Zhenba Folk Song
Zhenba folk song is a huge cultural wealth created and accumulated by Zhenba people for thousands of years, and it is an important component of Zhenba regional culture. Zhenba folk songs are very rich in subject matter, there are many kinds of songs, including chants (labor chant, folk song chant), folk tune, Tongshan song (also known as Mao Shan song, sister's song, etc.), minor tunes, folk songs (marriage song, filial piety song, etc.), sacrificial songs, Song Arts (fishing drum, flower drum, Qingshui song) and so on. According to the content of the lyrics, they can be divided into "labor", "life", "love", "folklore", "current politics", "historical legends and stories" and "red ballads". It has been selected into the provincial intangible cultural heritage list of Shaanxi Province.
In June 2008, "Zhenba Folk Song" declared by Zhenba County of Shaanxi Province was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council. Heritage serial number: 585 II-86.
Zhenba folk songs have their own long history and the general law of the occurrence, development and extinction of folk songs. Its own characteristics are mainly caused by the following reasons:
1. Hard working methods. Here mountains and valleys are deep and forestry is luxuriant. Some ways of labor are very difficult. Transportation mainly depends on manpower, and shipping is carried in the main rivers. People living here need spiritual adjustment, emotional catharsis and entertainment in their hard and monotonous work. Mountains, forests, ravines, fields, a folk song, no sorrow. The better the folk songs are, the more fixed the lyrics and songs are, the more they are passed on from generation to generation. There are countless folk songs which have direct or indirect relations with labor, such as "back two brothers", "boatman's chant", "ramming chant", "lifting stone chant", "bellows chant", "sheep song", "grassland song", "planting yangge" and "lifting funeral chant", which play an important role in the occurrence and development of folk songs.
2. Very distinctive folk customs. In our county, there are a lot of folk music accompanied by the very rich folk customs, among which the folk songs around marriage and funeral are more colorful. People sum up all the activities of life into five words: life, labor, illness, death and suffering, and the resulting folk songs show the whole picture of life vividly and vividly.
Third, the phonetic characteristics. The local language of our county is similar to that of northern Sichuan, so the tuning rules of its folk songs are the same, but its tune structure is far from that of northern Sichuan. There are many four or five tones in our county, in order of feather and merchant. The alternation of its mode is also "feather-symbol".
Fourth, the unique form of cultural exchange. Zhenbayi Qinwangshu near Chu has always been influenced by Qinchuan culture, infiltrated by Jingchu culture, and cultivated by Bashu culture. Therefore, it has formed the characteristics of taking self as the main body in the cultural form and taking the advantages of various families.
First, there are all kinds of songs: there are many kinds of radical labor chants, as well as high-spirited folk songs, folk songs full of life interest, various euphemistic tunes and folk songs, sacrificial songs, etc.
2. Number: There are nearly 2,000 Zhenba folk songs, including love, life, labor, fun, historical legends and nursery songs. They reflect people's yearning for life from all sides, and their pursuit of love reflects an open-minded, optimistic and persistent spirit.
3. Music Beauty: Most of Zhenba folk songs are Four-Sentence single-paragraph music, but there are also more primitive two-sentence overestimation and complex and changeable multi-segment rolling-plate cavity. Most of them are feather style. The melody is natural and smooth, and the melody is elegant and simple. There are not only soft and graceful minor, but also strong and high-pitched chant, which is very beautiful.
4. Singers: The folk songs of Zhenba are widely distributed, and there are many participants. Every town has held folk songs competitions. In 1995 and 2000, the county held a folk song "Big Cold" on the basis of the preliminary competitions of each town. The selected excellent singers are all men, women, old and young. In 2005, a folk song contest was held in Bashan Township. The contestants were not only 80-year-olds, but also more than 10-year-olds. There was also a "folk song house" with more than three generations and ten participants. Bashan and other townships also asked to show the art of folk songs in the county town, which shows that there are many people involved in folk songs in Zhenba.
I. Chant. There are two kinds of chants: one is to unify the rhythm of labor, such as "pulling stone chant", "ramming chant", "lifting funeral chant", "boatman chant", and the other is to regulate labor mood, such as "back two brother chant", "pulling wind box chant" and so on. The lyrics of the above types of chants are not very fixed, most of them are improvised choreographies, and their singing forms are mostly "one lead the crowd together".
2. Folk songs. The lyrics are mostly about love, with seven words and four sentences as the main theme. The revision of lyrics is exaggerated, and the tune is mostly about four phrases. The second is the two-sentence and multi-sentence rolling pattern. Generally singing in labor, there are solo singing, chorus singing, duet singing and other forms. Most men sing in high-pitched, loud and bright, but also in flat-pitched, bold, magnificent, free rhythm, women are singing in flat-pitched, lingering, graceful and delicate. His songs have been improvised and handed down from generation to generation, such as "Daxian Tao", "Little Foot Red Embroidered Shoes", "Four Shadows on the Sunset Slope", "Lang Lie Yellow Rice on the Gate", "Get up early to graze cattle" and so on.
Third, minor. A folk song that reflects the joys, sorrows, joys and sorrows of life and the feelings of life. The lyrics are mostly five-character Four-Sentence and seven-character Four-Sentence six-sentence. Generally, they are multi-paragraph narrative forms. Music is mostly single-segment structure. Five-tone symbolic mode or feather symbolic mode or feather alternating mode is more common. There are chapters such as Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, Shiliting, Shixiang, Shiquan, Shangchashan, Wuyigu and so on. The singing place is usually in the house and courtyard. Night, rainy day or idle farming, 35-year-old group singing endlessly.
Fourth, folk songs. In the local folklore, there are songs for marriage. In the marriage custom, the daughter crys and marries as a song on the night before marriage. Generally, there are mothers and sisters crying and singing together. The lyrics are mostly attachment content and the structure of seven words and two sentences is more. For example, "Crying Marriage Song", "Mother's Training", "Leaving Mother's Bed" and so on. There are auspicious celebration songs in the manners of "asking for cups and plates", "taking clothes and rice bowls", "supporting bed", "rolling shop", "seating" and "shen shen".
There is a song of filial piety at the funeral. On the night before the funeral, the master invited the master of filial piety song to sing in Lingtang. Generally, the singers were two to four or more, accompanied by percussion music. Singing and crying all night. Most of the lyrics are songbooks handed down from their ancestors. From the "song head" to "the soul of the dead to settle down", "filial piety drink", "Jin Chao Gang", "Song Ji Bin", "inscription of poetry and thanks for wine", "thousands of turns", "into the garden" and "to die". The younger generations of the deceased (mostly women) sing songs by crying in their coffins, while the lyrics are now wanted to sing. The deceased sing about their life's hardships and sorrows, while the living sing about their sorrows.
In daily life, folk songs include "worship life" and "building houses to say auspicious" and so on. There are also exhortation songs, such as "ten exhortation virtuous", "ten exhortation elder sister", "exhortation Lang December", "abstain from Lyric songs", "prodigal song", "play money tune", "lazy daughter-in-law" songs, and so on, whose titles and contents are very rich.
1. Zhenba Folk Songs are handed down orally by heart, and there are few music scores and publications. Through the unremitting efforts of cultural workers, nearly 2,000 lyrics of various kinds were collected from the folk, which became the first and second volumes of Zhenba Folk Songs Collection. Among them, a variety of representative songs and related photographs were published.
2. Before 1985, Zhenba County Folk Music and Zhenba County Folk Songs Integration were also printed.
Singing filial piety songs with accompaniment, all percussion instruments. There is a homemade sheepskin drum. The sheepskin is only one side of the drum, while the other side is empty. It is similar to a small wooden basin used locally, so it is also called pot drum. The Gong side, the cloud Gong side and the hairpin side, four people control. In the prelude and interlude of singing, the main stable rhythm is used to set off the atmosphere of filial piety songs.
III. Audio and Video Products
In the 1980s, some county singers were recorded, but the number is too small and the storage period of cassette tapes is short. This work needs to be further improved.
4. Theoretical Articles and Works
The musicians in our county devoted themselves to the study and utilization of Zhenba folk songs. The Enlightenment of Mountains, written by Hu Yuanqing, was published in the first issue of People's Music in 1987 and the third issue of Music Exploration, published in the Journal of Sichuan Conservatory of Music in 1986. Liu Guanglang and Hu Yuanqing created and adapted a large number of works using Zhenba's music materials, some of which participated in relevant performances in China, provinces and municipalities.
First, it is the treasure house of music culture. Folk music in Zhenba has attracted the attention of music circles. After 1950s, musicians and composers from China Conservatory of Music, Xi'an Conservatory of Music and provinces and cities came to Zhenba to collect styles. Good folk music environment, nurture excellent music talents. Musicians in Zhenba County have created and adapted many music works with strong flavor of Zhenba folk songs. Among them, Liu Guanglang composed and sang "Two Songs in the Forest of Bashan" and "Xiuyan Tang on the Top of Bashan" in 1978. He participated in the folk singing performance organized by the Ministry of Culture in Beijing. In 1999, Hu Yuanqing's opera Suona Sound won the prize for excellent works in Shaanxi Province's outstanding performance celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic. In October 1999 and September 2002, they also held concerts of individual works based on Zhenba folk songs in Hanzhong City.
Second, it has high research value. From the tunes of Zhenba folk songs, we can understand the general law of folk songs'evolution, discover the clues of cultural exchanges in different places in history, and find the dialectical relationship between the tone of words and lines and the tone of feelings and lines. Folk songs can be used as a breakthrough point to carry out the study of folklore to a deeper level, and folk songs can be used as a starting point to systematically study the productive labor, living conditions and aesthetic taste of the people in history. The living state of folk songs can reflect many information such as historical changes, natural changes, social development, etc. The literariness, popularity and singing of their lyrics are also worth studying and studying. It has important research value in Anthropology and linguistics.
Thirdly, Zhenba folk songs not only record the changes of Zhenba's humanities and history, the living conditions of the times, the customs and etiquettes, but also carry the functions of social and historical changes, customs and etiquettes, ethics and labor skills, and become the main tools of social education and inheritance.