Ziyang Folk Songs
Ziyang Folk Song is the general name of traditional folk songs spread in Ziyang County, Shaanxi Province, and it is the most representative of traditional folk songs in southern Shaanxi Province. It has vivid language image, beautiful melody, distinct artistic characteristics and local style. It is an artistic treasure created by the local working people in Ziyang in the long-term labor. Representatives of the album: Fan Guangan's "Bashan Hanshui" and the compilation of "Ziyang Tea Song" and so on. Ziyang Folk Opera: Wang Er Married Sister-in-law, Tea Mountain Affection, etc.
In 2006, Ziyang folk songs were selected into the national intangible cultural heritage list.
Ziyang, located in the central part of southern Shaanxi, was named after Zhang Boduan, the founder of the Taoist Southern Sect. In the earliest collection of poems in ancient China, "Zhou Nan" and "Zhao Nan" part of 25 ballads spread mainly in the upper reaches of the Hanshui River, including Ziyang. In the course of Dynasty change, Ziyang folk songs gradually matured with the formation and development of people's various living customs, and reached its peak in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, war and famine caused a large number of deaths and migrations in southern Shaanxi (including the three cities of today's Hanzhong, Ankang and Shangzhou). As a result, a large number of fields were deserted and the economy declined. A large number of refugees fled from the disaster, or evaded heavy taxes, or because of the large number of people and narrow land, no land to grow, or because the Court seized land; spontaneously flowed into the mountains of southern Shaanxi with a large number of landless wasteland. In addition, some outsiders migrated to southern Shaanxi because they first settled in business and then became naturalized, or settled down after serving as officials, or retired from the army and settled down. At the same time, the Court adopted the policy of organizing emigration to reclaim wasteland and reclaim farmland, forcing a large number of farmers from narrow areas with dense population and rich areas in the south to move into southern Shaanxi to reclaim wasteland, that is, the famous "Huguang reclamation of Shaanxi" event in history. The large migration of population not only promotes the development and economic development of southern Shaanxi, but also results in the integration of different cultures, which makes the folk customs, folk literature and art, dialects and local languages of southern Shaanxi heavily imprinted with the Hakka's native place.
The source and flow of the tourists are different in the counties of southern Shaanxi, and the cultural influence is different.
The immigrants of Ziyang in Ming and Qing Dynasties were mainly from Hubei, Sichuan, Hunan and Anhui, followed by those from Gansu, Henan, Fujian and Guangdong. "Today's Ziyang folk songs are connected with the mountains and rivers of Sichuan, and the southern high mountain areas where the immigrants from Sichuan are concentrated are high and bright, with a long dragging tone and a declining ending. The chants and tunes of Ziyang folk songs with strong Sichuan folk song characteristics can be heard everywhere; while the folk singers who are good at singing minor tunes are mostly concentrated in Seoul and Hanjiang Valley. Huan Gutan, Chengguan Town, Donghe Town. It has convenient transportation, good irrigation conditions and prosperous commerce. It is the place where immigrants from the two lakes, Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian and Guangdong live. Especially in every market town along the Hanjiang River, there are a large number of descendants of Lianghu and Jiangnan merchants who come here to do business. Quite a part of the minor lyrics sung here reflect the life style of the citizens. The minor music here has the characteristics of calm tone, graceful melody, soft and graceful southern music, which is in sharp contrast with the high-pitched and bright folk song chant and folk song tune sung in a false voice. The formation of the folk songs of southern Shaanxi, which are typically represented by Ziyang folk songs, is directly related to the immigration activities in history.
Ziyang folk songs can be divided into "folk songs", "minor tunes", "folk songs", "flower drum eight forks", "chant song of filial piety" and "new folk songs". Most of its music styles have strong lyricism, narrative and dance, which are suitable for performing actions, expressing plots and reflecting the complex feelings of characters. Labor chant is the basis of Ziyang folk song, and boatman chant is the core of labor chant, which occupies an important position in Ziyang folk song. Its style is rough and heroic, its tone and rhythm are complex and changeable, and it has a strong flavor of life. Mountain song refers to all kinds of folk songs other than labor chant, which can best represent the characteristics of mountain areas. There are many lyrics improvised in labor, which show love by seeing scenes and singing with choreographers; minors are as large and wide as folk songs, and lyrics are relatively fixed. Their style is characterized by delicate melody, beautiful melody, smooth and fragmentary rhythm, narrow range, strong narrative and personal feelings. Colors; Customary songs are popular folk oral literary forms, is an improvisational creation of songs, what to see, what to sing, what to sing, is a reflection of the people's living customs of Ziyang songs, is Ziyang folk wedding ceremony and other songs sung; New folk songs are the product of the new era and new life, is the post-liberation. Ziyang Folk Song is a newly created folk song with distinct characteristics of the times and strong political atmosphere.
Young people in Ziyang County of Qinba Mountains in southern Shaanxi Province should sing enthusiastic love songs and pan songs when they talk about love; mourning for the elderly, they should sing desolate and sad "filial piety songs" and "funeral songs"; singing loud and exciting "trumpets" and "gongs and drums grass" when working in the ground; and picking tea, they should have melodious and wandering "Huashan girl" and "funeral song". "Shepherd love song", "Wedding song" and "Welcome song" should be sung when marrying, and "Road song" when traveling, and "Woodcut song" when going up the mountain, etc.
When Ziyang people greet relatives, along the way, the groom, bride, greeter and send-off relatives have to sing folk songs and roar. Along the roadside villages, there is also the custom of blocking brides to "Pange". If you meet "fans", the reception team will stop and accompany the bride to sing. The song sung by the peasants in Ziyang when they were doing "helping work" is called "gong, drum and grass". The way of "gong, drum and grass" singing is by a person singing by himself, while working, while helping the tune. If someone doesn't shave the grass roots on the soil while working, the leader sings, "Ah, weeds are weeded and weeds are weeded, and after a rain, they live again." Sweating in the scorching sun, it's a waste of time to get water from bamboo baskets! "If everybody works fast and somebody is behind him, he sings, urges or satirizes in good faith:" Oh, geese fly in the air, work hard, don't learn from the lazy clam in the corner, stop three times at a time, it's very exciting! "
Ziyang people are mostly descendants of immigrants from Hunan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Fujian and Guangdong in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. Therefore, Ziyang folk songs have obvious Southern imprint, and quite a part of them are directly from Southern albums. Such as "Mulberry Bearer", "Ten Embroideries", "Reverse Picking Tea" and so on.
Ziyang County folk has the saying that "folk songs without fake plays are not true", such as "newspaper road songs". "Baolu Song" has rhyme, no certain tune, free singing and merging "smoothly". It's about what to say, or for pleasure, or for inspiration.
Ziyang's "Song Competition" is more interesting. There are "right" in the same village, and "right" between neighboring villages. There are two kinds of songs: day meeting and night party. In advance, the singer and the singer only agree on the time, place and number of participants, regardless of age and sex. In addition to the "song head" and "singing" people, there are also people watching and supporting the battle.
The "day meeting" is mostly on the hillside, with each side standing on a small hill and singing face to face. Or in rivers, streams on both sides of the waterproof song. "Pair songs" are mostly "pan songs", interrogating history, ancient people, geography, mythology, as well as birds, animals, flowers and grass. Some interrogate current affairs, others sing about happy life. "Night song" is often held in winter and spring. In ancient temples or spacious "public houses". You sing a hero, I sing a hero; you sing a famous mountain, I sing to Dachuan; you sing "Liu Hai Opera Golden Bug" and I sing "Dongbin Opera Peony". Singing is like a flow, one after another, singing voice, wisdom, warm atmosphere, often all night long, singing non-stop.
Ziyang folk songs have a very rich collection. The total number of songs found has reached 5028. There are 828 copies in the compilation. The genres include trumpets, folk songs and minors. They also include social songs, folk songs, religious songs, songs and other different kinds of songs. The representative repertoires of Ziyang folk songs are "Lang Singing Folk Songs at the opposite gate", "Singing Folk Songs", "Laundry", "Nanshan Bamboo" and so on. Ziyang County has been named "Town of Folk Songs" by the Ministry of Culture because of its profound accumulation and wide range of singing.
Ziyang folk song has a long history, its lyrics are clever, funny and humorous, and it has high literary value; the dialect used is Sichuan-like, Chu-like, unique in charm; its melody is graceful and graceful, and the color tremolo singing method which moves between the tone levels in high-pitched singing has unique value. The inheritance of Ziyang folk songs is directly based on various folk activities, reflecting the rich content of folk culture. Ziyang folk songs play an important role in enriching the treasure house of Chinese music and promoting Chinese music culture.
1. Ziyang folk songs are created by the people of Ziyang in their long-term production, life and labor. Both the words and songs can reflect the local customs and customs, which are easy to understand and understand.
2. Ziyang Folk Songs are greatly influenced by the culture of the survivors of the North and the South. They are very compatible. The minor is like the euphemism and delicacy of the south of the Yangtze River, and the chant has the vigor and loftiness of the north.
3. Ziyang folk songs are concise in language, ingenious in metaphor, funny and humorous, lyric, narrative and dancing in one.
4. Ziyang folk song has unique rhyme and white, fluent melody. Musically, it adopts four modes of "Gong", "Shang", "Yu" and "Hui". It combines real voice with false voice in singing.