yangzhou, who leased more than ten houses in a lane of Shengsheng Bridge (later called Fuchun Lane) in Yangzhou, and established Fuchun Flower Bureau, which mainly managed by selling and renting flowers.
In 1910, when Chen Lanting died, his son Chen Buyun inherited his father's business and continued to operate. At that time, the 1911 Revolution, social unrest, flower bureau business has also been depressed. Therefore, Chen Buyun set up two houses in the flower Bureau as tea houses, named "Tibetan Chunwu Tea Club" and "Borrowing Garden Club", which were named "Fuchun Tea Club" several months later. Tea houses use better tea than ordinary teahouses. In 1921, Queen Dragon Pearl was invented.
Since 1913, Fuchun Tea Club has served snacks. Two refreshment masters, Huang and Chen, were invited by the tea house to make Fuchun refreshments with unique flavors, such as "Jade Burning", "Thousand Layers of Oil Cake", "Crisp Cake" and "Double Hemp Burnt Cake".
From 1921 to 1936, Fuchun Tea Club developed greatly, with more than 100 varieties of flour and color, and with the change of seasons, new varieties were renovated from time to time. During the War of Resistance Against Japan, Fuchun Tea House once fell into depression. After the founding of New China, Fuchun Tea Club has been revitalized and developed.
Since 1983, Fuchun Tea Club has been the most effective and reputable catering shop in Yangzhou.
After entering the 21st century, Fuchun tea has been sold all over the country and started to go to the world. There are direct stores in Nanjing, Xuzhou, Shenzhen and Japan.
Yangzhou Fuchun Tea Noodle is well-known both at home and abroad. Fuchun's original "Queen Dragon Pearl" tea is made from Queen Needle of Anhui Province, Longjing of Zhejiang Province and Pearl orchid cultivated in their own gardens. It takes the color of Longjing, the fragrance of Pearl orchid and the taste of Queen Needle, and has clear color, pure taste and attractive fragrance. Fuchun snacks are the authentic representative of Huaiyang's fine points. They are exquisite in material selection, fine in production, beautiful in shape, diverse in filling, moderate in sweetness and saltiness, and delicious in flavor. Annual supply of dessert varieties are green vegetable bags, fresh meat bags, sandbags, dried vegetable bags, 3-D bags, 1,000-layer cake, emerald baking, glutinous rice baking, bamboo shoots steamed dumplings and so on. Dinner snacks include double hemp crisp cake, Xuanhua crisp cake, animal boat cake, melon and fruit powder, various pastries and so on. In addition, there are crab yolk bag, wild duck vegetable bag, shepherd's purse bag, snow vegetable bag, winter melon baked and sold with the season, when delicious.
The main process of Fuchun tea is as follows:
(1) Kuilong Pearl Tea
The combination of Taiping Qui Needle, Longjing and Pearl Orchid in the Yangtze River can be regarded as a wonderful flower in tea. The three are intermingled and intermingled, thick but not bitter, soft entrance, and detoxification of Shengjin. A cup can be rinsed four times without discoloration, and can relieve the greasiness of snacks.
(2) Three Ding Bags
1 * take 100 grams of pork, pork, 100 grams of cooked chicken, 120 grams of cooked bamboo shoots, and dicing.
2. Heat oil in the frying pan, pour in 20 grams of chopped ginger and shallot, then add 3-D stir-fry, then add soy sauce 100 grams, white sugar 70 grams, chicken soup 500 grams, and then simmer slightly over high heat after boiling. After flavoring, use strong heat to collect juice. When the soup is collected to 40%, mix 40 grams of wet starch with a small amount of warm water into the minced gourd to form a filling heart, turn it over slightly, then cool through and reserve.
3. Take 150 grams of large fermented noodles on the case board, scrape a small pond in the middle, pour 9 grams of alkaloid solution into noodles, noodles, 15 dosages.
4. Stuffed buns, and wrapped buns on the cage, hot boiling water steaming for about 15 minutes, until the bun skin does not stick to the hands can be out of the cage.
(3) Jadeite burning and selling
1. Take 2 500 grams of green vegetables leaves and put them in a boiling water pot after washing. Add 25 grams of alkaloids (keep green). Rinse them in cold water until they are three ripe. Rinse them with cold water, cool them thoroughly, remove the water, chop them and pour them into a container for filling. Sprinkle 15 grams of salt and mix them well, then add 600 grams of soft sugar to mix them. Finally, add 500 grams of cooked lard and mix them well to form a filling center*
2. Take 500 grams of flour and put it in the vat. Add 150 grams of boiling water and mix the flour into half-cooked noodles. Add 150 grams of cold water to knead the dough. When the dough is kneaded to soft and shiny, it can be taken out and put on the board for a little preservation.
3. Sprinkle a little flour on the board, put the dough into the dough and twist the strips, then rub the dough into 50 pieces, and flatten the dough one by one. Roll the dough into a slightly thick, thin edge, folded and slightly protruded lotus-shaped skin with two pointed rolling sticks, about 8 cm in diameter (this step is difficult).
4. Hold up the skin with your left hand and pick up the filling 35 grams in the middle of the skin. Then the five fingers merge and wrap the filling. The five fingers are pinched at a quarter of the filling. The filling is slightly exposed. Then the filling is rotated around the center of the hand. The tiger holds the filling, pinches the "neck" with his thumb and index finger, sprinkles a little ham on the filling mouth, and puts it in. The steaming cage with Masson pine needles is placed at intervals, covered with a lid, steamed in a hot boiling water pot for 4-5 minutes, and can be released when the skin is not sticky to the hand.
Inheritance and protection
The production techniques of Fuchun tea and Fuchun tea are a kind of culture, which contains unique cultural connotations. Fuchun Tea Points have the characteristics of people. They harmonize and harmonize interpersonal relationships and transmit a healthy way of life and humanistic ideas. Fuchun tea is not only a model of combining culture and technology, but also a model of combining tradition and modern, and also a model of combining spirit and material and transforming each other. The classical brand and management concept of Fuchun tea have provided fresh teaching materials for the sustainable development of many "old-fashioned" enterprises, which are of great value.
Xu Yongzhen, female, was born on June 4, 1944. On May 26, 2009, Xu Yongzhen was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects. Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, declared the project: tea making skills.
In order to protect the production techniques of Fuchun tea, Fuchun Tea Club has gathered experienced tea artists, pastry chefs and cooks to summarize the characteristics, raw materials, formulations, preparation methods and operation essentials of Fuchun's traditional famous tea. Since 2000, Fuchun Tea Club has invested 4.65 million yuan in renovation and expansion, decoration, equipment acquisition, cultural propaganda, training students, publishing monographs, tea making skills exchanges and so on. The monographs "Five Hundred Species of Weiyang Flavor Noodles" and "Chinese Huaiyang Cuisine - Huaiyang Noodles and Snacks" have been published successively, and the main achievements of outstanding operators and tea artists, pastriers and cooks have been recorded in detail. In particular, the oral materials of Chen Buyun, founder of Fuchun Tea Club in the 1960s were collated and collected. Articles written by famous writers and painters who came to Fuchun to enjoy tea or ink and paintings left behind were bound and carefully kept. Fuchun Tea Club, Kuilong Pearl Tea and Fuchun Famous Points were registered in the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce. Effective protective measures have been taken for the representative inheritors to identify the objects of inheritance, gang and band, and to provide appropriate places and material support for their apprenticeship. A Working Group on the intangible cultural heritage of Fuchun tea-making techniques has been set up, and a showroom of Fuchun tea-making techniques has been set up. The collected literal and physical data are classified and registered, and the protected objects are recorded authentically, comprehensively and systematically by means of text, recording, video recording and digital multimedia. The relevant data are classified and displayed, accompanied by text description, and properly kept.
In 2010, Fuchun Tea Club was established to study and popularize the processing and cooking techniques of traditional varieties such as flowers, tea, ordering and vegetables in Fuchun Tea Club. We should educate all the staff of Fuchun Tea Club so that we can have a deep understanding of the intangible cultural heritage of the production technology of Fuchun Tea Club, so that the production technology of Fuchun Tea Club and excellent cultural traditions, characteristic management methods and high-quality services can be passed on from generation to generation.
At 9:00 a.m. on May 2, 2008, the 4th "Yangzhou People's Day" was held in Wenchang Road, Yangzhou, in which Fuchun tea-making skills were displayed.
From February 9 to February 23, 2009, a Chinese traditional cooking and non-staple food processing technology exhibition was held in Beijing, in which Fuchun tea in Yangzhou was displayed.
In 1983, Fuchun Sanding Bao was awarded the title of traditional excellent food in Jiangsu Province.
In 1990, Sanding Bao and Jadeite Burning and Selling won the "Golden Ding" Award of the Ministry of Commerce.
In 1997, the Chinese Cooking Association assessed Fuchun Sanding Bao, Thousand Layers of Oil Cake and Jadeite Burning as "Chinese Famous Snacks".
In 1999, Fuchun Wuding Bao, Thousand Layer Oil Cake, Radish, Xuanhua Crisp, Jade Selling, Winter Melon Selling, Dry Vegetable Bag, Wild Duck Vegetable Bag and Crab Yellow Bag were identified as "famous spots in Jiangsu"; in 2000, Fuchun Sanding Bao was identified as "famous spots in China";
In 2000, Fuchun's stewed crab powder, lion's head, shredded silver carp's head and large-boiled dried shredded silk were certified as "Chinese famous dishes" by the Ministry of Domestic Trade.
In 2001, Fuchun shark fin steamed dumplings and three-Ding Bao with crabs won the gold medal of "Jiangsu New Dishes".