In the traditional Chinese civilization, "Nuo" is a social and cultural phenomenon with strong religious and artistic color, which has a long history and is widely popular in the Han nationality. It originated from the natural worship, totem worship and witchcraft consciousness of the Han ancestors.
Nuo originated from primitive hunting, totem worship and witchcraft consciousness. Nuo in Zhou Dynasty was incorporated into the national etiquette system. Pre-Qin literature records that Nuo rites hope to regulate the four seasons of Yin and Yang, in order to meet the needs of winter and summer, smooth weather, bumper grain, safe human and animal life, rich people's livelihood. During the Han and Tang Dynasties, the ceremonies of court Nuo were introduced into Vietnam, Korean Peninsula and Japan. At the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the court Nuo ceremony adopted a new system and developed towards entertainment. Because of the different beliefs of Yuan Meng, Nuo rites were excluded. The court Nuo was restored in the Ming Dynasty, and it was no longer held in the Qing Dynasty. However, the "township nuo" recorded in the Analects of Confucius and the Rural Party has been continuing among the people, and combined with religion, literature and art, folk customs and so on, it has evolved into a variety of forms of Nuo dance and Nuo opera, which is still popular in the vast rural areas of our country. There are more relics in Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Anhui, Shanxi and Hebei provinces, and there are "dance nuo" and "dance Nuo opera" in different places. Local appellations such as ghost dancing and playing with joy. They usually perform from the first day of the New Year to the sixteenth day of the first lunar month. Nuo dancing performances usually wear masks of certain roles, including mythological images, secular figures and historical celebrities, thus forming a huge pedigree of Nuo gods, "taking off masks is human, wearing masks is god".
Nuo dance is the main performance form of Gan Nuo, known as the "living fossil" of Chinese dance. Nuo dance accompaniment instruments are simple, generally drums, gongs and other percussion music.
On May 20, 2006, Nuo Dance was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
The Origin and Development of Nuo Dance
Nuo dance has a long history. Nuo sacrifice has been recorded in Oracle Bone Inscriptions in Yin Ruins. In the Zhou Dynasty, Nuo Dance was called "National Nuo", "Danuo" and "Rural Nuo". According to the Analects of Confucius, when Confucius saw the Nuo Dance troop coming, he stood on the steps in formal clothes to greet them respectfully (Rural Nuo, court clothes and hairpin standing on the steps). From these allusions, many scholars after the Qing Dynasty often referred to various folk songs and dances performances in the New Year's Festival as "villagers'nuo" and cited them in some local and temple inscriptions. The custom of Nuo sacrifice has been followed and developed from Qin and Han Dynasties to Tang and Song Dynasties. In Ming and Qing Dynasties, although the ancient meaning of Nuo dance still existed, it has developed into a recreational custom and developed into opera, which has become "Nuo Tang opera" and "local opera" in some areas. Up to now, in the countryside of Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei and Guangxi, there are still relatively old forms of Nuo dance, and some new contents have been added. For example, "Nuo Dance" in Wuyuan, Nanfeng and Le'an counties in Jiangxi Province includes "Kaishan God", legendary "Two Immortals of Harmony" and "Jinbu of Liu Hai Opera", "Meng Jiangnu", "Biography of White Snake" and "Jima Dance" reflecting labor and life. The performances and masks of Nuo dance have an impact on the dances of many ethnic minorities, such as the Tibetan "Qiang Mu" and the "Shigong Dance" of the Zhuang, Yao, Maonan and Mulao nationalities, which absorbs many cultural factors and performances of Nuo dance and develops into a unique form of dance of their own nation.
There are many explanations about Nuo dance. It originates from totem belief in ancient clan society. It is the gene of primitive cultural belief. It is a folk dance with the function of exorcising ghosts and epidemics and offering sacrifices, and it is a part of Nuo dance. Originally popular in the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valley, and later spread to remote areas, due to war and other reasons, the wind of Nuo Festival gradually weakened in the Central Plains, almost lost.
The first General Introduction to Chinese Nuo Culture, co-authored by Quliuyi, president of the Chinese Nuo Opera Research Association, and Qian, a Jiangxi Nuo Opera scholar, said: "Nuo is a fusion of religious culture, folk culture and artistic culture. In the long history, it is a favorite of traditional culture. "Nuo originated from primitive hunting, totem worship and witchcraft consciousness. Nuo in Zhou Dynasty was incorporated into the national etiquette system. Pre-Qin literature records that Nuo rites hope to regulate the four seasons of Yin and Yang, in order to meet the needs of winter and summer, smooth weather, bumper grain, safe human and animal life, rich people's livelihood. During the Han and Tang Dynasties, the ceremonies of court Nuo were introduced into Vietnam, Korean Peninsula and Japan. At the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the court Nuo ceremony adopted a new system and developed towards entertainment. Because of the different beliefs of Yuan Meng, Nuo rites were excluded. The court Nuo was restored in the Ming Dynasty, and it was no longer held in the Qing Dynasty. However, the "township nuo" recorded in The Analects of Confucius and the Rural Party has been continuing among the people, and combined with religion, literature and art, folklore and so on, it has evolved into a variety of forms of Nuo dance and Nuo opera, which is still popular in the vast rural areas of China, with Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Anhui, Shanxi, Hebei and other provinces remaining more.
Nuo Culture in Jiangxi Province
Jiangxi is one of the birthplaces of Nuo culture in China. During Shang and Zhou Dynasties, the descendants of Sanmiao (or Yangyue) who lived in Ganjiang and Poyang Lake basins created a brilliant bronze culture in Jiangxi. The bronze double-horned God-man mask unearthed from Taiyangzhou Shang Tomb in Xingan County reveals the origin of Gannuo. The earliest Gan Nuo recorded in Nanfeng County is Jinsha Yu Family Genealogy and Nuo Shen Dian Ji. It says that in the early Han Dynasty, Wang Wu Rui of Changsha was ordered to expel Fujian and Vietnam and garrison Nanfeng Junshan. In order to avoid the "disaster of knife and soldier", the villagers were warned to "spread Nuo to calm demons". The culture of Tang Dynasty was flourishing. The unified stipulation of Kaiyuan Rites on Nuo rites in prefectures and counties promoted the spread of "township nuo" in 37 counties of 8 prefectures and counties in Jiangxi Province. For example, there were legends of building and offering Nuo temples in Nanfeng, Pingxiang and Xiushui in the Tang Dynasty. When Zongmu of Liang Dynasty quoted Xuancheng Ji in Jingchu Sui Shi Ji as referring to Wu of the Three Kingdoms, there was a custom of begging for money in Luling County at the end of the year.
Jiangxi economy and culture developed in the Song Dynasty and Gannuo prevailed. Nanfeng's "Jinsha Yu Clan Genealogy" records that Yugan migrated to Nanfeng to avoid the war at the end of Tang Dynasty. In the early Song Dynasty, he moved the statue of Erlang Qingyuan, a god worshipped by his ancestors when he was an official in Sichuan, to Jinsha (now Xixi Village in Zixiao Town). "When the temple was erected, incense was burned at the age of one year old, and his system of exorcise was left behind. "Pingxiang textual research, Taiping Xingguo Shiyuan Xiandi Temple was built to worship Nuo gods Tanghong, Geyong and Zhou Wusan. Southern Song Dynasty, Empress Dowager Longyou Meng was stationed at Fengjueyuan Temple in Nanfang. A large number of members of Zhao clan lived in Nanfeng. Carnival and Kabuki art gathered, which has been a "prosperous scene" for a hundred years. Liu Boring, a hermit of Nanfeng, wrote the ancient poem Guannuo: "The sound of drums is deep and crisp, and ghosts and gods change for drama... ". The 48-sentence poem describes in detail the performance of Nanfeng Nuo Opera in the Southern Song Dynasty, providing a specimen for the study of early Chinese Nuo Opera.
The Ming and Qing dynasties were the prosperous period of Gannuo. More than 30 counties and cities in Jiangxi had records or remains of township nuo. Nanfeng in eastern Jiangxi was the most important. More than 180 villages had set up Nuo classes since the end of the Qing Dynasty. There are still 113 classes such as "Nuo Dancing", "Bamboo Horse Dancing", "Hop Dancing" and "Eight Immortals Dancing". Le'an has the Goddess of Rolling Nuo, the Drum of Opera Head and the Joy of Playing, Chongren has the Gong of Face and the Eight Immortals of Dancing Nuo, Yihuang has the Goddess of Dancing Nuo, Guangchang has the Meng Opera and the Queen Star of Dancing, Lichuan has the Goddess of Dancing Harmony and the Eight Structures of Dancing, and Fuzhou, Nancheng and Jinxi also have Nuo customs records. Nuo dance is called "the God of Nuo" or "the case of playing Nuo", while Nuo temple, Nuo noodle and Nuo dance are called "three treasures". Wanzai calls it "jumping bamboo" or "moving a case", which is divided into two schools: "closing bamboo" and "opening bamboo". Yichun is also divided into "Shukou Nuo", "Shukou Nuo" and "Baibainuo". "Bullfighting Dance" is popular in Suichuan. There are many records in northern Jiangxi. Nanchang and Xinjian are called "Danuo". Gao'an and Shanggao are called "epidemic-fighting". Jing'an and Shanggao are named "Nuo". Xiushui is called "Xingnuo". Wuning sings "Nuo Song". De'an sings "Nuo ceremony". Ruichang has "Shennuo". Duchang calls "epidemic-fighting". Peng Ze's "cat-driving flowers" is a Nuo custom. Central Jiangxi is an active area of rural nuo. In the Qing Dynasty, there were Nuo operas in Xiajiang Lantern Festival. Nuo operas in Qingjiang and Fengcheng were spread to Yungui. Northeast Jiangxi is famous for Wuyuan, Nuo Dance is called "Dancing Ghost". There were 36 Nuo Classes and 72 Lion Classes in Qing Dynasty. Fuliang has "Wuju opera". It dances Nuo first and lion later. In Northeast Jiangxi and Shangrao, Wuyuan. Nuo dance remains are found in southern Jiangxi and Ningxia, and Nuo customs are recorded in Ruijin. Local Nuo culture groups in Jiangxi province are formed by local Nuo culture groups.
Current situation of inheritance
Nanfeng Dance Nuo
Declaration area or unit: Nanfeng County, Jiangxi Province
Nuo dance is the main form of "Nuo dance". It was originally a ritual dance to worship gods and dispel epidemics, and later developed into a Nuo dance to entertain gods and people. Nanfeng Nuo Dance is popular in 180 villages of Nanfeng County, Jiangxi Province. It is a popular folk dance form. Nanfeng Nuo Dance has a long history and has evolved several times. In the early Qing Dynasty, Fu Taihui wrote in The Discrimination of Nuo gods of the Song family in Golden Sands: "General Wu Rui of the Han Dynasty... The system of the ancestors of Zhou Gong passed on Nuo to pacify demons." It can be seen that there were Nuo dances in Nanfeng area during the Han Dynasty. After more than a thousand years of development, to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Nanfeng Nuo Dance absorbed many kinds of performing skills, such as opera, puppet, lantern, martial arts, and became more secular and entertaining. After the founding of New China, the traditional Nuo-jumping is still inherited among the people, continuing the lifeblood of its grass-roots culture.
The structure of Nanfeng Nuo ceremony is complex, which consists of Nuo dancing ceremony and mixed Nuo ceremony. Nuo-jumping ceremony consists of such basic procedures as taking-off, nuo-jumping and exorcising, and there are three kinds of nuo-dancing rituals: bamboo-horse-jumping, harmony-jumping and eight immortals-jumping. There are many dancing forms in Nanfeng Nuo Yi, 82 of which are reserved now, including single dance Kaishan, Zhongkui, Caishen, Naha, multi-person dance Judgment, Nuo Gong Nuo, Dao Duo, skill dance Luohan, Guanyin Sitting Lotus, Puxian Riding Elephant and dance drama Journey to the West. There are 180 kinds of Nanfeng Nuo Dance Masks, which include exorcism gods, folk gods, Buddhist immortals, legendary heroes, strange animals, secular figures and so on. Its props and implements have many names and can be divided into five categories. Weapons and military implements include axes, knives, guns, legal implements include chains, peach swords, brown leaves, candles, candles, candles, candles, candles, food supplies include three animals (meat, fish, chicken), living implements include handkerchiefs, mirrors, wine cups and so on. Nanfeng Nuo Dancing is rich in content, diverse in form, rich in local flavor, rich in cultural heritage, and is deeply loved by the people.
With the development of economic globalization, modernization and urbanization, great changes have taken place in the environment on which Nanfeng Nuo Dance depends. The traditional folklore ecology relies on gradually disappears, the artist troop successively lacks, the Nuo class gradually decreases. In view of this, protection and support are urgently needed.
Wuyuan Nuo Dance
Declaration area or unit: Wuyuan County, Jiangxi Province
Wuyuan Nuo Dance, commonly known as "ghost dance" or "ghost dance", has a long history, numerous programs and unique style. It is a "living fossil" in the study of the history of ancient Chinese dance art, and has attracted the attention of experts and scholars at home and abroad.
Through many years of investigation, there are more than 100 Nuo dancing programs and more than 200 Nuo noodles in Wuyuan. Due to the influence of social history and other reasons, there are 19 actors and more than 30 masks in the Exorcise Class of Changjie Village, Qiukou Town. Among them, there are 4 original wood carving masks and 24 performances. Wuyuan Nuo Dance has many performances, such as "Creation of Heaven and Earth", "Sun Shooting Moon", "Meng Jiangnu Sending Cold Clothes". The performances include solo dance, double dance, triple dance and group dance. Wuyuan Nuo Dance is very rich in movements. It simulates women's dance steps such as "Nihangbu", "Pioneer Axe", "Pioneer Axe", "Grinding Axe", "Upper, Middle and Lower Crucifixes", "Troop Steps", "Photographing Hands", "Leg Crossing River", "Feather Playing", "Flower Dancing", "Rod Rod", "Touching Hu Points" and "Sun Shooting Moon" in Wuyuan Nuo Dance. "Single-touch Hu" and "double-touch Hu" are unique, retaining the unique style of simplicity, ruggedness, conciseness, exaggeration, image and vividness. These movements are more flexible, knee bending, sinking, chest-holding, abdominal protrusion, with the characteristics of sinking and unremitting, obstruction and stiffness. Musical accompaniment consists of percussion, music board and aria. It has special Gong and drum score and music board. It follows the principle of ending the dance.
Wuyuan Nuo Dance went to Beijing in 1953 to participate in the first national folk music and dance concert. Four programs, such as "The Prime Minister's Exercise", were included in "The Integration of Chinese National Folk Dance". In June 2005, he participated in the "Exhibition of Nuo Art at China Jiangxi International Nuo Culture and Art Week" and won the Gold Prize and Excellent Performance Award. Wuyuan Nuo Dance, with its primitive dance style and numerous performances, bears rich traditional cultural content and deserves people's attention.
Le'an Nuo Dance
Declaration area or unit: Le'an County, Jiangxi Province
The Donghu Village of Le'an County is located 30 miles south of Le'an County, Jiangxi Province. The Yang clan in the village has been carrying on an ancient nuo-jumping ceremony for generations. The local people call it the "Rong Nuo God". The ceremony is strictly prescribed and can not be passed on. The "Rolling Nuo God" of Donghu Lake has a history of nearly a thousand years. It has been inherited as a ritual of exorcising evil spirits and protecting the people. Before the village Nuo temple (which was built in the eighth year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty and has collapsed now), there was a couplet that read "Nuo dispels the plague with vigorous animals, and Shenyou countryside is located in Liyi village and Ning village".
"Nuo Goddess" wears a mask different from other Nuo dances, not covering the whole face, but a combination of two pieces from the top and bottom of the mouth. There are 18 faces, such as pig mouth, chicken mouth, goose king, Dongyue, judges, white tiger essence, crooked mother-in-law and so on. Accompaniment music is a drum and gong, rhythm is anti-3/4 beat, weak beat in front, strong beat in the back, very distinctive. Donghu Nuo Class is composed of 12 people. The main performances are "chicken mouth", "pig mouth", "board fork", "singing opera", "ghost hunting", "ox devil king", "seven stars", "stepping on firecrackers" and so on. This kind of Nuo dance has both solo and double dances. When performing, it often holds props. Its movements are simple and rough, rigid and soft. It has such action skills as kicking and squatting, rebounding archery, brushing face and shaking hands, and gathering steps. If encounter the plague disaster, then all 18 Nuo gods go out and search for exorcism through villages. The whole process seems more primitive, with few traces of artificial processing.
The "pig's mouth" and "chicken's mouth" in the "rolling Nuo god" are rare in Chinese Nuo dance. They are the only ancient Nuo rites and Nuo dances that survive to this day.
Punan ancient Nuo
Punan ancient Nuo (nu_), commonly known as "lang daliang" ("wei" w ng, refers to the gods in the temple) or "datou xiaozi", is a folk dance with strong local customs, which is popular in Punan Town, Xiangcheng District, Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province. Since the emergence of the late Tang Dynasty, it has a history of more than 1000 years. Punan ancient nuo, like the general of Tainan Nanmiao Security Palace, has a huge mask. It is not directly worn on the performer's head, but on the top of the basket. It supports the skeleton of a respectable general with Meng Zongbamboo, which is quite different from others. The image of ancient Nuo is a seven-grade official and a clown. The main role of exorcism is played by officials, which has not been found in other parts of the country. Punan ancient Nuo is very similar to Taiwan's "Dashenqiaozi". Studying the origin between them can further illustrate that Taiwan and the mainland of China share the same origin and the same line of inheritance. In 2011, it was listed in the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage.
Nuo is the product of primitive religion in ancient times. "It is the earliest time for human beings to exert their ontological spiritual power, to use witchcraft to obtain the minimum living conditions from the extremely harsh natural environment, to expand their living space, and to carry out two interrelated production activities - material production and population reproduction, so as to show the value of early human life. "(General Introduction to Chinese Nuo Culture)" Nuo's life publicity is mainly embodied in the Nuo ceremony, with the help of the power of gods, to eliminate natural disasters (such as drought, waterlogging, fire, insects, etc.) and human disasters (such as pestilence disease).
"Nuo Culture" is not only valuable in anthropology, religion, folklore, archaeology, art and other fields, but also "intangible cultural heritage", which is non-renewable. Once it disappears, it will never be revived.
Nuo has integrated anthropology, sociology, history, religion, folklore, drama, dance, aesthetics and other disciplines in the long process of inheritance and development, and accumulated rich cultural heritage.
Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Culture
Nuo absorbed the cultural factors of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. First, they absorbed their God system and strengthened the power of Nuo altar. Gan Nuo gods (masks) include Purple Weidi, Taibaixing, Zhenwu, Eight Immortals, Liu Hai, Zhang Tianshi, Ma (Lingguan), Zhao (Lang) Guan (Gong) Wen (Qiong), Liu Dingliujia, Taoist gods and law-guarding gods, as well as Buddhist Bodhisattvas and law-guarding gods such as Buddha, Maitreya Buddha, Guanyin, King Kong, Yanluo, Mulian, Eighteen Arhats, Four Heavenly Kings and Hanha. There are Confucian figures and heroic generals such as Han Lao, Kou Jun, Fan Zhongyan, Bao Zheng, Qin Shubao, Wei Chigong, Huatuo and Sun Simiao. The second is to use their etiquette system to enrich their ghost-driving and epidemic-driving rituals, such as Taoist rituals and incantations in Gannuo, Confucian code of conduct and etiquette and music system in Nanfeng Nuo. The third is to express their ideas and expand the entertainment function of Nuo Opera, such as the program of exorcising evil spirits and cutting evil spirits by Taoist gods in Nuo Zhong of Jiangxi Province and the concept of Taoist Five Elements, the program of Buddhism seeking all living beings and the thought of karma and retribution, the program of Confucianism reading and entering official circles, and the thought of "setting up Shinto religion". Gannuo is both inclusive and has multi-religious and cultural characteristics.
Nuo combines ancient myths and legends. Some myths are directly related to Nuo, such as the myth that Nuo was the son of exorcising ghosts, the myth that the ghosts fed tigers in Shenta Yu Base, the myth that the Yellow Emperor killed Chi, especially the myth that he was disgusted with evil spirits, and the myth that the Yellow Emperor protected the funeral of his second concubine and his wife. Some mythological programs reflect the struggle between human beings and nature and social struggle in ancient times, such as Pangu myth in Gannuozhong's "Opening up Heaven and Earth", "Houyi Shooting Day", "Fuxi Nuwa's myth of creation in Nuo Gong", "Erlang's hair bow", "Gaoxiuzi myth in Erlang's hair bow", "Baize myth of beasts and ghosts myth in Judgment of Jumping", and the myth of Zhong Gong in different historical periods. The myth of Li Bingzhishui, which was banished from Jienuo by the God Ministry of Guankou Erlang, and the myth of ape and monkey totem reflected in Monkey Suspension, Badger and Toad, Ape Catching and Monkey King, etc. The myths and legends in Gannuo reflect the image of ancient Chinese history and culture.
Nuo embodies the factors of drama occurrence and development. Zhu Xi of the Song Dynasty said, "Nuo is close to drama though it is ancient rites. "In Nanfeng, Southern Song Dynasty, there were not only early performances of Nuo Opera described by Guannuo poems, but also the earliest records of transplanting Yongjia Opera to date; the Nuo God of Qingyuan Zhenjun, introduced from Southern Song Dynasty, was the Yihuang Opera God recorded by Tang Xianzu of Ming Dynasty; Nanfeng's popular Nuo Dance and Xintian Meng Opera had thousands of connections with Meng Opera spread in Guangchang Ming Dynasty; Gandi's new stage ceremony was absorbed and absorbed. The ritual of Gannuo sacrifice was held; before the performance of local operas, "Jiaguan", "Kuixing", "Lingguan" clearly came from Nuo dance; Gannuo's "Mulian Save Mother", "Ancient City Club", "Tianmen Front", "Water Man Jinshan" and other programs were also introduced from operas or puppet shows. These provide fresh materials for the study of Nuo Opera art.
Nuo absorbed Chinese folk culture. The combination of village Nuo and folk custom forms Nuo custom. Gan Nuo customs include material Nuo customs, social Nuo customs, spiritual Nuo customs and many other cultural phenomena, such as Nuo temple decoration, house exorcism, Nuo clothes and begging for children, Nuo rice disaster, Nuo name to ward off epidemics, Nuo dance to celebrate one's birthday, Nuo taboos, Fang Xiangfei funeral and so on. Gannuo mostly takes part in activities during the Spring Festival, and its folk culture is stronger. In Nanfeng, hundreds of Nuo classes go out to dance nuo, greet auspicious blessings, entertain gods and entertain people, contact people, and harmonize neighborhoods. Around the Lantern Festival, villagers combined Nuo dance, Nuo ritual with opera performances, lantern entertainment, folk etiquette, and so on, indulging in joy, catharsis of emotions, to meet the broad masses'expectations for a better future.
Nuo also created its own inheritance system. Rural Nuo is the product of farming culture. Participants are farmers. There are more than 3000 farmers and artists in Nanfeng alone. They form ethnic Nuo classes, village community classes and private classes according to the situation of each village. Not only disciples, there are five classes, there are 24 classes, we live in harmony, equal treatment. For the leader, he is promoted according to his qualifications, or elected by all, or determined by lottery. He is called Uncle, Zhengyin, Head, sitting in a desk, Lao Xie, Nuo Chang, etc. Management methods are adapted to local conditions, including family name inheritance, alternate responsibility, and joint participation. Funds raised by oneself and income divided equally. The management mode and inheritance method created by Gannuo artists embody the peasants'extraordinary wisdom.
(Source of Atlas )
Nuo dancing is mainly used for folk land opening (project start), opening (project completion), opening (new business start), opening (theatre completion), opening temple (temple new repair), Xietu (new residence and relocation), wedding (marriage and birthday), praying (son begging for money), eliminating evil spirits, festivals (festivals). Celebration) a festival prayer ceremony held at the sixth hour of the flourishing age.