Zhang Jia Agui

Home Celebrity 2019-09-11

Zhang Jia Agui

Ah Kui (September 7, 1717 - October 10, 1797). Zhang Jiashi , word Guang Ting , Number Cloud cliffs Manchuria's blue flag people (after the war in Xinjiang were promoted to Zheng Bai Qi), a Bachelor of science. Arcton The son of the Qing Dynasty.

Qianlong In three years (1738), the red flag was set up in Mongolia. Thirteen years of Qianlong (1748). Battle of large and small Jinchuan Qianlong twenty-four years (1759), to participate in stabilization Size and Zhuo rebellion When things are leveled up, they move in. Ili Put forward Xinjiang The strategy of land reclamation was adopted. In the past few years, the ministers of the Han Dynasty and the Han army set up the blue flag. Military Secretary Manchuria is a red flag. Governor of Sichuan And so on.

In the thirty-three years of Qianlong (1768), he took the post of deputy general. Fu Heng Leading troops and invaded Yunnan Myanmar The army is at war. In the thirty-six years (1771), Qianlong took part in the battle of the big and small Jinchuan again, which lasted for 5 years, and fought for many battles. It was more appropriate for two times to supervise the Hui uprising in Gansu and take part in the crackdown on Taiwan. Lin Shuangwen Uprising And fight against Battle of Gorkha Strategy of advancing troops Jiaqing two years (1797), died at the age of 81 years old, the posthumous title Wen Cheng, There are 15 volumes of the "munitions Ordinance".

Make first appearance

Ah Kui was born in Kangxi for fifty-six years (1717) and early August.

Three, Manchuria origin Blue flag After being carried into Plain White Banner He came from a dignitary family, father. Arcton It's Qian Longzhao. Associate major , minister of punishment The Emperor Qianlong is highly valued. Since he was young, he had been clever and intelligent. He heard people talk about historical events, that is, they can remember their strategies. In ten years (1732), Yong Zheng, sixteen, became an official and studied for two years. In the first year of Qianlong (1736), he was Vice Minister of Gong Sheng. Dali Temple Cheng, the three year of Qianlong (1738), gave second years to the Ministry of military affairs. Since then, he has been enjoying himself. In the eight years of Qianlong (1743), he took up his post as a fellow. Jun Zhang Jing However, the repeated attacks almost put him in jail. In the eleven years of Qianlong (1745), he became a member of the Bank of the Treasury, and was led down to Rinabe Toro by the crime of oversight.

At the beginning of Qianlong thirteen years (1747), Ban Tai To Sichuan Jinchuan Military operations, for reasons A close relative Governor of Sichuan and Shaanxi Zhang Guang Si In the defeat of the small and large Jinchuan, the Qing army kept half a year's work and was arrested and executed. Ah Kui was also impeachment to "collude with Zhang Guangsi, deceive his relatives", and handed over to the Ministry of torture for questioning. Later, because Emperor Qianlong had his father aged, only the son of ah Kui was very grateful. He did not punish him and released him home. This is a big fall in his career. But ah, after all, was a noble son of Manchuria, so he was reused in the second years he was released. Five years later, he became a master of cabinet and a minister of ceremony.

Pacify Xinjiang

When he was young, his fame was mainly due to his prominent position in aristocratic families. His real starting point was to participate in the Qing Dynasty's use and operation of the northwest region. Qianlong emperor (twenty) in 1755 (Qianlong), Emperor Qianlong, who had great talent, used Mongolia. Junggar Department The civil war took place, determined to complete the unfinished business of Kangxi and Yong Zheng in the two dynasties, and the Qing army was divided into two directions. Davatsi The head of Junggar launched a large-scale attack. In June of the same year, he was sent to the northwest to join the battlefield. At first, ah Kui was ordered. Uliastai Manage the station, deliver the official documents, and supply the front needs. He was very careful in his work and was very much trusted by the Deputy General of the Emperor Qianlong, the Deputy General of Jingbian, and the prince of Mongolia, Cheng Dun Zai bu. He was awarded the Minister of the Minister of counsellor, the red flag, the deputy governor of the Mongolia and the Minister of the Ministry of industry. In the meantime, the father of ah Kui died in the first month of the twenty-one year (1756) of Qianlong. Shortly afterwards, it was ordered to return to the northwest in July of the same year. Under the blow of the Qing army, the quasi separatist forces collapsed, and by the end of the twenty-two (1757) of the Qianlong period, the Qing army had basically settled the quasi ministry, but there were still some remnants remaining stubborn. Tang Kai Lu The Ministry pursued the plot and fled to the Russian leader of the Ministry of light, shleng, and then vice general. Fu De Hunt down the rest of the staff together.

When the Qing Dynasty was about to end its military operations at the headquarters, the Tianshan South Road Uygur ethnic group The area has happened. Huo Ji Zhang Brother's rebellion. In the twenty-four years of Qianlong (1759), in May, he was ordered to go to Hoss Cu Luke, to join the vice general Fu De Chou's pursuit of the defeated Huo Ji brothers. In August of the same year, the two armies fought heavily against Al zur (today, Pamir Barton, Hebei, southwestern). When the rebels rebel against thousands of people, they fought stubbornly. In the fierce battle, ah Kui took the lead, with hundreds of elite soldiers, "the right side of the foothill," and the enemy was caught off guard. The Qing army took advantage of the sharp killing, and the rebels suffered heavy casualties and fled in a panic. The army of the kuiti army and other Qing army troops were reluctant to leave. The Yixi erkuhe River, which is now the Pamir River in Pamir West, once again surrounded the enemy. Under the fierce pursuit of the Qing army, enemy soldiers broke down and surrendered, and Huo Ji brothers failed to see the situation. They had to run to hundreds of people with their confidant. In this battle, the Qing army captured more than ten thousand thousand people, seized over 2000 pieces of various weapons, and countless cattle and sheep camels. In October of the same year, Su Lurtan Shah, leader of the BDK mountain, presented the first class of the Huo Ji brothers to the Qing army, and thus settled the Tianshan South Road.

The Qing Dynasty settled the quasi ministry and the Ministry of reunification, and unified the Tianshan Mountains after the north and south, and began to consolidate the rule of this area. In the twenty-four years of September, he was ordered to go to Akesu, which had just recovered, to deal with local affairs. In order to solve the difficulties in the shortage of military food after the war, he used the existing cattle and sheep as a "requirement for the Yili garrison to do grain in the coming year", which has made the officer raise his troops to aid the army. In October, and the general of Ching Dingbian, who was passing through Akesu. Trillion benefits We agreed on the specific measures for Uighur farmers stationed in Yili and Akesu and other places to Yili. Emperor Qianlong attached great importance to the field in Yili. He ordered the Adlai army to escort the Uygur people (that is, the so-called "back office") and to manage the specific affairs of the field.

Yili

At the beginning of Qianlong twenty-five years (1760), he was five hundred in Manchuria, one hundred in green camp, and three hundred in Uygur peasants. This was the beginning of Yili's reclamation. Of course, it is not easy to garrison and Tun Tian in Yili. At that time, the war was just over, and the remnants of the rebels were still making trouble every now and then. At the same time, the war that lasted for many years had made the area which had been very barren suffered greater destruction, and there was a scene of desolation and depression everywhere. Therefore, although Qian Longdi believed that the Qing army must be stationed in Yili for a long time, in order to prevent the remaining insurgents from splitting up and breaking up the evil attempt of the Tsar Russia, which had long been scheming to annex Yili, under this very difficult condition, whether Yili's ability to win the war in the field could still solve the problem of the army's grain of the garrison was still uncertain, so he "ordered the various military barracks and other ministers to plan how to divide troops and garrison" Yili. Many ministers "all call the place far away, the desert is the majority, the old time allowed the horses and sheep to burn out, so it is difficult for them to be stationed." In deciding whether the Qing army was to stick to it or withdraw from Yili, ah Kui stepped forward and made a bold statement, insisting on Yili's land reclamation.

Ah Kui's proposal was very important to the rule of the Qing Dynasty in this area, so he soon got Qian Longdi.

The approval and implementation of the plan laid the foundation for Yili's land reclamation. At the same time, he also organized manpower to manufacture agricultural implements and engage in agricultural production. Due to the hard work of farmers and soldiers stationed in the fields, Yili was able to harvest a good harvest in that year. This year, the Qing government praised and rewarded the heroes of the northwest, and in the order of merit, hung a portrait in purple Pavilion, and he was placed in the seventeenth place. Qian Longdi personally wrote the praise of ah Kui: "the heart can dry the city, Chu Cai continues to come out, for the country's structure." The result of initial success in the field was to enhance his confidence. In order to further develop Yili's land reclamation, from the twenty-six years of Qianlong (1761), he has taken further measures: first, when the herds in Yili are at sea, the mainland people are prohibited from buying horses and camels to Yili to ensure the development of local animal husbandry. The two is to vigorously attract Uygur people in yurqiang, Kashi, Akesu and Wushi to Yili for reclamation, so as to expand the scale of the field. At the same time, he also suggested that the court in Yili, Urumqi, Masna, kurkara Wusu and Jinghe three places, "the dispatch of the field soldiers, each person cultivated fifteen mu, the Jinghe River to Yili under the jurisdiction of the west, tukkor east to Urumqi jurisdiction." Owing to the careful planning and organization of AKI, in the twenty-six years of Qianlong, Yili spent more than eight thousand mu of land in the reclamation area and harvested more than 27100 stones. There were eight hundred households returning to the Tuen Mun, with an average harvest of forty stones per household, and the total output reached thirty-two thousand stones.

While vigorously developing the land reclamation, we have also formulated and improved the system to strengthen the management of the reclamation. In the twenty-seven month of the first year of Qianlong, he made a binding constitution and made specific provisions in five aspects, namely, the complement of soldiers, the collection of money and grain, the appointment of officials, the distribution of output and the support of the family members of the Tun family. In August of the same year, the castles of the two towns of guzler and Wu al Lake were built in succession. Qian Longdi himself was named "Anyuan" and "suiding" city. The two cities are built entirely in accordance with the pattern of the mainland cities, and the military camps and private houses are divided respectively. These new towns are not only the center of the management of the field, but also the traders of the four sides. In the twenty-six years of Qianlong (1761), he was awarded the Minister of the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of industry, the Shang Shu, the political office, and the blue flag and the Han army. In the twenty-seven years of Qianlong (1762), he was awarded the duty of riding on the throne and returned to Beijing for "service strategy". In the twenty-eight month of the first year of the Qianlong Dynasty, after his arrival in Beijing, he was awarded the honor of the Military Secretary, giving him a ride in the Forbidden City. In June, Emperor Qianlong issued the decree: "ah Kui has made great efforts in the barracks, and he has made great concessions in handling affairs in Yili." gagen put the flag of the AI family from the blue flag to the three flags. In July, he was also awarded the red flag of Manchuria.

Burma affairs

At the beginning of his career, Qian Longdi was trusted by the military commander, and he was often appointed to go out to deal with local affairs. He took part in the case of the unification of the city of France and went to Zhili. Bazhou Wen'an and other departments supervised dredging, and Qianlong twenty-nine years (1764) inspected Sichuan's Kimkawa Toshiro card side by the governor of Sichuan, and so on. But soon after he suppressed the uprising of the Uygur people in Wushi, he was punished by Qian Longdi.

Qianlong twenty-nine years (1764) April, Wushi area of Tianshan South Road Uygur ethnic group Because of the unbearable oppression and exploitation of the Qing government officials and the Uighur aristocracy in the southern Xinjiang, the people staged an uprising under the leadership of their leader, Lai Hemu. The rebel forces repeatedly defeated the Qing troops coming to power. Qian Longdi worked in Yili for many years, and was familiar with the local situation, so he went to Wushi and Yili general. Ming Rui To suppress the uprising together. Ah Kui and Ming Rui commanded the Qing army to besieged Wushi, and the leader of the rebel leader Lai and Mu rura died in battle. The volunteers continued to fight bravely under the leadership of their son Mu Mu la.

From the thirty years of Qianlong (1765), from March to August, the Qing army attacked for five months. Ah Kui and Ming Rui had to take a long way of siege to break all ties between Wushi and the northern border, and the rebel forces could not continue to resist the situation when the army was exhausted, and Wushi finally fell into the hands of the Qing army. Ah Kui and Ming Rui killed the head of the uprising, such as Mu Mu La and others, and pardoned the general public. Qian Longdi, with the exception of "Kuai Kui and Ming Rui", "to delay in office, to show signs of cowardly harm", and to "get the cause of the crime, and to make haste and error". Then, in order to assist Wushi in the management of the affairs of Yili, he stayed in the country to help him. At that time, the reclamation of Yili was further developed and the population increased a lot. Ah Kui suggested that the city of YAL should be moved to Chu and Chu, so as to facilitate the change of the Yalu city's original location from the pasture to the pasture and the shortage of farmland in the vicinity of the city. The court approved the request of AI. In the thirty-two years of Qianlong (1767), he was appointed general of Yili and became a senior official in the frontier. Obviously his situation has improved.

Another frustration of AI was when he took part in the Qing Dynasty's war against Burma. After thirty-three years of Qianlong (1768), Ming Rui claimed his defeat and killed himself, Emperor Qianlong gave A Gui a deputy general and a master of science. Fu Heng Deputy general Aragon Attack Burma again. In March of the same year, ah GUI Feng was called back to Beijing, in April he was awarded the Ministry of military affairs, and in June he became governor of Yunnan and Guizhou. In November, he arrived in Yunnan. Yongchang After that, he captured the wooden comb from the old capital of Burma with ALI army, and then another group of troops went to dusk (now Burma). Bhamo ), the bison dam and other places to build battleships to prepare for the use of water forces. The Qing army continued to attack and won again and again. But because of the continuous resistance and water and soil incompatibility, the soldiers died in large numbers. The deputy general Ali Gang died of illness, and he was seriously ill. Emperor Qianlong ordered the withdrawal of the army from Burma, and he joined the Burma at the end of the thirty-four year of Qianlong. In December, he was appointed to the Ministry of rites, because he was still in Yunnan and was first represented by Solna. When the leaders of Mu bang, dushao and Meng Lian chieftain sought to avoid Burma invasion, they asked the Qing government to place them in the mainland. A Gui suggested that Dali, Yunnan, Meng Hua The old ma Chang Guan Zhuang Tian was assigned to live in the area, and the court approved it.

In the thirty-five years of Qianlong (1770), in August, Emperor Qianlong paid tribute to the Minister of Burma, the Ministry of rites, the Ministry of rites, the Red Army and the Han army.

In the thirty-six years of Qianlong (1771), he also sent a partial teacher to harass Burma. When he was tired, he took up the offensive, and he asked for a big attack. Qian Longdi thought that his advice was out of season, he was reprimanded, and he took the official and stayed in the barracks.

Pacify Jinchuan

Just as ah Kui was repeatedly denounced for handling Burma affairs, the situation in Sichuan Jinchuan region was more intense. The attention of the Qing Dynasty shifted from Burma to Jinchuan, which provided a good opportunity for her to wash away the old disgrace and build up her career.

In the fourteen years of Qianlong (1749), after the Qing army settled Jinchuan, the area was still managed by chieftains, and there was a dispute between the chieftains. More than ten years later, a more large-scale rebellion occurred. After the middle period of Qianlong, great Jinchuan chieftain Sha Luo Ben It is old, and is chaired by his nephew. He constantly plundered nearby Tusi, and Qianlong seized twenty-three years of small Jinchuan and Bush's chieftain. Governor of Sichuan Kai Tai Ordered to dissuade, but Lang card ignores, still "invaded the border".

In the thirty-six years of Qianlong (1771), Bush, the son of Sharon, killed and killed the chieftain of Bush. He also attacked ashkish and Ming Chieh chieftain, and openly fought with the Qing Dynasty's reinforcements. Emperor Qianlong's Bachelor of Science Wen Fu From Yunnan to Sichuan, he went to the army to collect. Wen Fu, who was familiar with Sichuan's situation, took him to the battlefield of Jinchuan. In December of the same year, after arriving in Jinchuan, the court took the governor of Sichuan. Dong Tian Bi The operation is unfavourable and free of duty. The Qing army attacked Jinchuan in two ways, and Wen Fuzi followed him. Wenchuan Out of the West Road, the new governor of Sichuan, Guilin, came out of the South Road. At the beginning of the war, the army led the army to kill and kill all the villages of the Ba Lang, Da Mu and Ba Zong.

Qianlong thirty-seven years (177 In 2 years, in February, he took the place of Zili mountain and arkmmu, and gave him the Minister of counsellor. In May, Guilin was defeated in the ditch, and was impeachment and dismisson. Since then, ah Kui has become an independent general. In June, when he arrived at the barracks, he planned to enter the strategy. He learned that Niglesang, a rebel leader in little Jinchuan, was entrenched in Hebei, in little Jinchuan. In order to attack Maynor, we must first occupy its gateway monk Ge Zong, and the mount of Mount mu, the place where the Qing army must go, has become a strategic priority. One night in August, ah Ji quietly assembled the troops in the Mt. Furou, and then took the heavy fog in the middle of the night to seize the wooden hill. Emperor Qianlong heard the news and awarded the special prize to A Gui as his minister. In November, a Kui army captured monk Ge Zong, and in December he was given the Deputy military commander. He was ordered to work with the great bachelor, the general of Dingbian, Wen Fu and the deputy general. Feng Sheng Take the road straight away. Ah Kui then drove the army to conquer the Lama monastery of the United States. Niglesang was forced to abandon mano and fled to Jinchuan, where he joined Concord. After he joined up with Wenfu and Feng Sheng, he led Sonom to surrender Niglesang and snowood. So he and Wen Fu played the three way against Jinchuan in Qianlong thirty-eight years. At that time, ah Kui was also given the post of the Ministry of rites. After winning the battle with the Wenfu and Feng Sheng branches, he succeeded in winning several rebel cards. However, because of the failure of the commander in command, the war situation was reversed. After defeating Wen Fu Jun, he won the race to occupy Jinchuan. Ah Kui heard the change and was not panic. After breaking it personally, he moved his department safely to reach the river.

Emperor Qianlong was shocked by the news that he was defeated in the reign of Rehe (now Chengde, Hebei province). Liu Tong Jun Deliberation countermeasures. Liu Tongxun did not advocate using troops to Jinchuan, but at that time he insisted on cutting down. So Emperor Qianlong gave A Gui a general of Dingxi. bright For the deputy general, he dispatched two thousand soldiers of Jian Rui and firearms camp and two thousand Jilin Suo Ling soldiers into Jinchuan. Ah Kui soon recovered the whole territory of little Jinchuan. Emperor Qianlong was very pleased with the news. He praised the poet for his praise, and sent him quickly to Jinchuan. However, it is not easy to win the great Jinchuan. Because the "great Jinchuan" has been fully defended by the Qianlong since the twelve thirteen years, and it has been increased by ten times the risk of Jinchuan. Ah Kui was fully aware of this situation and made full preparations. Then, in the thirty-nine years of Qianlong, he fought against the great Jinchuan in three directions. After two years of fierce fighting and siege, Hai Lan Chi Finally, in the forty-one year of the Qianlong emperor, the leaders of the general army and the vast numbers of soldiers were forced to make him. Sha Luo Ben And the rest of the community fell to 2000, and he set up the Tibetan leaders and general personnel of the "Jinchuan" "obedience". They set up the deputy general and the same knowledge, and soon set up Mao Gong hall, which abolished the original Tusi system.

Ah Kui's success in cutting down the size of Jinchuan also greatly enhanced his status. Emperor Qianlong made a heroic Gong for the first class, and joined the Minister of science and military affairs. In the forty-one years of April, Emperor Qianlong returned to the Qing Dynasty. Qian Longdi himself went to the southern city of Liangxiang in Beijing to go to the suburbs to greet the rites. After entering the city, he went to the imperial palace to drink to the rites.

Investigating and handling Qin case

After his return to Beijing, his position continued to rise. Qianlong forty-two years (1777) May, awarded the Grand Master of Wu Ying hall, the Ministry of management and the red flag of the Manchuria metropolitan system; in June, the white flag was set up in Manchuria, the capital of the Imperial Palace, the National Museum of history, the president of Siku Quan Shu, the Wen Yuan Ge, the leader of the banquet, the October, the yellow flag, the Manchuria metropolitan system, the management department, the three storehouse, the forty-three year June June, and the management of the vassal academy, the Ministry of war, the Ministry of war, the general master of the study, and the forty-five chief military officer of the Qianlong military academy; and second years. Yu Min Zhong After death, he took the first place in the bachelor's degree program. In just five or six years, ah Kui has become the Qing court. The Ministry of management, the principal part of the party. The first important minister.

However, from the forty-two years of Qianlong (1777) to the Qianlong fifty-four years (1789), ah Kui did not have much time to deal with government affairs in Beijing. He often sent the Emperor Qianlong to various places to solve urgent and difficult problems. One of the most important tasks is to go to the provinces for river works and water conservancy.

In the forty-four month (1779) of Qianlong, the Yellow River broke down in Henan, Yifeng and Lan Yang. He made a detailed understanding of the situation in the Yellow River, decided to open a diversion River in Kuo Jia Zhuang, and build a dam to block the Yellow River. However, because of the siltation of the Yellow River, overflowing and overflowing, and often windy and rainy, the dam was built repeatedly and repeatedly washed away. Ah Kui was building a Shun Huang dam in the lower reaches of Wangjiazhuang, and "pumped up the water potential and forced to slip straight into the river." This method is very effective. In the forty-five years (1780) of Qianlong in March, the dyke was completed and the breach was blocked. In December of the same year, he returned to Beijing for more than half a year, and was sent to Zhejiang to investigate the seawall project.

In the forty-six month (1781) of Qianlong, after he arrived in Zhejiang Province, he pursued "meticulous exploration, the urgency of the tide tide, the firmness of the sand, the difficulty of labor", and the construction of fish scale, Shek Tong, Chai Tong and fan Gong Tong. Upon completion of the above works, they were ordered to go to Qingjiang to explore Tao Zhuang river course and high weir masonry. In the fall of this year, the Yellow River broke through the Qinglong gang in Henan, and ah Kui rushed to Henan from Gansu, in conjunction with the governor of the river. Li Feng Han Supervise and block the breach. He still built the dam at both ends of the breach according to the rules. In December, when the two dam was to be closed, the deputy commander Li Rongji suggested to him that the water potential was very strong, and that the two dam should be closed for a while. But he did not listen and urged his subordinates to speed up the closure. Soon, the two dam closure, officials came to ah Kui He Gong, only Li Rongji did not come. Ah Kui sent someone to call Li Rongji, but he said to the messenger, "honor and thank each other." The dam must not be depended on, nor dare to leave. Two days later, Dongba collapsed and the Yellow River burst again. Ah Kui quickly went to see, saw Li Rongji has fallen into the water, busy to save people. Therefore, he went to Tibet to impeach himself, and asked the minister who was familiar with the river works to supervise Henan. Emperor Qianlong issued a decree: "in recent years, the ministers in charge of the river are more confident, and are there any people in his hometown? Only when we are calm and calm, we should do something else. " Emperor Qianlong's trust in ah Kui made him reinvigorate himself. Soon, he played "Qinglong Gang" down to Kong Jia Zhuang, Rong Hua Temple and Yang Jia Tang diversion River to widen the river in order to vent. In April, forty-seven years after the dry fall, he also invited "to build a levee from the Lan Yang to Shang Qiu on the Qinglong Gang, and pick up the diversion channel and build the dam foundation on the north bank, forcing the south to move to New River." The method of combining the drainage and interception is very effective.

In the forty-eight years of Qianlong (1783), after the completion of the project, the breach was blocked. After that, in August of the same year, in August of the same year, he also supervised the work of the Sui state dike in three. In the fifty years (1785) of Qianlong, he went to Henan in 1785 to survey Weishan and Sui Zhou workers, and to observe the situation of the lake and the Qing Dynasty. At that time, due to the repeated breach of the Yellow River, the canal silting had affected the normal operation of the water transport. After a careful understanding of the situation, ah Kui urged the Yellow River to transport the economy. He said: "when the minister came here, he asked Sarah, Li Fenghan and the members of the river. This year, the lake is very small, and it is not only clear and weak, but after June, it is clear that there is no drop of water in the lake. It is only to borrow the yellow water that has been irrigated to send back to the air, and accumulate the weak water to save the heavy transport. In this year, two of the grain entering ships were put into Huaihe. They were all transported by yellow water before they could cross the Huai River to yellow. When they returned to the sky, they were even yellow water, but the empty vessels did not have much water. The proposal was adopted and the diversion of Yellow River began from this time.

Qianlong fifty-one years (1786) April, the seventy year old Aji went to the Qing Dynasty to explore the embankment workers; in June to Zhejiang diahai Seawork stone; leap July, Taoyuan, Anton the Yellow River overlook and blocking. In the fifty-two year of Qianlong, the Yellow River burst at the thirteen fort of Sui state in Henan. In June this year, ah Kui arrived there and urged him to block up. In October, after the closure of the Yellow River dam in Sui state, he was ordered to explore the brick and dyke works in the south of the Yangtze River until he returned to Beijing in the first fifty-three years of the Qianlong period. The end of his career is to undertake the work of the Yangtze River. In the fifty-three year of Qianlong, Jingzhou's city wall burst, and the Yangtze River flows into Jingzhou from two to the West. In July of the same year, he was ordered to inspect Jingzhou's water situation. After a period of investigation and understanding, he advocated using the method of building dams before digging the river. He said: "this is caused by heavy water and many people in the lower reaches of the pit." Please build the earth dam on the opposite bank by levee on the opposite bank, and then build the chicken mouth rock dam, step by step, go south to the south, and then brush into the bay of Chau, then choose the diversion channel when taking the opportunity to do so, which is more effective. "Yang Linzhou." Ah Kui's proposal was adopted. In October of the same year, ah Kui returned to Beijing, but then again in the following year (1787) in April, Jingzhou dike again.

In the course of dozens of orders to control the seawall of the river, he did not put forward the method of controlling water beyond the predecessors, but did not fundamentally solve the problem of the Yellow River. However, from the actual situation at that time, he overcame difficulties and tried his best to plug the breach and build dams, which played a positive role in reducing the losses caused by floods and restoring and developing agricultural production.

In addition to supervising the river works, ah Kui was also instructed to supervise Gansu two times during this period. Salar nationality Hui uprising. Gansu is one of the settlements of the Hui nationality. Qianlong twenty-six years (1761), the reunion of Gansu anding (now Gansu Dingxi county) Ma Ming Xin Founded Protestantism and opposed the cruel exploitation of farmers by the landlords. Later, when he saw the great power of the Imperial Palace in his area, he transferred to the salads of Xunhua Hall (now Qinghai Xunhua) to preach. The Salar people, like the Hui people, believe in Islam. About thirty thousand people are engaged in agriculture, leather rafts and oil extraction. The Salar people, who were also subjected to the rule and oppression of the Qing Dynasty, quickly accepted Ma Mingxin's idea, so the Protestantism was spread there. This caused the hatred of the old church officials and the landlords, and there were many battles between the new and old sects. The Qing government stood on the side of the old religion, and the sectarian struggle turned into an armed uprising against the Qing Dynasty. In the forty-six years of Qianlong (1781), the Salar and Hui people held an uprising under the leadership of two new Malaysia's new assistant, Su forty-three and Han. They attacked the old parish, killed Hal chief (head) Han thirty-eight, and defeated the governor of Shanxi Gansu. Lall King The Qing army sent to suppress the death of the Lanzhou governor Yang Shiji and the river state association to support the new column. Then the Yijun captured the river state (now Gansu). Linxia City), attacked in Lanzhou, ready to rescue and be sent to prison. Ma Ming Xin

After the Qing government learned the news of the uprising of the Salar and Hui people in Gansu, they quickly dispatched two thousand of the officers and soldiers of Jingshi Rui and gunfire battalion to Gansu. Harmony Go to the governor. At this time, ah Kui was supervising the river work in Henan, and Qian Longdi was in charge of the journey. In June of the same year, after he arrived in Gansu, the rebel forces took the initiative to evacuate from Lanzhou and transferred to Hua Linshan area, thirty miles away from Lanzhou. Although the number of the volunteers is small, they are stubborn resistance. "Although thousands of them are Protestant dead party members, they are shooting, shooting guns, and losing risks". The Qing army has been unable to attack repeatedly. Tottensin and nearly 1000 officers and soldiers in Guyuan's army were killed. Soon, ah GUI arrived at the barracks of Gansu, and he would lose his responsibility and would not listen to him. Ah Kui believes that if this happens, it should be disposed of by military law. So he summoned all the officers to deploy the strategy of battle with him. Every instruction issued by ah Kui will be answered by all voices. Ah Kui said to him. They will not see their slowness. " He was ashamed and hated, unable to say a word. Qian Longdi was also aware of the incompetence of Hun Kui. He issued a reprimand to rebuke him for not reporting the actual situation of the war. He said: "since he was in the army, he had begun to handle things in a orderly manner. One man had done the thieves, and he was in the army, and things did not return to one", and ordered He Shensu to return to Beijing. This incident has made him and his wife hate him, and the two have since been unhappy.

After he returned to Beijing, he was commanded by one player. He was strong in defense. He specially transferred 1000 Tibetan troops from Sichuan to seven hundred troops in Alashan and Mongolia troops. Under such circumstances, the rebel forces had no support from the rear, nor did they have the support of the friendly forces. They fought alone and were in a passive position. In June of that year, the rebel line was finally broken by the Qing army, and Su forty-three died in battle. The remaining part of the rebel army returned to Hua Lin Temple, still fighting bravely. The Qing army set fire to the people in a cruel and inhumane manner.

After he suppressed the uprising, he tried to persecute the Protestants. He distributed the Protestant's property to the old teaching officers, and asked him to "demolish the Protestantism temple, such as checking private lines, learning Yang, offering Yin offenders, and following the evil laws." Viceroy of Shaan-Gan Li Shi Yao When investigating the so-called Protestant remnants, they also wantonly organized to persecute the innocent. This aroused more resistance. In the forty-nine years of April, the Hui people staged an uprising in Tongwei, Gansu, under the leadership of Protestant Imam Tian five. Governor of Gansu Rigid tower Rate troops to suppress. Tian Wu was killed in the battle. Ma Si kyu and Zhang Wenqing continued to lead the struggle. After they conquered Tong Wei City, they set up ambushes and destroyed all the one thousand and two hundred soldiers of the Qing Dynasty in Xi'an. The hearing of the Qing court was extremely shocked, and ordered the arrest of governor Li Shiyao of Shanxi and governor of prison. Fukang an He attacked the volunteers with the military commander, and also ordered the soldiers to go to Gansu governor. In June of the same year, after his visit to Gansu, the rebel army abandoned the small strongholds and made full efforts to defend the shiteng fort. The Yijun army fought heroically against natural disasters, and the Qing army repeatedly attacked, resulting in heavy casualties. Ah Kui is still using the means of sever water and siege, trying to force the volunteers to follow suit. The volunteers were left alone, and broke through, but failed. In July, Shi Feng Bao was captured by the Qing army, and the uprising failed. Ah Kui was repressed and meritorious, and was granted the duty of light truck Duwei.

At the same time of controlling water and supervising teachers, ah Kui was sent to various places by the Emperor Qianlong from time to time to investigate cases. In the forty-six years of Qianlong (1781), Gansu's "relief case" was revealed and investigated by AI. This year, he and A Gui arrived in Gansu governor to suppress the uprising of the Salar Hui people. When they reported to the court that it was often raining in Gansu, Qian Longdi had doubts about the drought that officials in Gansu province repeatedly reported to the province in recent years and asked for relief. So he ordered ah Kui and governor of Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Li Shi Yao Investigate the matter. After a great understanding of ah Kui and Li Shiyao, the truth came to light. The case began in Qianlong thirty-nine years (1774). This year the former Zhejiang government leader. Wang Wei Wang Transferred to Gansu cloth government. When he arrived, he was in collusion with the governor of Shanxi Gansu. He first changed the rice grain collected from the supervisor to silver in color, and then reported the drought year after year. Emperor Qianlong paid much attention to the relief case in Gansu, and sent Yang Kui to the Zhejiang. Chen Hui Shu Wang will be sent back to Zhejiang to detain and interrogate his family. In the face of ironclad evidence, Wang hoped that he would have to change his grain secretly, and how to instruct Chiang Quan Di, the governor of Lanzhou, to "indicate the state of the county's false reports of drought, to force the government to confirm the application and transfer", and how to confess the crime of dividing the money privately. Emperor Qianlong ordered the king to be chop, and he gave himself up. Wang Tingzan, who was the governor of Gansu, made a debate on Jiang Quandi and beheaded Jiang Quandi. At the same time, he also ordered him to investigate the illegal activities of the county magistrate in the Gansu Prefecture and county, and stipulate that all those who take advantage of the private money or more than twenty-two thousand should be executed. After a period of understanding and interrogation, he found out the number of officials involved in the "relief case" and the number of relief funds. There were more than 60 cases of county officials in the state who were implicated in the case, twenty-two were beheaded, and the rest were punished according to the seriousness of the plot.

But the case did not end. In the forty-seven years of Qianlong (1782), Chen Huizu was accused by the governor of Fujian and Zhejiang that he had committed fraud in checking Wang's property. So Emperor Qianlong ordered him to go to Zhejiang to rule. After he arrived in Zhejiang, Chen Huizu, Yan Qi, took the silver for gold, hides jade articles, and changes the beads. He finds out the stolen goods stolen by Wang Wang and finds out that Chen Huizu has been dismissed. In the second year (1783) February, when Chen Huizu revealed that there was a serious shortage of money and grain in Zhejiang Province, Qian Longdi gave him up in one breath.

Protect the evening Festival

In the fifty-four years of Qianlong (1789), ah Kui inspected Jingzhou embankment and returned to Beijing until Jiaqing In two years (1797), nine years after his death, he has been handling government affairs in Beijing and spent the last mileage of his life. At this time, the political situation of the court has been controlled by harmony and its peers. He is good at identifying and cater to the Emperor Qianlong's intentions, and is pleased with the emperor's favor. Although he was the chief military officer, he was on the top of the peace camp. But because he had been out frequently for more than ten years, he seldom handled government affairs in Beijing, so he could steal power. If you do not attach yourself to others, wait for your anger. Those who bribe the bribe are going to be slow or slow, so as to be angry. The senior officials rely on the Austrian aid to exploit their desires for supply. The salt administration and the river worker Su Li sou are asking for more and more. Ah Kui hated the power of chaos, but it was because of Emperor Qianlong's belief in harmony, and his years had been old and weak. However, he did not want to be in harmony with him. Even though he had repeatedly drawn him up, he could not shake his mind of being clean. Everyone who stands on the side of the imperial order must go to the throne and be in a state of great consternation.

In the sixty years of Qianlong (1795), the Emperor Qianlong was located in his son Yan, and himself called the emperor. Next year, Yan Yan officially took the throne, the first year of Jiaqing (1796). This year, he was eighty years old. He was allowed to take care of his illness because of his ill health. Who can not afford to die, died in August the following year, eighty-one years old. After the death of AI Kui, he was granted Tai Bao, and was enlisted in the temple of the good man, Wen Cheng.

Main achievements

Military achievements

In the thirteen years of 1748 (1748), Emperor Qianlong took part in the battle of Jinchuan and was arrested because he had not impeachment of Zhang Guangsi, the governor of the city. The official is the Jiangxi inspector. In the twenty-one years of Qianlong (1756), he served as the Minister of counsellor and the Deputy red flag of Mongolia. Qianlong, twenty-four years (1759), participated in the war of size and Zhuo. After the incident, he moved to Yili and promoted the strategy of Xinjiang's reclamation. Over the next few years, successive ministers, Chinese military inlaid blue flag systems, military aircraft ministers, Manchuria Zheng Hongqi Du Tong, Yili general, Sichuan governor and so on. In the thirty-three years of Qianlong (1768), the governor of the Ministry of arms and the governor of Yunnan and Guizhou fought repeatedly with the Burma army, who was a leader of the general general, and with the invasion of Yunnan. In the following year, he joined forces with Fu Heng to attack the old government. In the thirty-six years (1771), Qianlong took part in the battle of big and small Jinchuan again for five years. He served as Assistant Minister of ministers, deputy general of Dingbian and general of Dingxi. In the forty-one years of Qianlong, he conquered the toast of the toast. Peace is the first thing. In the forty-two years of Qianlong (1777), he gave a bachelor's degree in Wu Ying hall. After two times, the governor suppressed the Hui uprising in Gansu and took part in the formulation of a strategy to suppress the uprising of Taiwan Lin Po Wen and to fight Gorkha (Nepal) to attack Tibet.

Land reclamation measures

In the twenty-five years of Qianlong (1760), he said, "Yili is a moderate land in the western region, with vast territory and careful planning. The first is to garrison troops, and the other is to serve the army. Chen went to the barracks to inquire about the situation in this area. The water and soil in Yili, such as inuk and guelza, were spread, and there were rivers that could lead to irrigation. Ah Kui's words dispelled Qian Longdi's misgivings and made him the decision of Yili garrison. Emperor Qianlong encouraged him to say: "what we do is in accordance with the policy. If the fruit can do its best, it will be done in the next stage. In August of the same year, he formally ordered: "to serve as prime minister in Yili affairs." The trust and support of the emperor enabled A Gregradad to plan carefully and arrange the garrison and garrison in Yili. In September, in his plays for Qian Longdi, he put forward seven proposals:

· First, more Uighur farmers should be sent to Yili to vigorously promote "return to Tuen". Ah Chi has an estimate that the harvest rate of three hundred Uygur peasants in the twenty-five years of Qianlong (1760) was "can be applied to the one thousand households in the field." the number of Uighurs in Yili is too small, and the minimum should be seven hundred.

· Second, more soldiers should be deployed to garrison the troops. Ah Kui divided the garrison into two parts. The Manchuria army was in charge of the garrison. According to the estimation of local natural conditions and the prospects for the development of the field, ah Kui suggested that the Manchuria Garrison should be increased by six hundred more. This is in line with the increase of one hundred existing green camper to one thousand, which will not only complete the garrison task, but also ensure the supply of military provisions for the garrison.

· Third, on the basis of developing the farms, we should gradually increase the number of garrisons, and suggest that "increase the number of officers and soldiers at any time". Ah Kui believed that if the Uighur farmers and green camp soldiers in the field reached one thousand, they could produce enough food for five or six thousand soldiers in the twenty-seven years of Qianlong. With sufficient food, the number of garrisons can be increased accordingly, so as to enhance control over this area.

· Fourth, build castles one after another to ensure the smooth development of land reclamation. After a field investigation, he found that the key locations in Yili were "Hebei, guzla, Henan, and Hai". Therefore, he advocated that "should be built in the city of HNO, to return to three hundred people to set up fields, to employ hundreds of garrisons, to build the city of Chai Han usu, and to garrison and garrison one thousand green camp soldiers.

· Fifth, raise horses and camels, set up stations along the way to transfer documents and transport materials. Ah Chi believes that the six hundred existing horses in Yili are not enough to be used. They should buy more than one thousand pieces and five hundred camels from Urumqi, so that multiple stations can be set up to ensure the transmission of information and goods.

· Sixth, transport the grain along the border to Yili to solve the current military shortage of grain.

· Seventh, from the prisoners who were sent to Xinjiang, Jane's skilled craftsmen went to Yili to teach the mainland's advanced production technology.

The practice of Xinjiang's practice in Yili is of great significance both economically and politically. It is undoubtedly a great boost to the development of the economy in the border areas, the close economic ties between the northwest and the mainland and the consolidation of a multi-ethnic country in China. And he made a pioneering contribution with his broad vision and boldness. At the same time, because of his achievements in the field of Xinjiang, his status continued to rise.

Character evaluation

General comment

Ah Kuei was one of the few important ministers in the Qianlong Dynasty. Ah Kui has repeatedly commanding the army to fight for the East, and has made great achievements in consolidating the unity of many nationalities. He knows people to be good at work, and finds out that he can be a daring man. Even if he is "scattered around the army", he will also "put up letters". A subordinate school called Xingkui had a grand and imposing manner. Ah Kui saw that "this will also be", that is, to the deputy commander, he attacked the enemy position, and he really won the battle. Since then, Xing Kui has made meritorious service for the first time. in addition Wang Chang , Han Kong 100 years old Zhu Er Ge They were promoted by them when they were micro members. He was very resourceful and "sniffed" in military affairs. He sat alone in the curtain and drank and smoked. Or shouting loudly, shouting, holding wine dance, there will be a miracle next day. He has a good command of the army and rewards and punishments. "It drives the officers and men to win the victory or reward them with a few words or to compensate for the fruit, but the person is grateful for life, willing to die." Being fearless and commanding, he also made outstanding achievements. Current year's levy Jinchuan In the evening, in order to grasp the enemy's situation, he led a dozen cavalry on the high ground one night to observe the rebel position, but was found. Hundreds of rebels surrounded the highlands. There was a great disparity in the number of people, but the situation was very critical. He calmly dismounted the cavalry of the entourage, took off his robe and tore it up and hung it on the tree. Then he mounted and slowly walked down the plateau. The rebels approached the Highlands, and in the afterglow of the setting sun, they vaguely saw many banners of the Qing army in the forest. It was estimated that the number of Qing troops must be large, so they did not dare to move forward. After the scouts found out the truth, ah Kui and his men had already returned to the barracks.

Ah Kui is not only a famous commander, but also a famous official of a generation. He often participates in the decision making of major state affairs, diligently and carefully, and handling problems carefully and thoughtfully. In the forty-six years of Qianlong, Gao Zong saw that the stock of the state was very abundant. He issued the decree to save Kangxi's and Yong Zheng's successive provinces and towns. This will increase the number of troops by sixty thousand and increase the annual pay by three million and two. Ah Kui dissuaded and said: "the state expenditure is suddenly increased, but the old branch is difficult to follow. The new rate is nearly three million, and it needs seventy million in twenty years. Please increase the number of provinces without exception. It should be admitted that ah Kui said that he had a good eye. However, Qianlong relied on the possession of the Treasury, not taking the argument of ah Kui, but decided to do so. Later facts show that this kind of practice has not only prevented the military officials from eating empty rates, but also because of the annual expenditure of more than three million of the military expenditure and a long time, the Qing Dynasty's financial burden has been heavily loaded. After entering the Jiaqing period, the Qing Dynasty became increasingly financially strapped. Only then did people realize that his advice was very forward. Jiaqing nineteen years (1814) Ying sum In the memorials, he said: "it is a matter of abolishing the name of the military officials and adding to the matter of preserving honesty, which is the forty-six years of Qianlong. When the minister heard the news, he was afraid that he would not be able to spend money after decades. It can be seen that the old minister is planning for a long time.

Past appraisal

· Qing Dynasty manuscript: it is called the general general that Tomonobu Renyong should be the assistant of the state and the state. From Dao Dao to Zuo Tian Zi, how can we distinguish two chapters? During the Qianlong period, the national army came out repeatedly, and the bears were meritorious for their deeds. However, they were honest and frank, determined and moved, and they were not the same as those who died. Is it not so great to have a privy council, to decide what to say, to speak for hundreds of miles?

· qianlong emperor Ah, son of the town. If you want to join the army, you should allow it. The body cannot win the clothes, but the heart can do the city. Chu CAI has come out of the country.

· Qian Wen: aven's success is magnificent, rich and prosperous, and modern times. Four times, two sons and four grandchildren have a clear rank.

· Chao Chiu A: Wen Wen Cheng has repeatedly been punished and settled for the title of a famous official recently. The talents of their talents, or in the one or two language appreciation of San Lao Pao Wu, are used for the sake of making friends.

· Chen Kang Qi Avon Cheng Kun Gong has done a great job in the field of the industry. According to legend, the public is in the camp, every military affairs, and sitting alone, drinking, sucking lad, and holding the candle. Or shouting loudly, or shouting, pulling the sword to dance, then the next day there must be a plot. In the one or two language, you know your knowledge, and you can use it as a recommendation. Tasting the Kui in the military academy, strange appearance, to attack a certain village, to give the deputy commander today. Hai Chao Yong Quan is full of conceit, and at the same time, there is no sense of his own. He is driven by public service and abused by fate.

· Zhen Jun A comprehensive review of the prime ministers of the Republic of China will be called the public. Tang Yao's song and song's Han Fan were inferior. Li Wenrao and Zhang Taiyue failed to step up. And when the time is right, it is not used by the ancients. Since the founding of the country, there are probably some good wishes, but no public gossip. The collection of poems of all kinds is an examination. It is hard for us to make great efforts to overcome difficulties. The rebellion of Hua Lin Ping will not be done for two months. The battle of Jinchuan can not be determined by the force of the world. It will be fixed in two years. Repair the Yellow River, build seawall, command well, if so. It is not only in the western regions but also in the western regions. The cover of the western region began to melt into the territory without any latitude. The public is a painting city in the region. It is better to build a country by hand than to change it for more than 100 years. That is to say, it is not enough to turn the earth into the stream. There are still abuses in the area of "converting the soil to the stream", and there are no disadvantages in the western region. In the light of foresight, the court has a great initiative to raise the advantages and disadvantages of hundreds of years. This true poem is called "looking at a hundred miles". The book is called: "to protect my descendants and the people, there is a saint in ancient times."

· Cai Dong Fan Fu Heng and AI Kui are famous generals in Qianlong Dynasty. There was Ming Rui's funeral division, and then Fu Hengnai cautiously took the matter, Wen Fu's death, and then died. The world was once a failure, and then it increased its punishment, and it was fortunate that the two people became lucky. Fu, ah, two people, and then there are famous generals, less blessed, so Qianlong Dynasty as the peak of the Qing Dynasty, that is, the era of the Qing Dynasty.

· Xiao Yi Shan (1) in Qianlong, the prestige of the great bachelors was outstanding, and those who were well prepared for their families were formerly Fu Heng, and later there was AI Kui. In the middle, Yin Jishan and Shukhd joined in the Zan Lun machine as well. Second, the prosperity of Qianlong has also been used by human beings. In the early years, Zhang Tingyu was diligent and prudent. He was accomplished in the times of Altai, middle aged with Liu Tongxun's dry economy, Fu Heng and mega Hui, and other Ji's sons and daughters, Chen Shiguan, Shi Yizhi, Chen Dashou, Wang Youdun, Wang Youdun, Hsiu, Hsiu, Hsiu, and so on. That is, the late ye and his dictatorship, the great bad of the Chao Gang, and the persistence of ah Kui and Wang Chieh, so the talents and Zuo Mingtang were acquired, and then there was political significance.

Member of family

father

· Arcton

Son

· Addis

· Al Bi Da

daughter

· Zhang Jiashi, Kangxi emperor sun, Fu en Fu Guo Gong Hong Rong Second wife Hong Rong as Prince Zhuang Yun Lu Eighth sons.

Zhang-Jia-Agui1


History