Zeng Guofan

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Zeng Guofan

Zeng Guofan (November 26, 1811 - March 12, 1872) was born in Zicheng. Zeng Zi The seventy generation sun. Modern Chinese statesman, strategist, rationalist and writer, founder and commander of Xiang army.

Zeng Guofan was born in an ordinary farming family and studied hard at the age of 6. At age 8, he can read four books and recite. Five Classics I can read "14 years old". Zhou Li " Redords of the Grand History of China Selected works. Daoguang eighteen years (1838), Jinshi, into the Imperial Academy, military secretary. Mujangga Pupil. successive promotion Bachelor of cabinet , Ceremonial Master They are soldiers, workers, criminals and officials. Bachelor of Science Wo Ren Hui Ning Road He GZ And so on as a close friend, with "real learning" to temper. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom During the campaign, Zeng Guofan set up. Hunan army led by Zeng Guofan To fight the storm, after many years of fierce fighting, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was defeated. It is the most important thing in life to be patient in behavior and patience. We must be industrious and frugal, and not be proud of the officials. He has made himself a great success in officialdom.

The rise of Zeng Guofan had a profound influence on the political, military, cultural and economic aspects of the Qing Dynasty. Under the initiative of Zeng Guofan, the first ship of China was built, and the first ordnance school was set up. The first batch of Western books was printed and the first batch of students studying in the United States were arranged. It can be said that Zeng Guofan was the pioneer of China's modernization. Zeng Guofan and Hu Lin Yi Also called " Zeng Hu "And Li Hongzhang , Zuo Zong Tang , Zhang Zhidong Also called " Four famous ministers of ZTE in late Qing Dynasty " Official to Viceroy of Liangjiang , The Viceroy of Zhili Wu Ying Hall Bachelor of Science The first posthumous title. " Wen Zheng Later, it was called "Zeng Wen Zheng".

Paul Mauriat's History

Early experience

Jiaqing Sixteen October 11th (1811 11) June 26) Zeng Guofan was born in Changsha, Hunan. Xiangxiang Yeyetang white poplar (now Hunan Loudi Shuangfeng county) Lotus leaf town An ordinary farming family in Daping village. There are nine brothers and sisters, Zeng Guofan is the eldest son, and their ancestors are mainly peasants, and their lives are comparatively well-off. grandfather Yu Ping Cheng Although few cultures, but rich experience; father Zeng Linshu As a private tutor, Zeng Guofan, as the eldest son of his eldest grandson, got the ethical education of two predecessors. Zeng Guofan enlightened at the age of five, and entered the family school in six.

In the spring of six years (1826), Zeng Guofan should Changsha Prefecture Boy trial Ranked seventh. In the ten years (1830), Daoguang went to Hengyang to study in the Tang clan ancestral hall. After a year, Zeng Guofan went to Xiangxiang Lian bin Academy.

In the twelve years (1832) of Daoguang, Zeng Guofan took the scholar. Fourteen years (1834), Zeng Guofan entered Changsha. Yuelu Academy Exercise took part in Hunan in the same year. Provincial Examination Thirty-sixth pilot. Raise people And leave for Beijing to prepare for the coming year. Joint examination

In the fifteen years (1835) of Daoguang, Zeng Guofan did not study in Beijing, but lived in Changsha guild hall. In the following year, NKE's test failed again, so he returned to Changsha, Liu Rong, a fellow townsman. Guo Songtao And so on in Xiangxiang guild hall.

Seven years in ten years

Daoguang eighteen years (1838), Zeng Guofan once again participated in the joint examination, and finally succeeded in the first place. Palace examination Ranked forty-second in the top three. Same Jinshi origin Since then, he has stepped on the road of official career step by step, and become Military Secretary Mujangga Favorite pupil. final court examination Rank three. Daoguang Emperor Kiss second. Imperial Academy Commoners

Daoguang twenty years (1840). end the day's sessions The exam was ranked nineteen in the two class, and was awarded the Imperial Academy. A review In the twenty-three years (1843) of Daoguang (1843), Zeng Guofan was chosen as the examiner of the Sichuan provincial examination. In August, Han Linyuan was supplementing. imperial tutor In December, Zeng Guofan filled. Wen Yuan Ge School management.

Daoguang twenty-four years (1844), turn royal tutor Daoguang twenty-five years (1845) March, will be a trial. Examiners May, rise Zhanshi Fu Right spring square Right bastard September, turn Left common son Soon rise Bachelor of Hospitality In December, Daily talk

Dao Guang twenty-six years (1846). Twenty-seven years (1847), Daoguang two. June, promoted Bachelor of cabinet plus Ceremonial Master Title.

Twenty-eight years (1848). Twenty-nine years (1849), Daoguang Rites Right Secretary August, Department Ministry of war Left Secretary In June of next year, the Department Ministry of labour Left secretary. In the more than 10 years of Beijing, Zeng Guofan was so unswervingly along the path of official career that he moved up to two rank. Ten years seven move, even jump ten.

Forming Xiang army

Xianfeng first year (1851) January. best-known leader of the Taiping Rebellion Organized in Jintian village, Guiping, Guangxi. Zeng Guofan said, "today's urgent business, first in employment", and recommended. Li Tang Jie , Wu Ting Dong , Wang Qingyun , Yan Zheng Ji , Jiang Zhong Yuan Five people, and then the book "respecting the three ends of Chen Shengde's prevention of corrupt practices" directly refers to the fault of Xianfeng emperor, and Xianfeng emperor "fury it to the ground" and revisited it for several days. In May, the Ministry of justice was right. In October, Shun Tian Wuxiang is trying to be an examiner.

Xianfeng, two, 1852 Department of clerks Left secretary. In June, The Jiangxi provincial examiner was on his way home from his mother's funeral. Then Taiping Heavenly Kingdom The campaign has swept through half China, although the Qing government mobilized a large number of eight banners and green camp officers and soldiers from all over the country. Taiping Army But this rotten army has been unbearable. Therefore, the Qing government has repeatedly awarded awards. Regiment In order to curb the development of the Taiping army, we should try to curb the development of the Taiping Army by using the orders of all the landlords. Hunan army led by Zeng Guofan The emergence of this provides an opportunity. In November, the Qing government ordered Zeng Guofan and Governor of Hunan Zhang Liang Ji Do group exercises.

In three years (1853), the Qing government was eager to find a way to suppress the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Because of its complicated interpersonal relationship, such as apprenticeship, relatives and friends, he established a local regiment, called Xiang Yong, in the hometown of Hunan. Du Si Of Tahzib In August, Zeng Guofan was allowed to Heng Zhou Training, "all guns, knife and anchor mode, the position of the oars, oars, and oars, all of them must try their best and try their best." And sent people to Guangdong to buy Western artillery and prepare for it. Navy

During the regiment Xiang Yong, he took a serious military discipline and opened up a new army. He divided 5000 Xiang Yong into ten battalions: TA, Luo, Wang, Li and so on, and relocated the regiment from Changsha. Xiangtan To avoid direct contradiction with the green camp in Changsha.

Suppress rebels

In the four year (1854) of Xianfeng, in February, the Xiang army poured out, and Zeng Guofan published " Talk about Cantonese bandits " In this article, he claims Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement It is "to poison the soul". This is a strange change to me. It is a strange change in education since I opened up. My Confucius and Meng Zi wept in Jiuquan, and then called on "all those who read and write, who can sit on their hands, do not think one thing for another". They stood at the commanding heights of morality, thus mobilizing the broad masses of intellectuals at that time to participate in the struggle against the Taiping army, laying a solid foundation for future victory.

Zeng Guofan's life Chu Lu hang Commanding the Navy Tahzib For the army pioneers, the size of 240 ships, 17000 of the army and the water force, the East. In March, Yueyang War is not good. In April, Jinggang In the water war, he was defeated by the Taiping Army Shi Xiang Zhen. Zeng Guofan was angry and threw himself into the water. Zhang Sun Lin Saved. Because of the unfavorable war, Zeng Guofan had to be dismissed.

At this point, Tazib and Garrison Yang Fu Fu , County Magistrate Peng Yu Lin Leading the army to conquer Xiangtan July two On the fifteen day, when Zeng Guofan reorganized the army and the army, he was thrown into battle. Yueyang Kill Taiping Army Tian Yang Zeng And conquer Chenglingji Thanks to the three products. In October 14th, Wuchang and Hanyang were awarded two items of merit. Governor of Hubei Admire the flower Ling. Thanks to Zeng Guofan's efforts to refuse. Minister of war Title. In December 2nd, Zeng Guofan fell. Tian Jia Zhen Kill tens of thousands of enemies and burn boats five thousand. Jiujiang Zeng Guofan is good at scheduling. Yellow mandarin jacket

Xianfeng five years (1855), February, 12 days and nights. Shi Da Kai General attack on Hunan army water camp Hukou It destroyed more than 100 ships of the Xiang army. Zeng Guofan jumped away from the boat, and the boat was captured. Zeng Guofan was furious, and intended to ride the horse to the enemy to die. Luo Liu Rongli persuaded him to stop. Zeng Guofan faction Li Meng group Peng Yulin and Hu Linyi supported Wuchang, and personally went to Jiangxi to recruit soldiers to build ships. In July, Tazi Bbu rushed to Zeng Guofan in the barracks. Jiujiang Commanding his troops. In August, Hukou was recovered. Supplementary education in September Ministry of war Right secretary.

Xianfeng six years (1856), Shi Dakai attacked Jiangxi, Zeng Guofan was trapped in Nanchang, when Luo Zenan died in the barracks, Peng Yulin walked thousands of miles into the siege to Nanchang to help. In September 2nd, Hong Xiuquan and Yang Xiu Qing Internal strife Tianjing Incident Nanchang's solution. In October, Zeng Guofan set up Jiji battalion to help Jiangxi.

Xianfeng seven years (1857) February 20th, his father died, Zeng Guofan's brother. Guo-Hua Zeng Return home for funeral. In July, for the two time, he asked for home ownership, and was granted by Xianfeng emperor. In that year, we built "Si Yun Pavilion".

Xianfeng eight years (1858) May 19th. Li Hon bin , Yang Yue bin Rate of attack by two armed forces Jiujiang In July 13th, Zeng Guofan picked up the military affairs of Zhejiang to rescue Fujian. In December, he wrote "love folk songs" to train Xiang army.

Capture Nanjing

Xianfeng nine years (1859) November, Zeng Guofan proposed the four way to enter the army, Zeng Guofan attacked. Anqing , Da long a , Bao Chao Attack Tongcheng Hu Linyi captured Shucheng. Li Xu Yi Attack Luzhou

Xianfeng ten years (1860) February, Zeng Guofan broke Chen Yucheng In Taihu. Because Viceroy of Liangjiang He GUI Qing give up Changzhou And run to Shanghai, leading to Suzhou Changzhou fell. In April, the Qing court ordered Zeng Guofan to go to Jiangsu immediately. minister of war The governor of Liangjiang. In June, the governor of Liangjiang was commissioned to supervise Jiangnan military affairs in the capacity of imperial commissioner. In July, Zeng Guofan was ordered to supervise the military affairs in southern Anhui.

Xianfeng eleven years (1861) September 5th, Xiang army captured Anqing. In September 25th, Zeng Guofan moved to Anqing. December 20th, Canada Prince Taizu It is intended to supervise the military affairs of four provinces (Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangxi). In the same month, the Institute of internal armaments was founded in Anqing. At the end of the year, the three Route Army marched into the strategy: "besieged the kingdom of Jinling, and Zuo Zongtang belonged to Zhejiang, and Li Hongzhang belonged to Suzhou."

In the first year of tongzhi (1862), in January 31st, Zeng Guofan served as the governor of Liangjiang and co sponsored the Grand Master of Zhejiang. In February 14th, Zuo Zongtang went to Zhejiang from Jiangxi. In April, Li Hongzhang arrived in Shanghai. In May, Ceng Guoquan was stationed in Yuhuatai, and besieged with Peng Yulin's navy. Tianjing In June, Hong Xiuquan ordered all the Taiping troops to return to Tianjing, and the Taiping Army assembled two hundred thousand troops. In October, the Taiping army fought against the Xiang army for more than 40 days and failed to win.

Tongzhi three years (1864) in the first month, conquered Zijin Mountain, encircled Tianjing. In July, the Hunan army cracked down on Tianjing and massacred and looted innocent civilians. At that time, the city of Nanjing was burned down, and civilians were killed and injured. Nanjing called Zeng Guofan and Ceng Guoquan brothers "Zeng shaved" and "once butchers". In the same month, the court and Zeng Guofan Prince Taizu First class, etc. Marquis Inherited and replaced. Binhua Ling In August, the 25000 army of Xiang army was abolished.

Pursuing the Nian Army

Tongzhi four years (1865) January, since the Han and Tang Dynasties, each minister has 17 memorials, compiled the "Ming Yuan Tang paper". In March, he presided over the repair of two schools of Zan Shan and Zun Jing. Adoption of the eight cold children, and from their own cheap silver donation course award. In May 26th, Zeng Guofan sent troops to Shandong to suppress the twists and turns. In June, presided over the completion of the "Wang Chuanshan Testament" completed, a total of 320 volumes, to Jinling Publishing House published.

In June 18th, the strategy of the north to suppress the twists and turns was: the town was fortified, the river was encircled by the river, the clear fields were searched, and the horses were tracked. In September, Yangzhou and Qingjiang arrived in Xuzhou. All the way to deploy troops to guard against obstruction, and also posted the recruits along the way. In October, Jinling manufacturing Bureau Moving to Hongkou, Shanghai, merged with Li Hongzhang's original artillery Bureau and the iron factory purchased from the United States. Rong Hong More than 100 machines bought back Jiangnan manufacturing Bureau In December, it approved the permanent constitution and regulations of the Changjiang Navy.

Tongzhi five years (1866), Zeng Guofan entered the Chou Chia Kou, with the imperial secretary's status of power, and governor division. According to the uncertainty of the whereabouts of the Nian Army and the characteristics of the mobile operations, Zeng Guofan adopted the Countermeasures of "key defense, strengthening the walls and clearing the fields and drawing the river circle", but all of them failed finally. Later, he set up "Shahe hundred miles defense line" in West Zhoukou to Luohe, hoping to eliminate Nian Army by natural cutting.

Hosting Westernization

Tongzhi six years (1867) March, in the Jiangnan manufacturing Bureau under the Shipbuilding Institute Trial shipbuilding. At the same time, the translation hall will be set up. In May, together with Li Hongzhang, the Jiangnan manufacturing bureau moved from Hongkou to Gao Chang temple to expropriate land and expand the regulation. In June, he gave up a bachelor's degree in TSU Jen Kok.

In Tongzhi seven years (1868) April, he was reformed to be the master of Wu Ying hall. In May 31st, he went to Shanghai to inspect Jiangnan manufacturing headquarters. In August, he was ordered to be governor of Zhili. In September, the first ship that was manufactured by Jiangnan Shipyard went to Jiangning. In December, Zeng Guofan arrived in Beijing to meet empress dowager Ci Xi and Tongzhi emperor.

Tianjin massacre

Tongzhi seven years (1868), Zeng Guofan changed The Viceroy of Zhili Zeng Guofan was ordered to go to Tianjin for processing. Tianjin massacre Considering the situation at that time, there was no war with France. "But when the Jizhong Bureau was speeded up, one of the offense of not asking questions," at the request of France, he decided to finally decide to kill 8 people who were the last to kill, to exile 25 people, and to put the Tianjin government in charge. Zhang Guang Chao Magistrate County Jie Liu He was sent to Heilongjiang by the army to compensate foreigners for the loss of 46 million silver. Chong Hou Send the mission to France to apologize.

As a result of this negotiation, the court personages and the public opinion were all very dissatisfied. The books of the provincial library were destroyed. Zeng Guofan knew well about the war and the interests of the war. Ding Li Chang Sympathy. Zeng Guofan took the blame and aggravated the illness and summoned him. Li Hongzhang Handle the case.

Return to two rivers

Tongzhi nine years (1870). Viceroy of Liangjiang Ma Xin Yi Civilian Zhang Wen Xiang After the assassination, the court ordered Zeng Guofan to be appointed governor of the two rivers to Nanjing to hear the case.

Tongzhi ten years (1871) August 19th, Li Hongzhang will play the "selected children to go abroad". In September, he inspected the defense and training of various land and water battalions. He arrived in Shanghai in November.

Tongzhi eleven years (1872) February 27th, Zeng Guofan led the play, urged to "dispatch students" as soon as possible. It also suggests setting up a "Chinese student office" in the United States. Chen Lan pin , Rong Hong To serve as deputy managing director. To set up a young child studying abroad Bureau in Shanghai Liu Han Qing "Prime minister Shanghai Bureau selection matters". Since then, Zeng Guofan has had trouble with his feet and tongue.

Four, February (March 12, 1872) Zeng Guofan went for a walk in the West Flower Garden in Nanjing in the afternoon. zeng jize Go back to your study, sit for three minutes and die. The people alley cried, painted like sacrifices. The court heard and stopped for three days. Confer posthumously Tai Fu The posthumous title is "Wen Zheng", offering sacrifices to the Zhao Zhong and the virtuous Temple of the capital, and establishing the ancestral temples in all the provinces. In June 25th, the coffin arrived in Changsha. In July 19th, it was buried in the Jin pen ridge outside the South Gate of Changsha.

Tongzhi twelve years (1873) in December 13th, changed to the county of fine arts. Wangcheng District Fu Long Shan, Ping Tang, Xiangxi. Buried with Mrs. Ouyang.

Main achievements

Politics

As a famous statesman in modern times, Zeng Guofan's corruption and decline in the Qing Dynasty after the prosperity of Kangxi and Qianlong, he said, "the poverty of the country is not enough, but the people's mind is lax." "For the scholar bureaucrats to learn to worry and comfort", "Chang is a kind of white, black and bitter wind". He believes that "the bad governance of officials, because of the group curtain, to seek officials only to screen the disadvantages, honesty is the source of exploration". Based on this, Zeng Guofan put forward that "the chief executive should be the first to win the people". When the crisis arises, people who need both moral integrity and integrity must advocate the integrity and integrity of the government, oppose the tyranny and nuisance, and punish those officials who corrupt the law and fishermen themselves. As for the finance and economy related to the livelihood of the people, Zeng Guofan believes that the way to manage finances is all in the right way, with a solid foundation and a clean and honest attitude. Zeng Guofan referred to agriculture as a fundamental strategic position in the national economy. He believed that "people's livelihood is a matter of priority, and that of the country is a prosperous year." He demanded that "state agriculture is the first priority" in today's counties.

Received two times Opium War On the one hand, Zeng Guofan hated the westerners' invasion of China. He thought that he could not let others sleep soundly, but he was against the help of teachers and helped to exterminate them. He also felt that he was deeply ashamed of using foreign countries. On the other hand, he did not blindly exclude and advocated learning advanced science and technology from the west, such as he said he bought foreign utensils. The wise and clever craftsmen, who have been trained to do the exercises, begin to practice, and then try to make them.

Military

Zeng Guofan advocated the principle of "loyal to the emperor" and "running the army with Confucianism". It also carried out the following aspects: selecting, recruiting, managing the army and coordinating the relationship between the army and the outside world. Zeng Guofan's military thought is very rich and outstanding. He believes that soldiers are not many but good.

"The fewer soldiers and the stronger the country", "the more soldiers, the weaker the force; the more the rates, the poorer the country". Advocating military administration is responsible for its responsibilities. He bought foreign guns, foreign guns, and ocean ships to promote the modern weapons of the Chinese army.

Zeng Guofan elected the army as the first priority. He said, "the way to march is to choose first." His standard of choosing is to have both ability and integrity, to be wise and brave, to put morality first, and to sum up the connotation of virtue as "loyalty and courage". He said, "those who bring courage should seek the conspiracy of our party's bloody men, who are loyal and righteous and who are masters of the secret." Moreover, "those who bring courage must first be able to manage the people. Second, we must not be afraid of death. Third, we must not consider fame and wealth. Fourth, we must endure hardships." "Most of them are loyal and bloody, but they are always loyal to each other, but they are not loyal and faithful, but they can not rely on the four party." Zeng Guofan believed that the "loyal and bloody" generals should be chosen from Confucian scholars who were influenced by feudal ethics and less officialdom. Luo Gang in the "Xiang army system" statistics, the names, birthplace, origin, duties can be found among the 179 generals of the Xiang army, Confucianism born 104 people, accounting for 58%. With so many Confucian scholars, it is rare in the history of military history.

The reform of the Qing Dynasty's world service system was also the first priority of Zeng Guofan's establishment of the Xiang army. He said, "for many years, we hated military camp habits, and no one was in despair. Therefore, we must make sure that we do not use battalions and do not use towns. Therefore, when he founded the Xiang army, he advocated that he should not recruit soldiers in rural areas. Its intention is that the recruited soldiers in rural areas are simple and vigorous, which is conducive to instilling feudal ethics and ethics and adapting to the harsh and cruel war environment. Zeng Guofan also stipulates that "recruiting soldiers and bravery must take care of them, and make the inventory of the name of the prefectures and prefectures, houses, parents, brothers, wives, and skips. Each book is enclosed for inspection. Anyone who has no guarantee will not be recruited. Zeng Guofan's practice completely inherited the famous Anti Japanese champion in the late Ming Dynasty. Military leader famed for combat against Japanese pirate invaders The idea of recruiting troops. Zeng Guofan also made changes in the compilation of green camp. The battalion of the Xiang army is made up of battalion as the basic operational unit. The following battalions are set up in the battalion, the following divisions are the divisions, the navy is the ship, and the horses are the shed. At the beginning of the Xiang army, there were no more officers in the camp, and all the battalions were under Zeng Guofan's command. After the increase in the number of camps, there is the title of command and classification. Zeng Guofan called for the formation of the army based on the principle of "selecting parents", "Bing Bing" and "layer by layer". From commanding to military bravery, the election was carried out step by step, which changed the malpractice of "soldiers and soldiers do not know each other, and soldiers will not learn from each other" in the green camp, but it also clearly exposed the intention of establishing private armed forces, and thus created a precedent of modern China's "soldiers will be".

Zeng Guofan spent a lot of time in governing the army. He advocated using the Confucian doctrine to run the army, that is, to educate officers and soldiers with the principles of feudal ethics, and to mold the officers and soldiers with Hitorei Chunobu as the basis of governing the army. His purpose is to maintain the army's spirit and cultivate a completely private army that is totally obedient to himself. So he thought, "the soldiers must first self rule, then the enemy."

Zeng Guofan's military thought has influenced several generations, not to mention that the generals of Hunan and Huaihe generals took Zeng Guofan as a paragon in their contemporaries. After that, the bourgeois military strategist such as Huang Xing and Cai E also praised Zeng Guofan's strategy of governing the army. Zhang Zhidong and Yuan Shikai adopted many practices of the army in the west after the Sino Japanese war. In his defense theory, Jiang Fangzhen, a military strategist in the Republic of China, praised Zeng Guofan as a "military genius" in modern history. He also said that all leaders should follow Zeng Guofan. Jiang Jieshi made it clear that he should follow Zeng Guofan and ask the generals of the Kuomintang army to "recognize history and follow Zeng Hu". Zeng Guofan attaches great importance to spiritual education in the army. Mao Zedong paid attention to this in his whole life. Zeng Guofan's "loving the people is the first meaning of governing the army." when Mao Zedong founded the Red Army, he drew up three disciplines and eight points of attention.

Cultural scholarship

learning

Zeng Guofan pursued all his life. neo-Confucianism But he did not blindly worship the learning of Cheng Zhu. For Song Ming Confucianism, other schools of thought have also been absorbed. neo-confucianism In fact, it is divided into Pneumatics Neo Confucianism and Mind Three academic factions.

In the political practice and military struggle, Zeng Guofan gradually saw the limitations of Cheng Zhu's theory of "directive language" or "lost in the pass", or "ill at ease" or "partial calm". Under such circumstances, Zeng Guofan showed a tolerant academic attitude toward psychology. For Cheng Zhu's theory and Lu Wang Xin Xue In the academic debate, he believed that the dispute between two parties should be taken in the same way, so as to avoid their differences and enhance their strengths and weaknesses, so as to promote the development of Confucianism.

Zeng Guofan also used Pneumatics The resources of generative theory make up for the limitations of Neo Confucianism. Zhang Zi " Zheng Meng "Mellow and upright," According to the way of Qi, Zeng Guofan believed that everything in heaven and earth was born by Qi, and Qi is the ultimate foundation for all things. In the sense of being angry, all things in heaven and earth are "solid".

However, Zeng Guofan also believes that although the popularity of Taihe and Qi is not only prevalent, the spirit of all things at the beginning of the universe is "ears", but people and things and saints are different from those of ordinary people. In terms of man and object, man gains the whole of Qi, but the thing only gains the gas. As for human beings, the spirit of the sage is clear and thick.

literature

Zeng Guofan inheritance tong cheng school Fang Bao , Yao Yao And self reliant style, creating late Qing Dynasty ancient texts. Xiangxiang school " Huxiang Culture Important representatives. He talks about ancient prose, stresses the tone and clang, and does not make everything possible. The ancient prose, deep and magnificent, can be transported by the Han Fu weather. Therefore, there is a magnificent and magnificent artistic conception. Tongcheng The disadvantages of sending out blight are worthy of praise for later generations. Zeng's patriarchal clan system in Tongcheng has been transformed and developed. Jingshi hundred household notes "As a model of literature, not Tongcheng, but the world is called Xiangxiang school. Late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China Prolific translator of Western works into classical Chinese , first major translator of Western fiction and one of the last important prose writers in the classical style And even Tan Si Tong , Liang Qichao He was influenced by his style of writing. It is written in the collection of "Que que Zhai" and " Poetry Anthology "," Book of records "," diary "," Memorial ceremony "," A home letter "Family instructions" and " Jingshi hundred household notes "," Eighteen poetry notes And so on. No fewer than dozens of volumes. The complete works of Zeng Wen Zheng Gong "Spread to the world. Another is " The way to learn "," Five Proverbs And other works.

Calligraphy

Zeng Guofan's outstanding achievements in calligraphy have been obscured by the great influence of his history. Zeng Guofan's elaboration of calligraphy theory is based on his diary, letters and articles. First of all, he was unique in his theory of North and south school.

In recognition, he agreed and criticized and advocated both north and south. He put forward the source of calligraphy and calligraphy. From the dry way - masculine beauty - exert oneself - the extraordinary atmosphere - the atmosphere, from the Kun way - Yin beauty - no effort - far away - Yun Sheng, formed his systematic calligraphy theory. Zeng Guofan worked diligently in calligraphy creation throughout his life, and passed a tortuous exploration road from extensive to classical, from classical to innovative. He left nearly 130 million words of "diary" is a rare ancient Chinese calligraphy works. His Regular script Strong and strong, he set up a banner of Chengshu, which inherited the song and Ming Dynasties, and was gentle and gentle. His handwriting is strong and handsome. His Minuscule And Xiao Xing Shu is a model of the whole Qing Dynasty. He should be the same generation with his ministers. He Shao Ji A great calligrapher.

Character evaluation

Hu Lin Yi Zeng Gong is known as a wise man.

Li Han Zhang It has a deep understanding and is free from all kinds of things.

Shi Da Kai Although it is not good to fight for fame, it will be able to recognize the virtues of the emperor, so that the planning is precise and rigorous.

Xue Fu Cheng Since the fall of the past few years, all the talented people have been judged by their talents. Zeng Guofan's understanding of human being is beyond the recognition of ancient and modern times, or encountered in the wind and dust, it is considered to be a great weapon. On weekdays, it is often said that the world is big, and the incident is not easy to maintain. Therefore, it is a great effort to shake off stagnation and reward people. Zeng Guofan, who saw Jiang Zhongyuan, said, "this person must be named after the world." Later, it is recommended to seek advice from others. Hu Linyi used the unified army of the Ministry of justice to subordinate Zeng Guofan to his subordinates, that is to say, he had won ten times of his own. Two people are never promoted. Zeng Guofan's military operation also depends on his assistance. At the beginning of their mission, Luo Zenan, Li Xubin, Li Xuyi, Wang Xin, Yang Yuebin, Peng Yulin, or hired from Sheng, or from the long mu, or recruited in the army, were given the best of each other.

Zuo Zong Tang A loyalty to a country, a wise man, a self pity rather than a yuan. If a heart is like gold, if you attack a wrong stone, you will have no life.

Li Hongzhang In the past thirty years, the teacher has worked hard, and the building room has grown up for the gate. Wei Ming has been in the ninety thousand lane, and the inner world is out.

Zhu Kong Zhang Zhongxing Jing Yun, a group of heroes, has been born in ten years. If we are to cut down the difficult situation, we should not be born with a sacred spirit and revive it. However, the danger of dying is repeated, and there is indomitable ambition. The saying of Zhao's failure is: "speaking of rites and music, ripe poems and books are marshals." Sun Shubao's words said, "too much virtue, meritorious service, and second words are three immortals." Public and independent. In the battle of Tianjin, An Bangguo was so old that he was able to make all his achievements.

Ouyang Yu In the lifetime, he is not good at using his troops and making good use of them. Therefore, the group is effective, the big bandit is leveled off, and the first hero is Zhongxing.

Liang Qichao (1) in modern times, the adults who have not seen one or two times since the beginning of the history have already been; not only China, but also the adults who do not see the world one or two times. However, Wen Zheng Gu is not a super talented genius. He is the most inflexible genius in all time. He is also the most insensitive in all his virtues. He is always living in the wrong direction, but he is still immortal in his lifetime. He has achieved three things in the past, and has achieved great success in the past. He is determined to extricate himself from vulgar life, but he is tired of knowing and doing so. He has experienced thousands of difficulties and does not give up. He does not ask for close effects. I thought that Zeng Wen is now in the prime of life. China will be saved by its hands. 2. I said Zeng Wen Zheng Ji, not three times.

Tan Si Tong It is not necessary to see the famous man in modern times. Change is more than knowledge is power. Such as Ceng Wenzheng, Hui Min and his son, Ding Yusheng Zhongcheng, and Tung Chi Westernization are all experienced by personal experience. Zuo Wenxiang arrived late, so Shen Guan had the longest time.

Zhao Er sun " Draft History of Qing "(1) the national prestige is very prestige, the beard is beautiful, the eye triangle has edges. For each pair of guests, when the gaze does not move, the person who sees it is not satisfied. Nature is good, but life is not long, but family rules are not confined to one division. His theory of learning combines the Han and Song Dynasties, with a view to saying that the way of ruling the world by the former king is all the way. Qin Qin Tian Tian five courtesy exam, que food, is a supplement salt lesson, sea transport, money law, river embankment for six volumes, and also the ancient ritual and incomplete que no military gifts, military gifts must own special articles, such as Qi Jingyuan. According to Wei Guofan, the system of battalion and regulation is near to the military ceremony. In his later years, he used to be quiet and civilized. The old Confucian study and the group return. If you know the good and the good, you will never win. Every time we look at what we want, we should be careful. We should teach the family in the early days. If he is a child, if he is a child, he will be strict and happy. Staying in Jiangnan for a long time is the most successful. (2) the achievements of the national fan are based on knowledge and courtesy. The heart of Gong Cheng is full of people. Its administration of the army must be realistic. Whoever designs the world matters for a long time is called "Han". Zhu Geliang Tang Dynasty Pei Du Ming Ming Shou Ren Wang No matter what, He Qi Sheng! Guofan also tasted thirty-three ancient and modern sages. The image of Zan Ji was regarded as a teacher, and the great end of his life was seen here. To become famous and to take the responsibility of recommending talents. You can never lose your knowledge. Alas! Since Zhongxing, there is only one person.

Yang Chang Ji Song, Han and fan also said that Qing Zeng and Zuo were also called "Han" and "Zuo".

Wang Yun Yun If you win, you will lose.

Rong Hong Therefore, though the body is gone, it is known for thousands of times. It is large and modest, and the spirit is grand and coagulate, and it is the first class character in Qing Dynasty, also known as the special character of the old religion.

Zhang Taiyan For Zeng Guofan, he is the sage and the priest is the culprit.

Cai E (1) Zeng, Hu two Gong, and Zeng's famous ministers are just like half a century ago. 2. Taking soldiers as a child is the most benevolent and pertinent. In this way, the ancient and modern military motto has been burned.

Cai Dong Fan If the two men of Zeng and Hu were in power, Wu would be able to resist the enemy, and the Qing would not die.

Mao Zedong (1) to the nearest person, to serve Ceng Wenzheng alone. To see that Yang Yiyi is perfect, so that he can make his position easy today. Zeng Guofan is the most powerful character of the landlord class.

Jiang Jieshi (1) Zeng Gong is a model of people's spirit. (2) before 1911, I read Zeng Wen Zheng's complete works. After the failure of the Republic of China in two years, the book of Zeng and Hu Zuo Ji were carefully examined.

Jiang Ting Wei Guofan takes the two way, passes through the learning of the world, reconstructs the society, then restores the inherent virtue of the nation. This is called conservative; in the future of the nation, it accepts Western civilization, which is called innovation. The two simultaneous development is also a great contribution to our modern history. If he fails to recover the old ethics, he will not be able to resist the mechanical science of imperialists. If we accept the new culture without restoring its inherent virtues, the old bureaucratic society will not be able to carry out its business at all. Let alone what is the social position of the nation and how to transform it completely? The reason why we admire Zeng Guofan is that we should set a plan to save the nation and save the people with our vision.

Chen Gong Du It is superior to those of Hu and Zuo.

Hu Zhi Fu In the past five hundred years, only two people have shown their knowledge in their careers: one is Wang Shouren of the Ming Dynasty, and the other is Zeng Guofan of the Qing Dynasty.

Xiao Yi Shan Guofan wins the competition with Zong Tang.

Immanuel Hsü Zeng Guofan's statesman, character and personal accomplishment seldom can be matched. He may be the most respected and greatest scholar official in China in the nineteenth Century.

Anecdotes

Python reincarnation

When Zeng Guofan was born, grandpa once dreamed of a python wrapped around his family's post. So he thought Zeng Guofan was the reincarnation of pythons. After the birth of Zeng Guofan, a dead plane tree in the family regenerated its life, so that his grandfather believed in the dream of the reincarnation of pythons. And fortunately, Zeng Guofan suffers from " Psoriasis "A kind of skin disease (one said" Python moss "), all over the body is like the scale of the snake like tinea, so Zeng Guofan also believed the python reincarnation of this dream. Zeng Guofan also has a strange hobby - he likes chicken but he is afraid of chicken feather. At that time, the urgent documents were often adhered to chicken envelopes at the mouth of envelopes. Chicken feather letter , Chicken feathers and arrow Whenever Zeng Guofan saw this letter, he was always creepy. If he saw a snake, he had to be helped to take away the chicken feather. Then he would dare to read it. In ancient times, there was such a saying: "burning chicken feathers, killing poisonous snakes and dying, dragon snakes and so on, are also afraid of this smell." Zeng Guofan was afraid of chicken feathers to such a degree that it was also known as Python reincarnation. stay Yuelu Academy When studying, because people are afraid to see scales on their scales, they can read books neatly in the summer when they are hot and dry.

Stupid than a thief

When Zeng Guofan was young, his talent was not high. In fact, he was rather stupid. He studied very hard. One evening, he studied at home. He read an article many times, but he could not carry it back. He read it over and over again. The night was very deep, and he still did not recite it. This is a bad person. Originally, a thief came to his house. He lurked under the elm of his study, and wanted to wait for him to go into the house and steal something after he finished reading the book. But the thief waited outside the house. He didn't see Zeng Guofan sleeping. The thief could not wait any longer. He jumped into the room very angry and said to Zeng Guofan, "what book do you read so stupid? I will recite it several times. So the thief recited the article from beginning to end, and then went away.

Make friends with others

Zeng Guofan is very knowledgeable about the way to make friends. He thinks that making friends is more expensive and more important. It should be "honest and sincere, with great tolerance and selfless suspicion." "Nothing can be taken advantage of. We must not take lightly the wealth of men. We must concentrate our minds and listen without losing our hearing. In terms of life, Zeng Guofan thought, "the poorer the better, the better." In a senior official, "always pay less and produce less is better." "Patience is the most important thing for an official", "virtue is full of harm, but fortune is conceited." For a man, he should be "on the pale". "The fame and fortune of the rich and the poor are not the same." "You don't have to go out of your own way."

be otherwise similar Zeng Zi Ceng Chuande, a seventieth generation grandson of Zong Sheng, was born in 1809-1888 years (no matter what fame or interest), learning Confucianism and studying medicine, at the age of ten, you can take care of yourself. Zeng Zi " University " The Book of Filial Piety "Recitation is like flow, and" Compendium of Materia Medica "Quite a bit. At the age of sixteen, he was raised in Chinese, and later met with Zeng Guofan in Beijing, because he knew that he was a member of the same clan and was an elder brother. Jinshi One day, two new Jinshi went to see the Qing Dynasty. Bachelor of Science , minister of works Wang Ding In Wang Fu's book by Wang Shang Shu, he became acquainted with the famous craftsmen of Kyoto. Jian Jian CAI It is also destiny, and the two people have formed an indissoluble bond since then.

Ceng Chuande did not take Cui Jian's word to set up Ceng Desheng medical center in Kyoto. He was good at treating doctors with the spirit of the sage of Zong Zi, who was the founder of Zeng Zi.

The masses of the people have also handed in their business to the merchants of public praise. Therefore, the "De Sheng" medical center enjoys a high reputation in Kyoto. At this time, Zeng Guofan, who shares the same friendship with his peers, has become a high-ranking official in the Qing Dynasty. The official is living in Zhili governors. The two people are very close and encouraging each other. Zeng Guofan readily gives Ceng Desheng an inscription: "zudong Zong Zai Fu Ze"; Zi Cheng sun steamed it for ten thousand years. This alliance not only cherishes the memory of Zeng Zi's "Zong Sheng", but also praises Zeng De Sheng's practice of helping doctors to reach the realm of good people.

Zeng Guofan wrote twelve quotes, which basically summed up his way of making friends.

Family planning strategy

Zeng Guofan believes that the most important thing is to have the principle of filial piety among family members. Filial piety is easy to understand, that is, gratitude, respect and support for parents and elders. Ti refers to the harmony and fraternity between brothers, that is, the harmony and harmony among their peers. In Zeng Guofan's letters, he generally believed that he wrote the most letters to his children. In fact, he wrote the letter to his brother the most. Zeng Guofan has a famous commentary that the law of family prosperity is: the family of the official family in the world is generally sluggish from generation to generation, because most of them are dandy; the merchant family, that is, the family of private entrepreneurs, can generally be passed on for three generations; the family of farming and reading, that is, the family that governs agriculture and reading, can generally thrive for five or six generations; and the filial piety house is the family that is filial piety and family, and can often extend ten generations and eight generations.

Under the tenet of "and with family", Zeng Guofan also emphasized "diligent housekeeping". This diligent family has two meanings in Zeng Guofan. First, family members should be diligent and thrifty. First, parents should be diligent in their words and deeds. Zeng Guofan said these things, he could do it meticulously, and did very well. For example, Zeng jzai, his second son, likes western sociology. Zeng Ji hung likes mathematics and physics. Although Zeng Guofan knows nothing, he can do his best to understand and work hard. Such a father is worthy of being a real "diligent housekeeper" father. Under the influence of Zeng Guofan, Zeng Jesse always taught his children to learn English, mathematics and music, and taught them to practice calligraphy, poetry and writing, to explain history and history. No matter how busy they were, they had to spend time with their children and family members every day. This is the best family education. Therefore, there are many scientists, educators and social activists in Zeng Guofan's descendants, Ceng Sun, and even sun Xuan.

Once shaved

The nickname of Zeng Guofan's "shaved head" is not because he killed. Taiping Army The nickname he got was because he opened the case Bureau in Changsha and killed too many so-called Hunan bandits. Is there anyone who has made mistakes? Yes. At that time, Changsha's magistrate was Cang Jing Tian, who wrote a copy. memoir It was recorded in Zeng Guofan's case Bureau, because in one case, at least 4 people were killed. It was an injustice, but Zeng Guofan killed the good man and put the bad guys away.

personality discipline

Personality training is helpful to his career.

First is Sincerity In order to be consistent, everything can be made public.

The second is respect, reverence, inner evil, solemn, solemn and dignified.

The third is static, and the heart, Qi, spirit and body must be at peace and relaxation.

The fourth word is yes, no big words, false words and empty words. One is two, the other is two.

The fifth word is constancy, a regular life, a diet and a daily life. The highest state is "Shen Du", with three feet in the head.

He keeps a diary every day, examines and reflects on his words and deeds every day, and runs through his later life. He constantly puts forward more requirements for himself: diligence, frugality, humility, forgiveness, honesty, fate, and happiness. Many people think that personality cultivation is empty. They think that self cultivation is illusory or even pedantic. But Zeng Guofan's life career and self-cultivation are the most important reasons for his success.

Zeng Guofan thought, "there are five things about the law of health preservation: one is constant sleep, the other two is punishing anger, three is abstinence, four is washing feet before going to bed every night, and five is three thousand steps a day after two meals." The way to keep in good health is the most important four words: "sight", "interest", "sleep" and "food".

Thirteen years of self cultivation

First, respecting and respecting. When there is nothing, heart is in the chamber.

Two, sit quietly (every day, no matter when, sit quietly for a moment, to return to benevolence, just like life, such as the town of Ding.

Three, get up early (when dawn starts, don't fall in love after waking up).

Four, read two books. To read in the East is to read for others.

Five. Read history (ten pages per day, though there is no interruption).

Six, I would like to say (pay close attention to it).

Seven, Nourish Qi (gas reservoir), it is all right.

Eight, body protection (abstinence, labor, diet.)

Nine. Keep a diary. You must keep a record of your daily life.

Ten, the daily knowledge of the dead (daily tea, I even talk about a separate, virtuous door, knowledge gate, economic door, art door.)

Eleven, there is no way to forget it.

Twelve, do the word (after breakfast). Every pen and ink is his homework.

Thirteen, do not go out at night.

Egg trial

One day, the weather was fine, and the young Zeng Guofan came home from school. Just putting down his schoolbag, his father said anxiously, "I have boiled five eggs, how can I only have four?" So he called Zeng Guofan to him and said to him, "boiled eggs are distributed to you, and now one is missing. I don't know which one is eaten. Let's check it for your mother." Zeng Guofan thought for a moment and replied, "this is very easy. I can find out." Zeng Guofan put up a washbasin and poured some cups of tea. He called everyone in the house and asked everyone to drink a cup of tea and spit into the pot. He stood by and observed. Zeng Guofan's father was so happy that he felt that his son was smart enough to be an official in the future.

A thousand years to die

Fu Hou Tang It is Zeng Guofan's former residence. Four golden characters hung from the gate. "Hou Fu" was built in the Tongzhi period of Qing Dynasty, and Zeng Guofan commissioned his younger brother to build it at home. It is said that when the building was built, the Zeng Guofan brothers treated the craftsmen well, but they were very mean to the general apprentices. When the new house is completed, it is necessary to chant "Liang Liang Wen", and the teacher of the building works with his praise, holding the lotus leaf and singing the praises, saying: "the governor of the two rivers is too fine to make an emperor in Beijing."

Kinship members

Elder

· Tai Gao Zu: Ceng Zhenzhen (Yuan Ji Gong)

· Great grandfather: Ceng Shangting (Fu Chen Gong)

· Great grandfather: Zeng Yan Sheng (Jing Xi Gong) (1743 - 1816)

· Grandfather: Yu Ping Cheng Xing Xing Wen (Xing Gang Gong) (1774 - 1849)

· Grandfather: Jiang Liang Ji (1750 - 1835, Zi Pei Lin, Yunfeng, Xing Cong six. Original Liu's, 1750 - 1778, early morning.

· Grandmother: Bear's

· Father: Zeng Yu Ji, bamboo bamboo Pavilion (Lin Shu, Zhu Ting Gong) (1790 - 1857)

· Mother: Zeng Jiang (1785 - 1852)

· Father-in-law: Ouyang is happy. (1784 - 1869, initial name Ao, also known as cangming, word Futian)

· Mother-in-law: Qiu (growth Zi Muyun, Zi Bing, second son Lingyun, word Bing Jun, eldest daughter suitable for Zeng Guofan, second daughter Peng Zhiguan)

Wives and concubines

· Yuan Dynasty Ouyang's (1816 - 1874, Hengyang)

· mistress Chen (1840 - 1863, Jiangning)

Brothers and sisters

· Brother

Younger brother: Zeng Guo Huang (1820 - 1886, the name was handed down to the Jin Dynasty.

Younger brother: Guo-Hua Zeng (1822 - 1858, the name of Wen Fu was sent to Qian, Ceng Jiyun was his son.

Younger brother: Zeng Guo Quan (1824 - 1890, the name of biography Heng, Yuan Fu, Shu Chun)

Younger brother: Zeng Guo Bao (1828 - 1862, the name of the biography, the word Ji Hong, later renamed Zhen Wu, Zi Heng)

· Sisters

Sister: Ceng Guolan (1808 - 1863), married Wang Guo 9 (Zi Pengyuan, Wan Wan, Ho Jia Ao, and Cymbidium have two sons and one daughter, eldest son Wang Linsan, second Wang Kun eight, female suitable filial piety seven son)

Sister: Zeng Guo Hui (1814 - 1864), married Wang to hire (also known as Wang rate five, Wang Guo 9 ranked Brothers)

Sister: Ceng Guozhi (1817 - 1846), married Zhu Yongchun (also known as Li Chun, number one, Zi men bridge)

Man Mei (1830 - 1839, pox death)

Offspring

· Son: Ceng Jidi (also known as Zhen Di, early die)

· Son: zeng jize (1839 - 1890, the word "Gang", "Meng Zhan", a famous statesman and diplomat in the late Qing Dynasty), and his wife (1840 - 1857) died a year after marriage. He Long Ling Liu's (1841 - 1903). Liu Rong Daughter. 3 children born

· Son: Zeng Jihong (1848 - 1881, chestnut Cheng, mathematician), wife Kuo (1847 - 1935, Ming Yun, Zi chanfen, author of the poetry of the art gallery, daughter of Guo Peilin)

· Eldest daughter: Zeng Ji Jing (1841 -? Meng Heng, Yuan Bingzhen. Yuan Fang Ying Son, arrogant, not advanced.

· Second daughter: Zeng Ji Yao (1843 - 1881, word Zhong Kun), suitable for Chen Songnian (word distant yuan, Chaling people, good friends) Chen Yuan Yan The son, who was sent to Europe by Ji Ze, was born in Zeng Guofan's family and had hidden diseases.

· Three women: Zeng Ji Chen (1844 - 1912, word Phoenix), Luo yun ji (1846 - 1888, word trillion rise, Xiangxiang people, Luo Son)

· Four women: Zeng Ji Chun (1846 - 1881), Guo Guo Yi Yong (1845 - 1869, word rigid foundation, a Li Chi, Xiangyin people) Guo Songtao Son)

· Five women: Zeng Jifen (1852 - 1935, the old man of Chong de in the evening) Nie Jie (1855 - 1911, Zhong Fang, Heng Mountain, Nie Yi Feng Zi)

· Nephew: Zeng Ji Liang (Wei Shi)

· Nephew: Zeng Ji Qu (Zhu's)

· Nephew: Ji Ji Zheng (Jiang)

· Nephew: Zeng Ji Guan (Ouyang's, Liu's)

· Nephew: Zeng Ji Xiang (Yi Shi)

· Nephew: Ji Sheng Zheng (Li, Li, Lao)

Tomb site of former residence

Former Residence

Zeng Guofan's former residence, Fu Hou Tang, also known as Yi Yong Hou, is Zeng Guofan's Hou Fu, located in the eastern part of Shuangfeng County, Loudi, Hunan. Lotus leaf town Fu Tuo village, Xiangxiang, Xiangtan County Heng Mountain County, Hengyang County Adjacent to the area, it occupies a total area of more than 40000 square meters, with a main building of nearly ten thousand square meters. It is a typical architectural corridor of Ming and Qing Dynasties along the axis. Fu Hou hall faces south to the north, and the half moon shaped turtle fish on the back is surrounded by Fu Hou Tang from three sides of the southwest and the West. From afar, Fu Hou hall looks like sitting in a chair. The surrounding natural environment is beautiful, the hills are densely wooded and ancient trees are towering. In front of the gate is a wider open plain, with small rivers flowing eastward, surrounded by mountains and hills, surrounded by hills.

Zeng Guofan Former Residence It has been designated as a provincial key cultural relic protection unit by relevant departments.

The representative buildings are mainly " White Japanese Rose "," Golden Hall "," Wan Tong Tang "," Da Fu Di "," Fu Hou Tang And so on. Zeng Guofan was promoted to governor of the two rivers and governor of Zhili, and imperial edict added "Prince Taizu" to seal the "first class and brave Hou", and awarded the "great master of the Imperial Palace", and promoted the "Guang Lu doctor", which is posthumously called "Zeng Wen Zheng Gong". Tongzhi 4 years (1865) autumn, Su no lifelong officialdom plan Zeng Guofan, ready to mobilize family members back home "back home" homework, and later to retire, because Mrs. Ouyang's old house Golden Hall before the door, "drowning people in the pond, the element does not think of peace", that is to say, his son Ceng Jize, "back to the Hunan businessmen two uncle", transferred to the Fu Ting house, by Ceng Guohuang, Ceng Guoquan, Zeng Jize chaired, according to the scale of the government, spent ten years of effort to build the rich hall. Fu Hou hall covers an area of 40000 square meters, with a floor area of 9202.86 square meters. It is built of earth, stone, brick and wood. Eight Hall , for example, Jue Zhai, old Pu Zhai, Yi Fang hall, Si Yun Hall Various buildings such as Babao, Ji Yuan, Fu Zao Xuan, chess Pavilion, library and other buildings were hung on the main gate of the year. Yi Yonghou's "Zhu Di" gold tablet was hung on the front gate, and there were magnificent dragon and Phoenix flags, Xiang army's flag and 10000 umbrellas on the granite platform. Although the whole building is of a modest size, it is not magnificent though it has carved beams and painted paintings. It basically reflects Zeng Guofan's intention to build a house that is not beautiful but needs a variety of bamboo and trees, and more than four acres of garden. In the autumn of 1866, when the main building was completed, Mrs. Zeng Guofan, her children and daughter-in-law returned to the new house of Fu Tuo.

Fu Hou Tang originally called the eight hall, taking Zeng Guofan's "reading as the basis of exegesis, and poetry as the basis of tone, and with relatives as the basis of happiness." health preservation is based on less irritation, and it is based on not having a false language. "Home is not based on the fact that it is not easy to start." Later Zeng Ji Ze changed his name according to the book "Hou Han Shu". Although the rich hall is not very good at home, Zeng Guofan was surprised to learn that he spent seven thousand strings on the repair of the house. He wrote in his diary of the nine day of Tongzhi six years in early February, "the letter from the twelfth day of the twelfth month of the twelfth lunar month is home to a total of seven thousand strings of money, so I do not know why it is so expensive. Yu Shengping bought a house to buy because of the bad habit of being an official. Unexpectedly, what a luxury! What you say on weekdays is not worth saying, but you can be ashamed. The house is so, and then everything is luxurious. The children of the great officials are all proud and extravagant.

Whether the rich hall can be called "Zeng Guofan's former residence" is rather controversial in the society. In October 1995, the people's Government of Shuangfeng County Propaganda Department of the CP Central Committee The first Zeng Guofan seminar was held and more than 100 experts and scholars from all over the country participated in the conference.

Grave site

Tomb of Zeng Guofan Changsha cultural relics protection unit. Located 15 kilometers southwest of Changsha City, Wangcheng County, Ping Tang Town, Tong Xi temple on the back of Longshan. clear Tongzhi In eleven years (1872), Zeng Guofan was buried here, with an area of about 300 square meters.

Zeng-Guofan1


History