Zhang Daqian

Home Celebrity 2019-09-04

Zhang Daqian

Zhang Daqian (Chang Dai-Chien, May 10, 1899 - April 2, 1983), formerly known as Zheng Quan, was renamed as yuan, Ji Yuan, Hao Da, alihao Dai Ju Shi, Xia Li Hong Kong people, Zhai Da Feng Tang. Sichuan Neijiang People, Ancestral homeGuangdong Province Panyu Born in May 10, 1899 art green A city in the suburb of an area, book The family of Xiang family.China Splashing ink painting Home, book Legalist school.

In 1950s, Zhang Daqian traveled. world Get huge international Reputation has been praised as "the pen of the East" by Western art circles.

He and his brother Zhang Shan Zi The founding of the great wind temple is in twentieth Century. China Painting circles The most legendary Splash ink painting Work. Especially in Landscape painting Achievements have been made. After that, he lived overseas. strong colouring Water and ink are integrated, especially Splashing ink and tachisme And created a new one. Style of Art Because of his poetry, book , painting and Qi Baishi , Pu Xin she It is also known as "South Zhangbei Qi" and "Nanzhang Beipu". and Huang Jun Bi Pu Xin she is known as "crossing the three seas". At the age of more than 20, a beard became a distinctive symbol of Zhang Daqian's future.

He used to Qi Baishi , artist renowned for creative development of both Chinese and Western painting techniques , Huang Jun Bi , Huang Bin Hong , Pu Ru , Lang Jing Shan And Spanish abstract artists. Picasso Exchange notes.

Paul Mauriat's History


1899 Born in May 10th Sichuan Neijiang . The father was faithful, and the mother was friend. Brother Ten, and another sister. Row eight, baby name eight, name right, also known as right.

1904 Reading from "sister Qiong Zhi" Three Character Classic And so on initiation Reading. In 1905, from Four elder brothers Reading characters and reading a collection of Tang-Song poems "

1907 With her sister studying from her mother, she used to paint folk paper-cut flowers. Studying in Neijiang in September 1911 Catholicism Evangelical schools (primary schools in China and the United States). 1914, study Chongqing refinement school Turn back Jiangjin high school .

Youth period

In the summer vacation of 1916 and his classmates returned to Neijiang on foot, they were kidnapped by bandits and forced to become masters. Winter, and cousin Xie Shunhua's engagement.

1917 east crossing Japan At the Kyoto fair school, he studied dyeing and weaving. After school, he insisted on painting, learning poetry and learning printing. His second brother Zhang Shan Zi Also in Japan.

Completed in 1919, returned from Japan. Shanghai . Autumn, Shanghai's famous calligrapherZeng Xi , Li Rui Qing As a teacher. Zeng Hei took the title of his name, Yuan Ji. stay Shanghai At the Ningbo guild hall, he held the first exhibition of personal paintings, and sold hundreds of works and made a blockbuster.

The death of his fiancee Xie Shunhua went to the Zen temple in Songjiang. Become a monk For monks. Master Yilin master, Legal name Thousand. After March, it became popular.

In 1920, he returned to Sichuan to marry Ceng Zhengrong. After marriage, I went to Shanghai. In September 12th of the same year, Li Ruiqing died of illness at the age of 54. Mr. Hui Poetic flavour The picture is signed by the cuckoo. Cuckoo is one of Zhang Daqian's early signature.

In 1921, he borrowed the Li Wei residence in Shanghai. and Li Chun Jun Make friends. Qiu Jun, the name of Zu Yun, is the owner of Ou Xiang. Under the influence of three uncle Shi (Li Yunan), it began to imitate. Shi Tao Draw a picture, copy the stone scroll, and hide the past painter. Huang Bin Hong .

In the Northern Wei Dynasty in 1922. Epitaph of Zhang Xuan There are four words, five words, six words, seven words, eight words, and dozens of couplets.

1923 Zhang Huai Zhong The husband and wife rate family moved from Neijiang to Huating County, Songjiang County, Jiangsu. and Wang Ge Make friends.

In 1924, he was sent to Beijing to serve as president. When brothers first arrived in Beijing, Wang Shen Sheng Make friends. Imitation of golden winter heart Shi Tao Eight, four fans of the Yangtze River Fan. Wang Shen Sheng . father Zhang Huai Zhong Died in Songjiang. Qiu was invited to Shanghai literati. assemble scholars Qiu Ying met Xie Yuqin, Changzhou painter and Shanghai painter. Zheng man Qing And became acquaintances with Xie Yuqin.

In 1925, he held the first painting exhibition at the Ningbo fellow townsman Association of Shanghai, and was presided over by Li Qiujun. There are 100 exhibits, each of which is 20 oceans. The buyers are numbered to draw lots.

In 1926, he was asked by Zhou Meng Gong to make a white portrait of his concubine, the cuckoo. In March 21, 1926Shanghai " declare "Zhang Jiyuan sells paintings" inspiration. Midsummer, in Zeng Xi Family acquaintance WenzhouNationality Seal cutter Fang Jie Kan .

In 1927, Zeng Xi's "Tibet" Shi Tao Zeng Shi wrote a preface to Xiao Xiang. answer Zhang Qun Mail order, imitation. Shi TaoJin Dong Xin writes two frames of landscape fan. Join the "cold friend" painting club. Yu You Ren , first woman to join the Tongmenghui , Jing Heng Yi , Shu-Jen Chen , Huang Bin Hong And so on. Qiu, at the invitation of Japanese friends, went to Seoul to visit Mount Kumgang. And Chi Chunhong, a Korean girl.

In 1928, with Shan, Ma, Yu Jian Hua , Huang Bin Hong The organizations of the people are "beautiful society" and publish "the collection of beautiful paintings". In May, Lang Jing Shan Others advocated the establishment of Huang society. Two to Beiping, Yu Shu Yan Get acquainted. stay Chen banding At home, get acquainted with old Wang Sunjian calligraphers and calligraphers Pu Xin she . In winter, Chi Chun Hong wrote a poem "Chun Niu Qu" and went to Seoul to meet.

He returned to Shanghai from Seoul in 1929. Three copies of picture books in Shu were published (three persons). Zhang Shan Zhang Daqian and his nine brother Zhang Junshou. He was appointed to the national art exhibition and appointed to meet Xu Beihong. He attended the first national art exhibition in the United States, and made thirty self portraits, chanting Shanghai famous scholars.

Cooperation with Shan Kai in 1930 Twelve girls in Dream of the Red Mansion Zeng Xi draws money. Xia, Shanghai civilization Publishing House publishes Zhang Daqian Great Wind Hall The three book of "Tai Di Zi Shan Shui Shu" is collected. Zhonghua Publishing House publishes the collection of stone waves and monks in the great wind hall. Qiu took part in the eighth exhibition of "Tianma". Zeng Hei died at the age of 70.

The coffin of the Fu Zeng coffin was buried in 1931. city in Hunan .

In 1932, Huang Bin Hong Xie Yuqin and others traveled to Pudong to look at peach in Gu's garden. Huang Binhong presented the eight Pingyuan landscape maps and poems. And Ye Gong Chu, Wu Hu fan In the same visit to Suzhou, we established the "Zheng she painting and Calligraphy Association". Emigrate Suzhou net master Garden .

Invitation for Spring Festival 1933 Zhang Taiyan Ye Gongchuo, Chen Shi, Li Yinquan and other predecessors gathered in the net garden. Xu Beihong organized the exhibition of "modern Chinese painting" to be exhibited in France, with Zhang Daqian's "exhibition". Jin He One, bought by the French government.

In 1934, he went north with Shan. There is a butterfly meeting in the guest house. Wang Meng Bai , Yu Fei He Yanong, Tang ER and others. In September 9th, the Zhongshan Park held the "Zheng she painting exhibition", with 40 of his works.Travel with Huashan. Zhang Shanzi, Ye Gong Ting joined the "Zheng she". In winter, Yang Wanjun, the artist of the Beijing Tianqu bridge, is the three wife.

Xu Beihong was appointed in 1935. National Central University Professor of Arts. Nanjing holds the exhibition of Zhang Daqian's paintings. With Xu Beihong, Xie Zhi Liu And Mount Huangshan University of Arts and sciences students. Mother had died in Langxi. "Zhang Da Qian, Fang Jie Kan The "non shadow calligraphy and seal carving Exhibition" was held in Beiping. "Zhang Daqian collection Published by Zhonghua Book Company of Shanghai. "Poor cooperation Exhibition" is exhibited in Beiping.

In 1936, a solo exhibition was held for the first time at Burlington Museum, UK. In 1937, the second national art exhibition was held in Nanjing. With Xie Zhiliu, Yu Fei, Huang Junbi and Fang Jiekan traveling together in Yandang Mountain, they cooperate with the "Yan Dang Shan Tu Tu" and Fang Jiekan engraved the "East and West North and south people". July 7, Lugou Bridge incident, trapped in Beiping. He should be appointed as a teacher of the national painting research class in the Imperial Palace.

Middle age

In 1938, the Japanese command in Beiping held numerous traitors to persuade Zhang Daqian to assume the post of puppet duty. Zhang's buck passing did not escape from disguise, he fled from Beiping, and moved to Shanghai and Hongkong to meet Xu Beihong on the way to Guilin. Seclusion Mount Qingcheng Shang Qing Palace .

Huang Jun bi was invited in 1939. Zhang Mu The cold is the same as the sword gate. Harvest in Qingcheng Long Guo Ping (Long Zhi) is an entry student. by Zhang Mu Cold as "Shushan Qin Shu Tu". At the invitation of Huang Jun wall, Emei will be invited to make a picture of Emei's Golden Summit. He held exhibitions in Chengdu and Chongqing successively.

1940 and Zhao Wang Yun Acquaintance in Chengdu. To go to Dunhuang, to Guangyuan, the elder brother Shan died in Chongqing and went to Chongqing to go to mourning.

An exhibition of paintings was held in Chongqing in 1941. Attending Chengdu " Huang Jun Bi Art exhibition, " The moon at the fortified pass The opening ceremony of the art exhibition and the heavy purchase of paintings to congratulate them. With Yang Wan Jun, Zhang Xin Go up to Lanzhou. On the way to Dunhuang, he became acquainted with Longzhong painters. Fan Zhen Xu . stay Fan Zhen Xu Escorted to Dunhuang, leaving Dunhuang to copy the murals. During its copying of murals, many murals were stripped and damaged. Number for Mogao Grottoes. Visit the Yulin cave, copy the murals, leave the Yulin cave at the end of the year, and go to Xining, Qinghai.

In 1942, he went to Kumbum Monastery to visit Tibetan artists, and asked for a large canvas production process. Five Tibetan artists were brought back to Dunhuang to continue copying the murals. Acquainted with Wang Ziyun, an inspecting group of the northwest cultural relics. Write to Xie Zhi Liu Come to help. End of year and Xie Zhi Liu And his nephew's visit to the thousand Buddha cave from Mogao Grottoes, and numbered it.

In 1943, the Preparatory Committee of the Dunhuang Institute of Arts held a meeting in Lanzhou. Preparatory Committee Director Chang Shu Hong Arrive in Dunhuang. In May 1st, he left Mogao Grottoes to go to the Yulin cave and copied in the Yulin cave for more than a month. In August, "Zhang Daqian copied." Dunhuang frescoes The exhibition is the first exhibition in Lanzhou. In November, he returned to Chengdu. The trip to Dunhuang lasted for two years in July.

Zhang Daqian's copying in 1944 Dunhuang frescoes The exhibition has been exhibited in Chengdu and Chongqing. 44 exhibits. Zhang Daqian's collection of paintings and calligraphy exhibition is on display in Chengdu.

Li Fufu in 1945 Dazu , Ziyang , Jianyang Investigate Stone carving art . Ye Chiyu Couple borrowing Zhaojue Temple Ye asked Zhang Daqian for advice. Chinese Painting . Two Zhang Lotus "Tong Jing Da screen" and " Western Garden Collection" Close exhibitions will be held in Chengdu. In winter, we cancelled the visit to the newly built grottoes, changed the way to Beiping and held a joint art exhibition with non - dark.

In 1946, he bought the "river dike late view" with a huge sum of money, the Song Dynasty "endless stream of mountains", and Zhang Jizhi's "Du Lu two" and other famous paintings. Pu Xin she Xie Zhi Liu Wu Hufan prefaces and postscript for the no money "river dike". Three on Emei, as Zhang two, landscape, "Emei three top", "Longevity Hill map" to Shanghai to hold "Zhang Daqian painting exhibition". At the end of the year, he went to the Ping Dynasty to make "Nine Songs" and "Wen Hui Tu". "Four seasons flowers" and "ink brush landscape" have participated in the Senach Museum and the Museum of modern art in Paris.Chinese Painting Exhibition.

Zhang Daqian's copying in 1947 Dunhuang frescoes (the first episode) was published in Shanghai color printing. " Great Wind Hall Exhibition of door man paintings is exhibited in Shanghai. The exhibition of Zhang Daqian's paintings is exhibited in Shanghai. Traveling with Yang Xiaoci in Xikang, he wrote many pictures and made 12 poems on his travels in Xikang. In Chengdu, "the exhibition tour of Kam Ba Xi Tour". "Xikang tour clogs" and "Da Qian's recent works" have been published in Shanghai.

Exhibitions were held in Shanghai in 1948. Meticulous Brushwork . Compile and print Great Wind Hall Tong Meng Lu.Dunhuang Senator Guo Yonglu made an attack on the six session of the Gansu Provincial Committee, accusing Zhang Daqian of destroying the Dunhuang thousand Buddha cave frescoes. Ten senators jointly called for "strict handling". In the northwest daily newspaper, Zhang Daqian and Chang Shuhong, the Preparatory Committee of the former Dunhuang Art Research Institute, made statements and statements for Zhang Daqian's defense against the theme of "how people like him are". Xu Wenbo, four lady, went to Hong Kong to hold an exhibition of paintings.

In 1949, Zhang Daqian was sent to Taiwan by the Jiang Jieshi regime. It was ugly. At the age of 51, the seven session of the Gansu provincial council made a conclusion that Zhang Daqian did not destroy murals in the thousand Buddha cave. At the invitation of the India Academy of fine arts, he plans to go to the printing exhibition and visit the wall paintings. In October, the first solo exhibition was held in Taiwan. In late November, he returned to the army by military aircraft. In December 6, 1949, Xu Wenbo took a military aircraft from Rong Fei Tai.

In 1950, from Hong Kong to India, New Delhi Hold an exhibition of paintings. To examine the painting of AI tower. Living in Darjeeling for more than a year, poetry and paintings are quite abundant.

In 1951, the exhibition was held in Hong Kong. Travel to Taiwan, accompanied by Tai Jing Nong to Taiwan The Palace Museum Visiting collections. From Taiwan to Tokyo, Japan.

In 1952, he traveled to Argentina. In May, he returned to Hongkong. Planning to move to South America. In order to raise travel expenses, Xu Bo Jiao Pull strings, and Zheng Zhenduo To sell to the mainland. Han Xizai night banquet "," Xiaoxiang map And the Song Dynasty album and other famous paintings. Xu Beihong and ye Liang wrote a letter to persuade the mainland to return. He moved to the outskirts of the capital of Argentina and met with President Alan berlong and his wife.

He moved to St Paul, Brazil in 1954. The exhibition of "Niagara Falls" was held in Hong Kong, which was greatly appreciated by the audience. The 12 picture is presented to the collection of Paris city hall.

In 1955, Brazil St Paul garden was built and named. " Great Wind Hall The book of names (volume four) was published in Tokyo, Japan. The exhibition of Zhang Daqian's calligraphy and painting is exhibited in Japan. Saul, director of the Museum of Paris's Rover palace, is present at the exhibition. Mrs. Ceng Zhengrong and Yang Wanjun donated to the Sichuan Museum.Dunhuang frescoes Hundreds of copies and Zhang Daqian's calligraphy and painting seal The 80 party.

In 1956, "Zhang Daqian copied Dunhuang murals" was exhibited in Tokyo. After the director of Sal, he invited Zhang to show in Paris. In June, the Museum of Paris saw the Dunhuang frescoes on display. In July, the "near Zhang Daqian Exhibition" was held at the East Gallery of the museum, with 30 exhibits. and Picasso The meeting was held in the "villa" of "nice" in the port of nice, France. Watching paintings, talking about art, exchanging works. Western newspapers called this meeting "the summit of the art world" and "a memorable era in the history of Chinese and Western art". First visit Europe, enjoy western art and scenery. During the meeting in Paris Sanyu , Zao Wou-Ki , Pan Yu Liang And other Chinese artists.

In 1957, he suffered from eye diseases, returned to bade Park and took care of the disease. Fine pen Change the rough pen, try hard to reform. by Zhang Qun Photocopying and publishing "Shi Tao twelve links scenery screen" preface. Exhibition in Paris Begonia "Won the gold medal of New York International Art Association" and was selected as "contemporary". world The first great painter. stay St Paul City Exhibition, Wei Zhen Brazil .

Old age

In 1958, the New York International Art Society Paris The "Begonia" on display was selected as "the great painter of the day" and won the gold medal.

In 1959, the Taipei National Museum of history held the first exhibition of Mr. Zhang Daqian's traditional Chinese painting.Dunhuang Mural. Make " The Imperial Palace Famous painting secretary. Go to France to travel to Europe. National Museum, France, established permanent " Chinese Painting The exhibition will take part in the 12 opening exhibition.

In 1960, the sixty-two year old self portrait was presented to the Hong Kong friend, Gao Ling Mei. April Tour

Taiwan Across the road. In July, the the Imperial Palace Museum in Taiwan. Li Lin can The Buddha of Dunhuang was painted. In September, he was invited to tour exhibitions in Paris, Brussels and Athens. In Paris Guo you Jing 12 pages of crazy album. Returning to the eight gardens is the 12 of Shu Chu's scenic spot, all of which are the origin of old people's ink reform.

1961 Geneva Art exhibition. To attend the "Lang Jingshan Photography Exhibition" in Japan. The new lotus flower is a special exhibition at the Paris's Museum, and is purchased by New York modern museum. St Paul near show. Continue to create "waterfall", "Luo Fei cloud top day" and other splash ink landscape.

In 1962, he went to Paris and stayed in Guo's home to make a picture of Qingchengshan.He went to Tokyo and stayed in the paradise to make two huge Swiss landscapes. All two are huge splash ink landscapes. Zhang Daqian's artistic attainments lack some artistic conception, which is known to all. In summer, the Taipei Museum of history once again held the exhibition of Zhang Daqian's paintings, displaying the "four world" gold dust and splashing ink. Yokohama, Japan. The Hongkong city hall was completed. The Hongkong Museum hosted the "Zhang Daqian painting exhibition" to unveil the first exhibition of the hall. Zhang Daqian's painting (Gao Lingmei) is published in Hongkong. In December, in the park. Splashing method Try the "view spring".

In 1963, the "Zhang Daqian Exhibition" was held in Singapore. Kuala Lumpur Exhibition in Ipoh and Penang. Lotus flower, the six big screen, was purchased by the US reader's digest at a high price of 140 thousand dollars in the New York art exhibition.

1964 Bangkok and Cologne exhibition. Return to Taipei placed under house arrest The tomb of Pu Xin she and Zhao Shouyu in Yangming Mountain. Using the method of splashing ink and splashing colors to make "valley of the valley", it is self - stated that "this painting can be guided by circumstances and take its nature and get its natural interest".

An exhibition of paintings was held in London in 1965. For the big splash landscape, "mountain rain" and "autumn mountain map". This is mainly from the Tang Dynasty Wang Qia, the Song Dynasty rice, Liang Kai The ink splashing method developed. It only absorbs a little bit of light and shade in western paintings. "

In 1966, he held an exhibition of paintings in St Paul and Hongkong. Visiting friends in Hongkong.According to the gatekeepers Lin Jian In other words, the trip to Hongkong was very inspiring.

1967 us Stanford University Museum, the Museum of art has held Zhang's near exhibition. The National Museum of history in Taipei hosts the exhibition. by Zhang Qun Eighty at the beginning, it painstakingly drew four screens and four pictures of Sichuan. Zhang Mu Cold sixty-eight birthday drawing landscape figures. There are many works of splash in the year, including chao chao, rain and haze new, and rain coming. The Hongkong Oriental Society publishes the collection of Zhang Daqian.

Late years

In 1968, the New York art gallery, the Chicago Maori Gallery, and the Boston Art Museum respectively held the Zhang Daqian exhibition. Lecture at Stanford University Chinese Painting Art.Returning to Taiwan, he interviewed Xie Jiaxiao, a journalist from Taipei times, and wrote Xie Da Qian world by oral style. It was published in April by the newspaper. During the eighty birthday of he Zhang Qun in April and May, he made meticulously drawn the Yangtze River Wanli Tu for ten days. In July, the Taipei Museum of history held the exhibition of "Yangtze River Wanli tut". In November, 62 copies of the Dunhuang frescoes were donated to the the Imperial Palace Museum in Taiwan.

Went to old Jin Shan in 1969 Eye disease And friends in America Hou Bei Ren Zhang Mengxiu waited for the Spring Festival. Back to the garden of eight flowers, he gave "Hou Hua Bei Yu" to the Hou people. Huang Junbi visited eight German gardens. Moving from Brazil to the United StatesCamille The city can live. Losangeles Museum of art exhibition. New York cultural center exhibition.New York Saint John University exhibition, New York's frankkart Museum. The exhibition of Boston art gallery.

Eye disease increased in 1970. Get acquainted with Peking Opera Troupe in Taiwan Li Jin Tang , Wu Zhao Nan , Guo Xiao Zhuang Li Dongyuan, respectively, presents calligraphy and painting. Customize the example of Zhang Daqian painting.Another exhibition of the art museum.

1972 right eye Go blind Left eye Cataract The operation was successful. The Losangeles Art Gallery exhibition was awarded the honorary citizen of Losangeles. The forty year retrospective of Zhang Daqian, the San Francisco Museum of the United States, displays 54 pieces of representative works in 1928-1970 years, and makes the preface of retrospective exhibition.

In 1973, he shared the new year's day and the Spring Festival with Wang Tianxun, an old American friend. The enclun Museum of art in Losangeles. The collection of the Taipei Museum of history has donated 108 pieces of commemorative articles, and held a retrospective exhibition of Mr. Zhang Daqian's traditional Chinese painting (40 years' retrospective). The Taipei Museum of history publishes the collection of Zhang Daqian.

In 1974 Hongkong City Hall Holding the exhibition of paintings, the Taipei Museum of history and the Japanese National Association Co chaired the Zhang Daqian art exhibition at the Central Art Museum of Tokyo. At the covenant of the San Francisco print production center, two sets of lithograph were created, and were nominated as "the world-famous Zhang Daqian" and "the image of Zhang Daqian". Root carving, rockery, eight sides Guanyin

Mainland seals Chen Ju Lai .

In 1975, he made a preface to his book collection of Mr. Ye Xiaan's calligraphy and painting.80 fine works will be held at the Taipei Museum of history to hold the exhibition of famous artists in China and the West. We should write the preface of Picasso's later works. The Museum held "Zhang Daqian's early works exhibition" and participated in the contemporary art exhibition held in Seoul with 60 works.

Family migration in 1976 Taipei . The Taipei Museum of history holds the exhibition of Mr. Zhang Daqian's return to China, and the Ministry of education of Taiwan has presented the plaque of "art masters". Wu Shuxun, a film maker in Taiwan, filmed Zhang Daqian's painting art at his own expense. The Taipei Museum of history publishes the anthology of Zhang Daqian.

In 1977, the "Qing Xiang old man painting and calligraphy chronology", which was compiled in 5 years, was published in Hong Kong. Old friend Chen Ju Lai The seal, which was engraved for years, was compiled and published in Japan. A recent exhibition in Taichung. In the outer stream, we plan to build the "Mayer house". The great wind Hall (four volume) is republished in Taiwan.

In the afternoon of 1978, the exhibition was held in Kaohsiung, Tainan and Seoul. The "Mayer house" was completed and moved to new residence. Attend the Asia Pacific Museum meeting, lecture Dunhuang frescoes Art. Preface to the exhibition of four monks in the late Ming Dynasty. Great Wind Hall Preface to the reprint of the title.

In 1979, he took part in 40 masterpieces to participate in the exhibition of Sanjie, a modern Chinese painting exhibition organized by Hongkong Chinese Culture Association (Sanjie is Zhang Daqian, Pu Xinshe and Huang Junbi). Ask friends and lawyers to witness the will.

In 1980, during the Spring Festival, the Taipei Museum of history held the exhibition of Zhang Daqian's calligraphy and painting. In March, the National Museum of Singapore held the exhibition of three modern Chinese paintings. Li Haitian, a Chinese tourist in Japan Huang genius The covenant is proposed to be a huge one. Mount Lu map (high 1). 8 meters, 10 meters long. Taipei published the one or two volume of Zhang Daqian's book of paintings. Sichuan published the 123 edition of Zhang Daqian's collection.

In 1981, Taiwan Museum The "Zhang Daqian Exhibition" is held. In March, he was invited to participate in the exhibition of "new trend of Chinese painting" held by the Oriental Museum of Paris, France. In July of July, the Mount Lu map was drawn up by Mayer house.

January 1982, held in Taipei. Fu Bao Shi , artist renowned for creative development of both Chinese and Western painting techniques Zhang Daqian ink painting and color exhibition. Hongkong Ji Gu Zhai holds the exhibition of Zhang Daqian's paintings. In February, the exhibition of the Centennial birthday of Mr. Zhang Shanzi was exhibited in Taiwan. In April, the third volume of Zhang Daqian's book of paintings was published. He tried hard to draw the "Mount Lu map", overworked, and was admitted to the Taipei Veterans General Hospital for the two time.

In January 1983, the Taiwan National Museum held the exhibition of Zhang Daqian's calligraphy and painting. Meanwhile, a special exhibition of "Mount Lu map" has not yet been completed. Zhao Wuji visited Taiwan. In March 8, 1983, fourth episodes of Zhang Daqian's book of paintings were published, and 12 volumes were collected for the mainland friends. Heart disease Relapse, invalid treatment, died in April 2, 1983.

Mr. Zhang Daqian's works are too valuable to be included in the list of restrictions on exit protection.

Personal life

Family relationship

Zhang Daqian's tenth generation is a "positive" generation. Zhang Zhenglan is also named Ze, because he and his eldest son are Horse hooves Therefore, the word is good and the latter is called "good son". Zhang Shan Zi Born in July 12, 1882 (Qing Dynasty) Guangxu reign period May 27th, eight). Because the eldest son of his family died early, he was equal to the eldest son in his family. He spoke with great weight and had the greatest influence on Zhang Daqian.

From an artistic point of view, there is no Zhang Shan Zi No Zhang Da Qian . Maybe at this time. Zhang Shan Zi It has discovered the great talent and talent of painting, and has taken great care of Zhang Daqian. He needs to search for gold, stone, calligraphy, painting and reference materials. He often points to the way of painting and calligraphy, so that Zhang Daqian can benefit a lot.

In 1919, Zhang Da Qian from Japan Kyoto equitable school returned to parents and asked to arrive. Shanghai Apprentice learning calligraphy and painting, parents oppose. At this critical moment in deciding Zhang Daqian's future fate, Zhang Shanzi stood on his side and supported him to the master of Shanghai. "

Zhang Shanzi's support for his younger brother also showed that he constantly carried the eight younger brothers who came to Shanghai at that time to get in and out of the literati. He used various occasions to introduce eight brothers to the celebrities of the art court, such as Chen Sanyuan. noted scholar-official and bibliophile , Huang Bin Hong , Qi Baishi , last outstanding poet of the traditional school , Ye Gong Tao , Xie Yu Chen , Lang Jing Shan And so on, Zhang Daqian was able to get acquainted with Zhang Shanzi's recommendation.

Zhang Daqian will soon be able to show his head in Shanghai, which is inseparable from the popularity of these elite celebrities. Zhang Shanzi is also a very accomplished painter in Chinese painting circles.

Disciples below

Zhang Daqian spent hundreds of lives in his life. Cao Da tie , Xie Bo Zi , He Hai Xia , Hu Hui an , Yu Zhi Zhen , Liu Li Shang , Hu Luo Si , Mu Ling Fei , and the cloud. Liang Shu Yan , Wang de Zhu , Wu Qing Xia Li Guoxiang, Long Guo Ping ,Huang Du Feng Wang, Kangle, Hu Li , Wang Yong Nian Among others, Cao Da tie It is the highest painting level among Zhang Daqian's disciples. Jiang Jieshi Madam wife of Chiang Kai-shek Zhang Daqian was also taught to paint as a teacher.

Zhang Daqian also passed on to his disciples quite a lot. Cao Gong Du , Bai Lin Li , Chen Mo Wu Yang Zhensheng, Yang Zhen Lin , Ge Mao Zhu , Liu ups and down , Liu Liqun He Jiming, Ge Maotong, Meng Qing Li Wu Sikun, Zhen Wen Ni Lv Gang,Yao Dan Ping Jiang Hongquan, An yun ji , Yang Chun Lei , Zhang Shi Chang Bao Wei Dong, Zhao Kai Wait forsomeone.

Characteristics of works

Zhang Shanzi and Zhang Daqian jointly established The great school of painting It is one of the comprehensive schools of painting in China. In 20s twentieth Century, Zhang Shan Zi , Zhang Da Qian stay Shanghai "West Gate Road" Great Wind HallAll the disciples are called "the great wind and hall men". It is different from " Changan painting school ","

Shanghai School And "Beijing and Tianjin painting school" and so on. Da Feng Tang School The style of painting shows the scene of a hundred flowers bloom. It is a continuous generation. Chinese PaintingPainting school.

Like many painters, Zhang Daqian also experienced the road of portray. In modern times, there are few painters who have absorbed the nutrition of the ancients as well as thousands of thousands of people. He can teach the ancients, teachers, teachers, and teachers in order to achieve the state of "division of mind". At the same time he inherited the traditional culture, he also thought of innovation. Finally, he developed ink splashing on the basis of inheriting the tradition, created the art of splashing and splashing ink, and improved Chinese painting. Xuan paper But the forerunner of thought is often lonely. Lotus pond The phrase "who comes to the boat after the return of the gentleman" seems to imply that the latecomers should continue his path.

He used a lot of time and effort to copy ancient works, especially his imitation. Shi Tao and Eighth Congress The works of the mountain people are even more vivid, almost chaotic, and thus take the first step in his painting. He came from Qing Dynasty. Shi Tao To write, to eight great mountain people, Chen Hongshou , Xu Wei And so on, and then involve all the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Song and yuan finally traced back to the Sui and Tang Dynasties. He singled out representative painters from the past, and studied them from near to far. However, he is not satisfied with these things, and he also studies grotto art and folk art, especially Dunhuang For three years, Copy The frescoes of the past dynasties have made brilliant achievements. These frescoes go through the theory of time span. Northern Wei Dynasty , Western Wei Dynasty , Sui Dynasty , Tang Dynasty , The five generation And other dynasties. Many years ago, in the Hongkong market, there was an ancient painting signed by the yuan four people. It was Zhang Daqian's "antique work", which drew a high price of nearly 2 million yuan.

In order to test whether his puppet works can reach the level of chaos, he asked Huang Bin Hong , Zhang onion and jade , Luo Zhenyu , Wu Hu fan , Pu Ru , Chen banding , Ye Gong Taoetc. appreciate Famous and famous countries all over the world Museum Experts have identified and left many anecdotes. Zhang Daqian many Counterfeit works The artistic value and its status in the history of Chinese art have gone beyond that of the ancient masters. Many museums in the world now have his fake works, such as the Wu Zhongsan, hidden in the Museum of art in Washington, D.C., where the New York Metropolitan Museum collages its "stone landscape" and "Mei Qing Shan Shui". The collection of the British Museum in London has its huge forest map.

Learning in the thousands Shi Tao At the same time, it is also deeply rooted in the essence of the ancients and is able to practise it. Zhang Daqian said, "the ancients called" Read ten thousand volumes What does that mean? Because of the wide range of information and observation, we should not only rely on books, but also complement each other. The mountains and rivers are ripe in the chest, and there is a valley in the chest. Mountains and rivers like this, others Flowers and plants , character , Beast It's all the same. " He added: "look at famous mountains." Chuan ChuanEverything in the world understands physics, understands things and understands state of things.He has traveled extensively at home and abroad, whether in the vast central plains, in the beautiful south of the Yangtze River, or in the wilderness of the wilderness, and beyond his borders. He wrote in a poem: "old man's footprints are half the world. Xixia .

In the famous mountains and rivers that he traveled through, he always kept Mount Huangshan For the first time, there were three visits. The reason why Tai Qian is partial Mount Huangshan Mainly from Shi TaoThe impact of Mount Huangshan is both Shi Tao The teacher is also a friend of Shi Tao. "Mount Huangshan scenery" has changed a lot. There are only four or five scenic spots in other famous mountains. There are hundreds of miles around Mount Huangshan. However, the risk of Mount Huangshan is not a place where it can be reached. Before the age of 50, Tai Wan traveled around the famous mountains and rivers of the motherland. After 50 years of age, he traveled around Europe and America. Zhang Daqian successively Hong Kong , India , Argentina , Brazil , U.S.A Live in other places and travel all over.Europe , North America South America, Japan , Korea , Southeast Asia Places of interest such as places. Wherever he went, he wrote a lot of poems and sketches, and accumulated endless inexhaustible creative materials. Art The innovation has created good conditions.

read Yes Painter It is very important. He usually teaches his younger generation: "painting is like stripping off vulgarity, washing floats, removing gas, reading books, reading second books, and third reading systematically and selectively. Painting and reading are all day-to-day activities. In the past, this is even more true after the Lion Garden. In the car on the outbound journey, the boat also concentrated on reading. Once, from Chengdu to Chongqing, friends sent him a Fermi book. When I got home, it was amazing that the contents of the book, the author's opinion and his life, and the relationship between Sichuan scholars and Shi Tao in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty came to the end. Because this is an academic work beyond art.The habit of reading has been accompanied by thousands of years. He often says that some artists pursue their skills, but do not know that reading is the fundamental way to change their temperament. Da Qian reads widely, and the history, the son and the collection are all inclusive. They are not limited to books of painting and painting.

Zhang Daqian is good at landscape, figures, flowers and feathers. Calligraphy This is a pity for him. In the early Qing Dynasty, he learned from the famous calligrapher Li Ruiqing and Zeng Nong of the late Qing Dynasty, and formed his own book style, which was fine, Fang Ping and slightly with the smell of official script. After 1930s, Mr. Zhang Daqian's calligraphy began to change. He transferred to many divisions to learn Wei Bei. He Ming Ming "To learn from the writing style of Mount Huangshan Valley in Song Dynasty. Shi Tao The style of writing is vigorous and independent. On the basis of inheriting tradition, his calligraphic art has merged the artistic conception of landscape painting, instead of blindly pursuing publicity on the surface and exposing the sword, but integrating the force and emotion, seeking the strange in the flat, making his calligraphy vigorous and elegant, and the style of his inner velvet, Zhang Daqian's vigorous and elegant style.

Character evaluation

Zhang Daqian is a versatile painter, whose creation is "the length of the pack, and the two richs of the north and South". It combines literati painting, writer painting, palace painting and folk art. In Chinese painting, figures, landscapes, flowers and birds, fish and insects, animals, meticulous, omnipotent, no one is not refined. Poetry and calligraphy are bold and bold, calligraphy.

Vigorous and elegant, soft inside, unique style.

Zhang Daqian is the most legendary Chinese painting master in the twentieth Century Chinese painting circles, no matter painting, calligraphy, seal cutting, poetry and so on. In the early stage, he studied the painting and calligraphy of the ancients, especially in landscape painting. After that, he lived abroad, combining painting with wind, combining heavy colors and ink and ink, especially splashing ink and splashing colors, creating a new artistic style. His method of scholarship is worth learning from artists who try to move from tradition to modernity. 

Among the Chinese painters of the twentieth Century, Zhang is undoubtedly one of the best and the artistic conception is elegant and elegant. He is talented and educated, and he lives in landscapes, figures, flowers, etc. Ladies In particular, he has a special contribution in landscape painting: he and many painters at that time took on the responsibility of reviving the orthodox school in the early Qing Dynasty, that is, inheriting the tradition of the painters in Tang, song and Yuan Dynasties, making the orthodox school that had been weakened after Qianlong rejuvenated. "

Posterity commemoration

The Zhang Daqian memorial hall is a private The memorial hall is located. Sichuan province Neijiang City Dome mountain, Tung Tung Road, to commemorate the painters of China Zhang Da Qian And built. Memorial Hall East Xilin Development Zone; West and neijiang normal university Adjacent to middle and high schools; South Bend. Tuojiang River The north is pastoral scenery.

. The landform is a narrow hill and hill. East-West length is about 40 meters, and the width of the north and south is about 75 meters.

Reasons for leaving Rong to Taiwan

Why did Zhang Daqian leave Rong to Taiwan on the eve of liberation of Chengdu? Mr. Qian is a non party personage in politics. He has no desire for the Kuomintang, but only has some contacts with the top figures of the Kuomintang, such as Yu Youren, Zhang Qun and Luo Jialun, and only in artistic exchanges. Therefore, his departure from the country can not be seen as running for the Kuomintang. . As for him, he had no dealings with the Communist Party before he left the country.Moreover, at the beginning of 1949, Mr. Qian had painted a lotus flower for Mao Zedong, the Communist leader of Hongkong, and asked for the title of Mr. run Zhi in Hongkong. . If Mr. Qian has already been dissatisfied with the Communist Party, he will not give it to him. .

After the founding of new China, the top leaders of the CPC have repeatedly asked Zhang Daqian's return. .According to Zhang Daqian's friend Xie Zhi Liu, in early 1950s, Chen (Yi) chief executive asked Xie Zhiliu to write and advise him to come back. . According to Ye Qianyu's recollection, Premier Zhou also asked Zhang Daqian many times that he once asked him to write a letter jointly with Xu Beihong to persuade Zhang Daqian to return to China. One of them was a copy of Dunhuang murals, which was donated by Zhang Daqian's family Yang Wanjun. After being informed, he personally instructed the Ministry of culture to issue 40 thousand yuan bonus and asked about the distribution of the bonus, leaving 20 thousand yuan for Mr. Qian. . In addition, Premier Zhou also instructed the relevant departments to select Zhang Daqian. .

In 1981, when he answered reporters' questions in Hongkong, Xie Zhiliu talked about Zhang Daqian's return to the mainland. His view was: "I also want him to go back, but I will never persuade him to go back." There are two reasons: first, Zhang Daqian is free and free, and there are no such conditions in China. Second, Zhang Daqian's liberalism is very strong. If he is allowed to be a deputy to the National People's Congress, a member of the CPPCC Committee and a director of the Council of the United States of America, he often has meetings. Zhang Daqian is only suitable for writing pictures. He is not fit for meetings. He is not good at speaking, but he is not good at making big reports. Xie Zhiliu was the best friend of the 30s and 40s in the last century. He knew his personality and temper naturally. .

Besides the two reasons for Xie Zhi Liu, there are two important reasons why Zhang Daqian did not want to return: one isEconomic aspect The two is political phase .

Economic aspect In the early days of the founding of new China, there were many difficulties. Before the joint operation of public and private sectors, most of the staff first provided the supply system, followed by a low salary. There is little left behind.Few people use money to collect calligraphy and paintings, and the art market is very depressed. Neither the domestic market nor the overseas market, Chinese painting has no way out. Most Chinese painters changed their picture books, New Year pictures or advertising designs, and some of them were engaged in art education. Only a few painters (such as Qi Baishi) could still insist on selling paintings, but the prices were very low. In those days, Qi Baishi had only a few dozen paintings, not very well sold. For Zhang Daqian, whether there is an art market, or selling environment, is an important issue for him to settle down. This is one of the important reasons why Zhang Daqian did not want to return to China in the economic field. . The family is a large family, and many people in this family need him to take care of them. For example, his second wife, three elder brothers, three sisters in law, four elder brothers and two wife ladies are all elderly people who are over 60 years old or not in their income (not including the families of their nephews). It is understood that Zhang Daqian's living expenses for sending three brothers and three sisters in a room on a monthly basis are one hundred Hong Kong dollars (about forty or fifty yuan), which is equivalent to four or five people's living expenses in 50s and 60s of twentieth Century. If Zhang Daqian returned home, there was no environment for selling paintings. Besides, Zhang Daqian's .

political phase In 50s and 60s twentieth Century, the political movement continued, "land reform", "elimination of opposition", "three evils and five revolutions", "rectification of anti rightist", "anti rightist" and "social education" until the "Cultural Revolution". Although these political movements are unknown to Zhang Daqian, some of his friends and friends in painting circles have been hurt in sports. Through the news media of Hongkong and the transmission of letters from friends and relatives, he was afraid of the political movement of the Communist Party. .

Zhang Daqian didn't want to come back and have a look at his family, and look at his old friends.


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