Zhuokeji chieftain's official village
Zhuokeji chieftain's village is located in xisuo village, zhuokeji Town, 7 km away from malkang county. The village was built in 1718 in the reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. It was a four story blockhouse. It was destroyed in the fire in 1936. From 1938 to 1940, the Tusi Suo Guanying organized human resources to rebuild it.
In July 1935, Comrade Mao Zedong and the central authorities stayed in the official village for a week on the way to the long march. In 1988, zhuokeji official village was listed as the third batch of national key cultural relics protection units by the State Council.
Zhuokeji chieftain's village has important historical culture and rich tourism resources.
Zhuokeji chieftain's official village, built along the mountain and facing south, is praised as "a pearl in the history of oriental architecture" by international friends. The GuanZhai was built in 1718 in the reign of Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. It was a four story blockhouse. It was destroyed in the fire in 1936. From 1938 to 1940, the Tusi Suo Guanying organized manpower to rebuild it. In July 1935, Comrade Mao Zedong and the central authorities stayed in the official village for a week on the way to the long march. In 1988, zhuokeji official village was listed as the third batch of national key cultural relics protection units by the State Council. Zhuokeji chieftain's village has important historical culture and rich tourism resources.
In 1935, the sixth Red Army regiment of the Central Red Army crossed Mengbi mountain and entered zhuokeji area on June 24. Suo Guanying, who was then the "guerrilla commander" of the Kuomintang, personally led more than 200 native soldiers to block. The local soldiers were very accurate in shooting. They killed the general secretary who publicized the national policy. The Red Army was forced to fight back, and the local soldiers were constantly defeated. It is nearly 100 li from Mengbi mountain to zhuokeji. The native soldiers retreated to the official stronghold, and Suo ordered them to resist with their strong attack and defense facilities.
Late at night, in order to contact the follow-up troops, the sixth red regiment fired several colorful signal bombs into the sky. At this time, it was the rainy season in Malcolm, and the gunpowder guns used by the soldiers could not be used because of damp. The local soldiers thought that the Red Army would perform "magic arts". They were frightened to abandon the village and fled in a hurry.
Occupy chieftain's Village
In this way, the red army occupied the chieftain's village. On July 3, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhang Wentian and other central leaders entered the chieftain's village. On the same day, a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee was held in the "Tusi's Department of political affairs" to discuss issues related to ethnic areas, and passed the book of suikang Tibetan Xifan people. Call on Tibetan people to rise up against imperialism and Kuomintang warlords, set up guerrillas and realize national autonomy.
Suo Guanying is familiar with the four books and five classics, fluent in Chinese, smart and eager to learn. There is a room called "Shujin tower" in sodeiguan village, which has a large collection of Tibetan and Chinese classics. At that time, after moving into the official village, Mao Zedong and others found that there was such a rich collection of books in the "Shujin tower", which was an eye opener.
A thread bound romance of the Three Kingdoms is also placed on a marble desk. Mao Zedong, who was addicted to books, was very surprised and had a new understanding of chieftain zhuokeji. Mao Zedong not only reread the book with great interest in the official village, but also took it with him to borrow after he left the village.
During the seven days of living in the official village, Mao Zedong and others talked about the past and the present, pointed out the rivers and mountains, and made a detailed investigation and study of the official village. In connection with the description of "the romance of the Three Kingdoms", Mao Zedong once attacked the stocks and sighed: "in ancient times, there were zhuowu, and now there are official villages. The chieftain's Castle should be the most distinctive building we saw on the long march
In 1952, Suo Guanying went to Beijing to join the "May Day" group of ethnic minorities and had dinner with Mao Zedong at the same table. During the dinner, Suo Guanying asked the chairman to give his surname Mao Zedong candidly said, "now that you are liberated, your surname is Jie. In the future, you will be asked to relieve the chieftain."
Mao Zedong also said to Suo, "when the long march passed through zhuokeji, I lived in your house for a period of time and saw a romance of the Three Kingdoms." Mao Zedong also asked with concern, "is your" Zhuo Wu "still there?" so Guanying quickly replied: "still, still. You lived there, and we'll take it as a memorial. "
Architecture is the almanac of the times. When songs and music disappear, it is still telling in silence. At the foot of Zhegu Mountain and by the Bank of suomo River, zhuokeji chieftain's official village is a tiger. Seventy years ago, Mao Zedong stayed here and marveled that "there are ancient chiwu fortresses, and now there are official villages.". Twenty years ago, Salisbury, a famous American journalist, wrote to Hu Yaobang, praising it as "a rare architectural spectacle in the world".
Not long ago, we came to zhuokeji when the main project of restoration maintenance of GuanZhai was just finished. From the appearance, it is indeed a very grand, imposing and unique building.
Although the interior is under intense decoration and exhibition arrangement, and it has not been officially opened to the public, there are still many tourists from all over the country.
It is understood that this year, zhuokeji chieftain's village was officially listed as a national Red Tourism classic scenic spot. In March, Aba Prefecture handed over the restoration and maintenance project of zhuokeji chieftain's village to malkang county. Facing the historical task and the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, the county takes this work as an important work to promote the take-off of tourism industry and the development of county economy. Put forward the loud slogan of "raise the strength of the whole county, fight for 120 days, create a pearl in the history of oriental architecture", and call on the people of all ethnic groups in the county to "contribute their strength to the official village".
In order to strengthen the organization and coordination of this project, the county has set up a leading organization with the Secretary and the county magistrate as the team leader. From the CPPCC, the Propaganda Department, the county tourism and Sports Bureau and other units, more than 50 comrades who are familiar with the history of zhuokeji chieftain's official village, are proficient in Jiarong culture, have high cultural quality and strong working ability to form a capable and capable working team, implement the countdown work system and concentrate their energies He is engaged in the organization and coordination related to the restoration of the official village, restoration of the main project, internal decoration and decoration, procurement, collection of cultural relics, collation of text and pictures, exhibition arrangement, etc.
In the face of financial difficulties, the Party committee and government of malkang county have made up their minds to invest 5 million yuan in a lump sum to ensure the progress of maintenance projects.
In order to make the restoration project as good as the old, Suo Guantao, the younger sister of Suo Guanying, the 16th chieftain of Zhuo Keji, was specially invited as consultants, such as awantayi, the chief housekeeper of the Tusi and the eminent monk in charge of the family temple, and Ke Yuxia, the wife of the chieftain. At the same time, in order to ensure the quality of decoration and exhibition arrangement in the maintenance and restoration project, and reach the first-class level of the national classic red tourism scenic spots in Tibetan areas, we also employed skilled craftsmen from Qinghai, Ganzi and other Tibetan areas to specialize in the decoration work inside and outside the official village.
At present, the exhibition arrangement of the four exhibition areas is coming to an end. Jiarong culture exhibition area is mainly concentrated in some buildings on the first floor and the fourth floor, which is divided into 12 exhibition halls, including kitchen, Jingfan room, community room, silver room, wine making room, clothing room, etc.
The second floor is mainly the red culture exhibition hall. It restores the original appearance of the room "Shujin tower" where Mao Zedong read the romance of the Three Kingdoms. The Central Red Army held the "Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee" in the official village. It shows the military sand table of 13 township level Soviet political organizations established by the Red Army in the county, brief introduction of the existing and floating Red Army in the county, inscriptions of the old Red Army and various cultural and historical pictures There are 11 exhibition rooms, including stone slogans, paper slogans, wooden slogans, helmets, pistols, kettles, cowhide boats, coins, documents and notices issued by the Red Army in the county.
The third floor mainly displays the Tusi culture: Tusi bedroom, Tusi Council hall, court room, guest room, Tusi restaurant, Tusi smoke room, housekeeper bedroom and so on. Part of the rooms on the fifth and fourth floors are religious culture exhibition hall, which mainly restored the chieftain's family temple and Sutra hall according to the original appearance. There are mainly eight exhibition rooms, including Wenjing hall, Hongjiao hall, Huangjiao temple, longevity hall, lion's face free walk hall, fasting room, and monk's house. In August, the maintenance project of zhuokeji chieftain's village will be fully completed, as will the interior decoration and exhibition arrangement. At that time, zhuokeji chieftain's village will not only be a classic tourist attraction on the Tibetan and Qiang cultural corridor in Aba Prefecture, but also become the concentrated exhibition area of Tibetan characteristic dwellings and the best destination of Jiarong Tibetan cultural tourism. Although it has gone through hundreds of years, the maintenance of this official stronghold looks like it was yesterday.
Zhuokeji chieftain's village is located in zhuokeji Town, about 7km away from the east of markang county. It is located on the highland at the intersection of suomo River and xisuo river. It is also the intersection of two highways from malkang to Chengdu and Xiaojin. It is close to the mountain and by the water, with beautiful scenery.
In the years of underdeveloped transportation, this is the only way for Jiarong Tibetan area to go to Wenchuan in the East and enter the mainland. In the north, you can go to Gansu and Qinghai provinces via grassland, and you can reach Ya'an and Xichang via Xiaojin in the south, and Ganzi and Tibet via Jinchuan and Danba in the West. It is called the key to control the mountain traffic in Northwest Sichuan Plateau. Zhuokeji chieftain's village is a building facing south. It was first built in 1918. It was designed and constructed by Suo Guanying, the last chieftain. The whole building is composed of four groups of watchtowers. The central part of the courtyard is a courtyard with a single floor area of 1500 square meters.
The south front building is a building on the first floor and the first floor. The first floor is the entrance hall, and the second floor is the Chinese style "reception hall", also known as the "foreign guest hall". It is a special place for the Chieftain to receive Han officials and businessmen. The top is flat top, such as today's balcony, which is used for bathing in the sun, watching the scenery, or giving orders to the people in xisuo village who look up across the river. The north building directly opposite the GuanZhai is the fourth floor and the first floor. The first, second and third floors are storehouses, guest rooms and teahouses. The middle of the fourth and fifth floors is the grand Sutra hall. On both sides are the Sutra halls of various Tibetan Buddhism sects, such as Huang Jiao and Ben Jiao. Outside the wall of the fourth floor Sutra hall, there is a wooden Sutra corridor hanging out of the wall, and a row of wooden Scripture tubes wrapped in cow leather are arranged in the corridor.
The West Building and East Building on the left and right sides of GuanZhai are the third floor and the fourth floor and the first floor respectively. They are the houses, study rooms, kitchens, storehouses and the houses of the housekeeper, housekeeper and servant on duty. On the left side of the West Building and the East Building, there are wooden stairs leading to the top floor, and there is a wooden Corridor around the patio of each building as the passageway between the corridors on the same floor. On the left side of the GuanZhai stands a quadrangular watchtower connected with the West Tower. When it was first built, it has a total of 9 floors and a height of 28 meters. Now it has only six floors and a height of more than 20 meters. It is stable and imposing. It is not only a defensive building for the chieftain and his family to store precious materials and hide in a critical situation, but also a symbol of the supreme power, status and wealth of the chieftain.
In the meeting room of the Red Army at that time, the roof of GuanZhai village was constructed by Jiarong traditional dense beam and clay rammed flat roof, and the hanging mountain roof composed of triangular wooden trellis of Han Dynasty. As the whole building of GuanZhai is built on the mountain, and the side facade adopts the method of low front and high rear trailer. Therefore, the floors are undulating, arranged at random, with clear levels and unique caves. The roof of GuanZhai building is divided into three levels. The lowest floor is the flat roof of the south building, which is 7 meters above the ground; the second floor is the hanging mountain roof of the West building, which is 16 meters above the ground. It is 40 meters in height. The highest level is composed of the hanging Hill roof of the East Building of GuanZhai and the overhanging mountain roof of the north building, with a height of 19. 50 meters. The roofs of the East, West and North buildings are covered with small green tiles, and the front eaves are equipped with drip devices.
The cloister next to the courtyard patio in GuanZhai is composed of top column, wooden floor and wooden railing. There are 21 pillars in total, which are distributed around the patio, supporting floor slab, roof dense beam and triangular timber trellis. The corridor column is composed of two trees overlapped, and the upper and lower joints are covered with concealed tenons. The workmanship is fine and there is no trace, just like the whole wood. Each of the pillars is 15 meters long, large in the lower part and small in the upper part. The floor slab is laid on a rectangular beam protruding from the wall and passing through the gallery column. The railings are made of carved wood to form a geometric or auspicious pattern of panes. The large and small panes on the railings are equipped with five-color glass. The balustrade is surrounded by columns, and the five-color glass is colorful in the setting sun. The whole inner courtyard is full of strong national cultural flavor.
The walls around GuanZhai are made of rubble, and the joints are filled with lime and glutinous rice juice. The thickness of the wall is 1 m. the masonry method of internal straight and external closing is adopted. The upper part is narrow and the lower part is wide. The whole wall is in compression state and becomes the main load-bearing body of the building. In addition, the cross beams of the internal wood structure support each other and the whole building is large in the lower part and small in the upper part. The center of gravity is inward and the stability is strong. There are small windows around the wall for ventilation and lookout defense.
The external decoration of GuanZhai is based on the natural color of stones and flakes, which makes the whole building look simple and dignified and natural with the whole natural environment. In the middle of the four walls are inlaid with painted gods of heaven or earth, which are said to have the functions of suppressing demons and avoiding evil spirits. A wooden dragon head is placed on each corner, and a copper wind bell is attached to the dragon head. It is often used to chant the wind and roar the moon, singing the sound of autumn and spring. In addition, the interior of the houses was filled with wooden boards to make the interior of the houses orderly. The inner walls of the large and small Sutra halls are decorated with low curtains, bright lanterns and cigarette smoke. The murals with the stories of Buddha's birth Sutra are painted around the inner walls, which are colorful and exquisite. When you are in it, you will have a feeling of "silent words, all sounds and colors, all Buddhist affairs".
In addition to building the official village tall and strong with stone and wood, the chieftain also armed the houses with mysterious religious techniques. First of all, a tall flagpole was erected at the main entrance of the official village. The top was supported by the sun and the moon. On the flagpole, a long banner of Mani Sutra fluttered in the wind to resist all the invasion of evil and filthy. All around the roof are banners for Bodhisattvas, and the four corners are filled with branches representing arrow clusters, symbolizing the guardian God's bow and arrow, ready to shoot ghosts who dare to approach the official stronghold.
Introduction to tourism
Chieftain's village, also known as chieftain's office or chieftain's official residence, is the political center of Tusi's jurisdiction, and is the symbol of Tusi's power and status. Zhuokeji tuguan village was built in the Qing Dynasty. The building area of the village is 5400 square meters. It is a typical Jiarong Tibetan building. Its layout imitates the Han style quadrangle structure. The north main house is a fake six story building, the East and West Wing rooms are five stories, and the middle is a courtyard. There are 63 large and small rooms. Standing on the dam of the patio and looking up at each floor, there is a kind of solemn and gloomy feeling!
The basic furnishings of the house are as follows: on the first floor, there are production tools, grazing and hunting equipment, as well as grains and miscellaneous grains which are plentiful all the year round; on the second floor, the Red Army memorial hall, the basic information of the Red Army's revolutionary activities in this area, and the story of the Red Army's "attacking" chieftain's official village, where Mao Zedong lived for a week; on the third floor, it mainly introduces the clothing, food, housing and transportation of the chieftain's family; on the fourth floor, it is The fifth floor is now the folk custom exhibition hall, which displays various exhibits of Tibetan cultural style.
Upper Tibetan building
To get to the Tibetan building, you have to support the round wooden handrail to get to the building. It may be due to the need to save space as much as possible. The stairs are so close to each other that they are not easy to walk according to the habits of the Han nationality. You have to be patient every step of the way! The housekeeper's studio and bedroom, as well as the huge wooden boxes for food in the bedroom. The housekeeper has the supreme status in the chieftain's family. Basically, he is the core figure of the family's economy and politics. After a careful study of the housekeeper's face hanging on the wall, it seems that he is really profound, wise and calm, and has some shady features. He is a completely extraordinary person's behavior. In fact, his daily life is not luxurious, but even plain. But the seemingly simple furnishings show the authority of the housekeeper everywhere! From the barn in the house, we can see the rich clothes of the family and the intelligence and ability of the housekeeper. Then I went into the dining room of the chieftain's family. The decoration here was more luxurious. Walking in gave people a feeling of resplendence and harmony. The meal of the chieftain's family is strictly regulated. The chief seat is naturally the chieftain and his wife. Their seats are very high, with a long strip in front of them. Under the table is a long table with colorful brocade like cashmere. On the left and right sides of the table, there must be a chieftain's son, followed by his daughter-in-law, children's grandchildren, who are facing the chieftain and his wife Daughters and sisters.
Entering the chieftain's bedroom, the room is very wide and elegant. Needless to say, the group photo of the chieftain and his wife on the wall is more memorable. The 17th generation chieftain Suo Guanying has a broad face and full forehead, and looks profound and meditative. His wife is a beautiful and gentle Han woman, and her delicate face gives people a calm and warm feeling People believe that she is a good master of caring for her husband and children! Their bedding must be the best in the whole GuanZhai. The bed is of Tibetan style. The bed surface is very wide and bright. It is full of colorful colors, which symbolizes the auspicious flowers. The inside of the bedroom is where the treasures of gold, silver and jewelry are stored. The treasures in the bedroom are glittering and countless, which makes people wonder at the prosperity of the family. At the same time, it is also associated with the blood and bones of many slaves. Wealth and wealth are extremely cruel in the slavery society!
Stepping into another room, it is the room of the 18th generation chieftain, the eldest son of the chieftain. On the wall opposite the front door is a picture of a beautiful young Tibetan girl. This is the daughter-in-law of the chieftain, who is also the wife of the 18th generation Tusi. It is said that this beautiful girl, Heishui chieftain's precious daughter, married to zhuokeji chieftain's family and acted as an envoy of peace! This Tibetan girl's elegant demeanor is rare in the world. Her eyes are clear and bright, like the blue sky and snow on the plateau. Her delicate and plump melon seed face has smooth lines and can't be picky. Especially her innocent and fearless smile, only the holy mountain water can give birth to this kind of Zhong Ling Yu Xiu!
Exhibition of deeds
In early July 1935, Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and other leading comrades of the Central Committee lived here for a week and held a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee to discuss relevant issues in ethnic areas.
At that time, due to the separation between the Tibetan and Han nationalities, the Red Army's ethnic policy had a strong humanistic color. Even if the Red Army entered this place and was blocked by the people's groups under the command of the chieftain, the red army tried to do as little as possible to damage the interests of the nation. Some comedically, in the course of the hard attack, the red army fired two signal bombs. The chieftain and his family thought that the Han people had set off a divine fire, which was irresistible He led the people to flee in a panic, so that the red army attacked the official village without firing a single shot.
In this way, the behavior of the Red Army and the Han Dynasty would not be compatible with the Tibetan culture! During the Long March, the red army stayed in Malcolm and zhuokeji for a year, leaving many revolutionary relics.
When we see the concentrated picture of the Red Army fighting arduously in the dangerous mountains and rivers in the Tibetan area, we all feel the twists and turns of the Chinese revolution. The Chinese revolution can finally achieve a complete victory, which is really what the foreign reporter called the "miracle of the world"! Those who enjoy the fruits of victory generation after generation really dare not forget!
Walking to the first floor, I took a look at each room. It was just some farm tools, equipment, grain and so on. Like every nation, people rely on their own hard-working hands to ask for and offer from nature, so that people have the source of survival and the foundation of life. Therefore, a Tibetan said well: "it is such mountains and rivers that give us the basis for our survival. We know that we should always maintain a friendly and cooperative relationship with nature. Every day, we should pray to heaven and earth, hoping that in the dark, it can last forever We will live a happy life forever
Zhuoke Tusi village is large and well structured, almost including the essence of Jiarong Tibetan architecture art, and a model of highly integrated Tibetan and Han architectural art. It is also a historical witness of the Red Army's long march spirit extremely hard and bitter. In 2005, it was listed as one of the 100 red classic tourist attractions in China.
Zhuokeji chieftain's official village
1、 Aba Prefecture belongs to plateau area, with more snow mountains, lakes and grasslands, high mountains and dense forests, and difficult roads. Domestic tourism mainly relies on vehicles as vehicles.
2、 Aba Prefecture in 2004 through arduous construction, to achieve the county to county highway traffic, traffic has been greatly improved, almost major tourist destinations can pass well. However, due to the limitation of natural conditions, the highway is extremely vulnerable to damage, especially in the rainy season every year. Many places are prone to landslides, mudslides and other natural disasters. Dream trip reminds us that driving and traveling in these places should be very careful. Without great assurance, we should never easily enter the core area of Aba Prefecture. (at present, the new national highway has been unblocked, only a few kilometers of road sections are difficult to pass due to maintenance. The current road conditions are very good, so it is not a difficult problem to enter Aba Prefecture. Beautiful natural scenery, very suitable for sightseeing.)
3、 Aba Prefecture has a vast territory, abundant resources and a small population. Except for the nearby counties and towns, it is difficult to meet pedestrians in other places. Mobile phone signal is very good now. Don't worry about no information in the mountains.
1、 Zhuokeji chieftain's village is located next to national highway 317, 8 kilometers away from malkang County, with convenient transportation. GuanZhai, built on the mountain, is praised as "a pearl in the history of oriental architecture". It is a typical Jiarong Tibetan building.
2、 GuanZhai is the background of the novel dust settled by a Lai, the winner of Mao Dun literature prize. It is also the starting place and the main location for shooting the famous TV series Long March.
3、 Zhuokeji chieftain's village can be the first stop of your trip to malkham. After that, you can choose to stay in the house of tourist reception households in xisuo village opposite to the official village. You can deeply experience the local simple and strong ethnic customs, watch the unique architectural style of Jiarong Tibetan, feel the rich Tibetan style, and taste the authentic Tibetan food made by the host.
It is 354km away from Chengdu, the provincial capital. In addition to the dazangsi Ring Road, the main roads in the territory and the roads leading to the scenic spots are all asphalt roads.
There are: a Chengdu Lixian malkang (the shortest route from Chengdu to malkang) - Xiaojin Wolong Chengdu; B Chengdu Lixian malkang Jinchuan Danba Chengdu; C Chengdu Heishui Hongyuan malkang Lixian Lixian Chengdu; D Chengdu Heishui Hongyuan malkang Jinchuan Danba Chengdu.
After arriving in Chengdu by plane or train, tourists from other provinces can take the bus from Chengdu to malkang (or counties) at chadianzi station in the west of the city.
① Opening hours: 8:30-19:00
② Children's ticket: free for children below 1.3.
③ Half of the tickets are for the elderly over 60 years old and free for those over 70 years old. Active servicemen, students, disabled people with relevant valid certificates half ticket.