Yongnian Western Dialect
Yongnian Western Diao, Hebei traditional drama, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Yongnian Western Dialogue is an independent drama formed after Shangdang Bangzi of Shanxi was introduced into Yongnian. During the period of Xianfeng in Qing Dynasty, Shangdang Bangzi was introduced into Yongnian and attracted local people to join the team. During the performance, the dialect sounds in Yongnian gradually penetrated into it. At the same time, influenced by many kinds of operas and Yongnian folk music, after a long period of integration, a unique folk opera in Yongnian was finally formed. Species. In February 1956, when the troupe was registered, the playwright Mr. Zhao Shuli proposed that it be officially named "Western Diao" in the sense of "tuning from the West". Yongnian Western Dialect belongs to the board cavity. Its melody structure is complete and changeable. It uses four, five and eight degrees to jump down a large margin. It uses the singing method of combining true and fake sounds. The board style is complex and diverse, and the cost is complete. It is good at expressing high, exciting, unrestrained feelings and lively and cheerful moods.
In June 2008, Yongnian County of Hebei Province declared that the Yongnian Western Transfer Project was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
In 1853, Fan Kouguang, a businessman from Sizhai Village in Quzhou County, was a businessman in Shanxi Province. He loved drama very much. He saw a male actor named Yu in a theatre troupe in Shanxi Province. Fan bought the troupe back to Hebei and recruited jade as his son-in-law. After Fan died, his son-in-law was in charge of the class (all Shanxi artists were in the class at that time). This kind of drama began to be recognized by people in southern Hebei and had a certain impact.
In the early years of Guangxu in Qing Dynasty (1877-1878), the drought in Shangdang area, Shanxi Province, reached Yongnian through Lucheng, Licheng and Shexian along the "Sanyi Band" performed in Luan, Shanxi Province (now Changzhi, Shanxi). Because of the long journey, some artists are reluctant to leave their homes and leave halfway, leaving only 20 people in Yongnian. The artists of Sanyi Band are famous actors such as Tian Shude and Zhang Kui. After Tian Shude reached Yongnian, he recruited three groups of apprentices:
The first batches were Genbao (Dan), Laisheng (Sheng), etc.
The second group of apprentices ranked with the word "flag". There were white flag Xie naive, red flag Xie Tianlu (red face), green flag Feng Erbiao (Xusheng) (above known as the three-pole flag), as well as black flag, yellow flag, blue flag and so on.
The third group of apprentices ranked by "water". They included Shuihua Stenliang (Xusheng), Narcissus (Dan), Water Foam (Sheng), Shuiye (Dan), Water Root, Water Source, etc.
Tian Shude's disciples also have Shao Lin from Shanxi. Zhang Kui received disciples Zhang Qiugui (Sheng), Liu Shuwen (Dan), Liu Shuge (Sheng) and so on in Quzhou County.
In addition, Shanxi actors from Guangping County received Shensi (Red Face), Guantao Shenwu (Shenyunxiu, Red Face), Guosan (artistic name "Gai Shandong", Dan), Xiao Qizi (Gai Wuxian, Dan) and so on. At this time, the Western tune's cast is strong, Danxing has Tian Shude, Genbao, Liu Shuwen, Xie naive; Jingxing has Zhang Kui, Xie Tianlu, Wu Yuhe; Xusheng has Yang Donglai, Lao Quanbao, Shen Yunxiu, Feng Erbiao, Sanqiao Laohua, etc; drummer has Tian Chunhe, Lao Tong, Qinshi has Zhang Er, Lao Decheng, black mud and so on. These performers were performed in the southern Hebei, northern Henan and Western Shandong provinces.
As the newly-recruited apprentices are from southern Hebei Province, they are constantly influenced by the southern Hebei dialect and Hebei opera in the long-term performance process, so in the aspect of singing, although they still keep the tradition of Shangdang Bangzi, they have abandoned Jinyin and moved closer to Beijing Bai and Yunbai. There are many changes in the singing tune. They learn Beijing Opera and Hebei Bangzi in performance. Formula and overturn skills make the Western Diao quite different from Shangdang Bangzi. Tian Shude was also invited to Guantao's Shenwu Opera Troupe and Jize's Kongbu Village to pass on art. After the 1920s, Tian Shude, Zhang Kui and other Shanxi artists died one after another and were buried in Hebei Province.
From the 1920s to the 1940s, Hebei artists collected a wide range of disciples, which made the art of Western Diao prosperous and spread. For example, three batches of white banner and red banner apprentices are ranked by the word "Tong". The first batch includes Shi Tonghe (Xiaosheng), Tongzhong (Xiaosheng), Tongqing (Sheng), Tongxi (Dan), and Kang Tongtong; the second batch includes Yang Tongzhu (Red Face), Yang Tonglin (Hua Face), Tongfu (Dan), Tongliang (Dan); the third batch includes Tonghua (Dan) and Yan Tongsheng. Liu Wenge and Liu Shuge also received three groups of apprentices, ranked by the word "Gui". The first group was Guichun (Dan), the second group was Guinan, Guixia (Feng Linsheng, Xiaosheng), Guiqiu (Huafa), Guidong (Xiaosheng), and the third group was Guisheng (Guo Tianshun, Wenwusheng), Guijin (Yang Shicai, Wusheng), Guiyin (Liu Xiaomeng, Huafa). And so on. Some artists of the same generation began to receive apprenticeships in the 1940s.
In the 1930s and 1940s, Shijiazhuang Silk String Band invited Red Banner, White Banner, Stenliang, Fengxiangshu, Shen Yunxiu, Shi Tonghe, Liu Wenge and Li Changrong to pass on art in Shijiazhuang. They taught more than ten plays, such as "Qizi", "Wufeng Tower", "Jinqiguan" and "Bad Hanzhong", and promoted the exchange among different kinds of plays.
At the end of 1946, the "Sanyi Class" in Western Dialogue was led by the Rongjun School of the Fifth Zone of Taihang Military Region, which was called "the Third Regiment of the Rongjun School of the Fifth Zone of Taihang Military Region". There were more than 90 performers, Yang Yongqing, the head of the Regiment, Huodian, Zhang Xuezheng and Liu Shuge, the Deputy heads
In 1948, it was taken over by the Handan Municipal People's Government and handed over by Shi Ruoxu. At this time, the troupe rehearsed "Huangchao Uprising", "Red Lady", "Madame Wang's Collection", "Shooting Li Fulin" and so on. The latter troupe is divided into group friend troupe headed by Liu Shuge and progressive troupe headed by Zhang Xuezheng.
In 1954, there were the first actresses in Western Dialogue, such as Li Aizhen and Wu Suqin. In 1955, the two troupes merged to form Yongnian County Western Opera Troupe. The main actors are Liu Shuge, Shi Tonghe, Shi Dengyin, Fengxiangshu and so on.
In 1958, the troupe organized and staged a number of excellent plays, among which "Hairui Bill" participated in the 1959 Hebei Opera Festival and won prizes. The provincial radio also broadcast the recordings of "Hairui Bill", "Honghu Red Guard" and "Balang Stirring Xiao". From 1970 to 1972, the Western Opera Troupe once changed to Beijing Opera, and then resumed to sing Western Opera.
Vocal Cavity Characteristics
Yongnian Western Dialect belongs to the board cavity, which is mainly composed of silk string and flute. It has many complex and cost-effective board styles, such as "two slow boards", "three slow boards", "four or six slabs", "stacking slabs", "long slow skins", "medium boards". It is good at expressing high-spirited, free-spirited and lively moods. Its accompaniment instrument is very unique, the leading head string saw is a genuine self-made national musical instrument, which uses leather as strings, uses five degrees of fixed strings, six inside and three outside, the pole is thin and short, and the piano tube made of Chinese catalpa or paulownia wood is relatively thick and long; the two local strings of Beijing Hu adopt four degrees fixed strings, three outside 6; the three strings (gourd) belong to low musical instrument, shape. Like Erhu, the pole is long, the cylinder is flat, the voice is low and thick. There are five kinds of tunes in the Western Dialect: Kun, Bang, Luo, Juan and Reung. They only perform Bangzi tune. They abandon Jin tone in singing and pronunciation, and move closer to Beijing Bai and Yunbai.
Yongnian Western Dialogue has a full range of roles. The performances mainly learn from Beijing Opera, Hebei Bangzi's performance procedures and overturn skills. It has the characteristics of rough, bold, concise and simple, full of local flavor.
There are more than one hundred traditional operas in Western tune, which are inherited by Bangzi of Shangdang. Among them, there are more than sixty Bangzi operas, such as Xiao Guoshan, Luo Zhang Kneeling Tower, and so on. There are more than thirty reed operas, such as Tangyin Mountain and Empty City Planning; Kun opera, such as Closing the Phase and Giving Blessings; Luo Opera opera, such as Damian Tan. 》 "Shang Tomb" and "Top Brick" have been lost.
Yongnian Western Diao is popular in Yongnian, Guangping, Quzhou, Daming, Qiuxian, Wuan, Jize, Feixiang, Cixian and Nanhe, Shahe and Xingtai counties in southern Hebei Province. There is only one professional theatre troupe in Yongnian, Hebei Province. There are amateur Western opera troupes in Zhoucun, Suining, Dongchengying, Zhongying, Feixiang, Dayou and Ma Mudian, Pinggudian and Kongbo villages in Guangping County. The opera activities range from southern Hebei (north to Shijiazhuang), southeastern Shanxi, northern Henan (Anyang) and northwestern Shandong on the border of Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong and Henan.
Inheritance and Protection
Yongnian Diao attracts a large audience with its unique artistic charm and becomes an indispensable spiritual food for the local people's life. It has certain reference value in the study of local culture and social customs in Hebei Province.
Current situation of inheritance
The Western tune art in Hebei province is declining day by day. Only Yongnian County has a professional Western tune theatre troupe, which is short of personnel, short of funds, difficult to inherit, difficult to survive, and urgently needs rescue and protection.
Zhang Haichen was born on January 21, 1936. On May 26, 2009, he was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects. Yongnian County, Handan City, Hebei Province, declared the project name: Yongnian West Diao.
Zhang Haichen, the successor, received four apprentices, one was professional, and the other three were ticket-holders. From singing, speaking and acting, Zhang Haichen tried his best to teach them.
Yongnian Western Opera Troupe, focusing on creating local opera art brands and meeting the needs of the masses to appreciate Western Opera, actively trains reserve talents, collates traditional Western Opera repertoires and creates new ones, continuously injects fresh blood into Western Opera, so that it can maintain its freshness and vitality, and be accepted by more and more young people. To carry out various forms of theatrical activities in the countryside not only activates the rural culture, but also enables performers to get full exercise.
In May 2014, Yongnian Western Dialogue Art Research Institute organized actors to attend CCTV Opera Channel's "One Wonderful Song" performance recording in Beijing, and was awarded the Excellent Performance Award by CCTV Opera and Music Channel.
On the evening of October 2, 2016, Yongnian Western tune "Eight Langs Stirring Xiao" was performed at Shijiazhuang Silk String Theatre.
On the evening of June 26, 2017, Yongnian Meizhou Grand Theatre staged the traditional classic historical play "Running Youzhou", which was rehearsed by the Western Opera Theatre.