Yongan Daqiang Opera
Yongan Daqiang Opera, a traditional local drama in Yongan City, Fujian Province, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Yongan Daqiang Opera was formed in the mid-Ming Dynasty. It is a genre of Yiyang Opera. It is called Daqiang Opera because it is "big gong, big drum and big voice singing high tune". During the Ming Dynasty, the Xiong family in Toyota Village, Qingshui She Nationality Township, Yongan City, Fujian Province, sent people to Shicheng, Jiangxi Province to worship their ancestors every year, and learned Yiyang Opera from local artists. Then, combined with local folk songs, minor tunes and Taoist music, the Daqiang Opera Troupe was founded. With the migration of some members of the Xiong family to the surrounding areas, Daqiang Opera spread to Datian, Youxi, Shaxian and other places. Yong'an Daqiang Opera has many voices and few words. It is rough and high-pitched, simple and straight.
On May 20, 2006, Yongan Daqiang Opera was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of traditional drama categories on the national intangible cultural heritage list, numbered IV-10.
Yongan Daqiang Opera was formed in the mid-Ming Dynasty. It is a genre of Yiyang Opera. It is called Daqiang Opera because it is "big gong, big drum and big voice singing high tune".
In the mid-Ming Dynasty, Yiyang Opera in Jiangxi was introduced into Fujian in two ways: one way from Eastern Jiangxi to Qianmei Village in Youxi County through northern Fujian, the other way from Shicheng in southern Jiangxi to Toyota Village in Qingshui Township in Yongan City through Northwestern Fujian, which has been circulated to this day. According to Xiong's genealogy in Qingshui She Nationality Township, "Taizu Jiangxi Shibi digs flowers and blossoms, and the place name Zaoxi opens in Jianning County, Shaowu Prefecture, Menglai." Xiong Deqin, a 61-year-old veteran artist from Toyota Village, Qingshui Township, introduced that in the mid-Ming Dynasty, Xiong Thirteen Gong, descendant of the Xiong Family, took five sons (Xiong Mingrong, Xiong Minghui, Xiong Mingfu, Xiong Minghua, Xing surname) along the way from Shicheng County, Jiangxi Province, to Toyota Village, Qingshui Township, Yongan, Fujian Province.
Xiong Mingrong, the eldest son of Xiong Thirteen Gong, has been fond of opera since childhood. He has learned many folk melodies and Yiyang opera tunes. When he moved to Qingshui, Yongan, he would return to Shicheng County every year to worship his ancestors. At that time, the political stability, economic prosperity, cultural and artistic prosperity and development of Shicheng, Jiangxi Province, in which drama is particularly prominent. According to the Records of Shicheng County in Jiangxi Province, theatre troupes are invited to perform in festival activities such as New Year's Day, sacrifice, contest for gods and Xiupu. Xiong Mingrong watched all kinds of drama performances during ancestor worship in Shicheng County, and followed his master to learn some Southern Opera. When he returned to Toyota Village, he would invite people of his clan to hum, or entertain himself, or set up stage performances in villages and ancestral temples. After that, he formed a troupe to perform in the nearby small mountain villages to amuse himself and others. It can also be slightly promoted.
Toyota Village, formerly known as the Pacific Ocean, is located in a remote mountainous area more than 1000 meters above sea level. It is still a Panshan Road with traffic congestion.
It is very difficult for the theatre troupes outside to arrive. In order to pray for the ancestors of the Shensheng Competition, Xiong Mingrong combines the Yiyang Opera tune he learned in Shicheng County with the local folk songs, ballads, minors and Taoist music, and blends it into the local puppet show and Taoist dance to create a local opera with the characteristics of the opera.
Later, the five brothers of Xiong Mingrong, the descendant of Xiong family, separated successively. Xiong Mingrong moved from Toyota Village to Dongbancun, Shaxian Houkeng Village, Xiong Mingfu to Nanshan Village, Youxi County (now Huainan Township, Yongan City), Xiong Minghua to Qingshui Daping Village, Yongan (now Toyota Village), one of the five brothers has lost his name. With the five Xiong Brothers moving to different places, Toyota Village Daqiang Opera also spread around, further accelerating the spread and development of Daqiang Opera.
After more than 100 years of development, Toyota Village Daqiang Opera Troupe reached its peak in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. According to Xiong Deqin, an old artist, a folk song still circulates in the village today: "Bamboo poles are erected in the first month of the lunar month, bamboo newspapers are big and small to keep the peace; big chamber classes are set up beside temples in the first and second grade of junior high school; flower lanterns are set up in the fourth grade, and bridging lights are set on the twelfth and thirteenth day; bamboo shoots are raised by the whole family on the bamboo shoot hill in Furi; bamboo shoots are drinked In the tenth day of the twentieth lunar calendar, one will return home when he visits his relatives. This vividly reflects the development of Daqiang Opera from Qingshui Toyota Village to its heyday. At that time, as long as it was a banquet, a game of gods, sacrifices, compilation, and festivals, especially the Spring Festival and the Zhongyuan Festival, the Toyota Village Daqiang Theatre Troupe would perform in the village head temple or grass platform. There were only seven or eight days of performances, and more than ten and a half days of performances, in order to drive disaster and seek happiness. As a folk culture, Daqiang opera has been integrated into the local area.
Since the Xianfeng period of the Qing Dynasty, Xiaoqiang Opera has been widely popular in Northwest Fujian, and Daqiang Opera has gradually declined. Nowadays, Xiaoqiang Opera has been listed in the second batch of provincial intangible cultural heritage list in Fujian Province. Xiaoqiang opera is a kind of random playing voice, which is different from the "big voice singing high-pitched opera, big gong singing big opera", but mainly acts as a role with small voice, unique. During the Jiaqing period of the Qing Dynasty, Yuqingfu, a villager from Yangtou Village, Iketian Township, Youxi County, was elected as the master of the Daqiang Opera Qinglong Ban. After that, he changed his voice to sing opera in a small voice, which was refreshing and popular among the local people. Yang Guangzhi, the master of the third generation of Qinglongban class, vigorously promoted Xiaoqiang Opera. At this time, the performing skills and forms of Xiaoqiang Opera were quite mature. Its acting roles developed from "four doors and nine lines" to 10 roles. The scope of performance also expanded from the village to other counties, and spread to Datian, Shaxian, Yongan and other places and adjacent Longyan areas.
The flourishing development and rapid dissemination of Xiaoqiang Opera have a great impact on Yongan Daqiang Opera. In the past, as long as it was banquets, games, sacrifices, compilations or festivals, Yongan Toyota Village would play the grand opera in the village head temple or grass platform, but this period was gradually replaced by the small opera. Qingshui Township of Yongan County has also established a small Opera Troupe "300 Lao Ban", which plays in the village on New Year's Day and also collects apprentices and passes on art in the village. The influence of small opera is growing. By the 1920s, many Daqiang opera troupes had disintegrated one after another, and the only remaining ones had gradually narrowed down, and Yongan Daqiang opera had gradually declined. The period from Xianfeng to Guangxu in Qing Dynasty (1851-1908) was the peak period of the development of Xiaoqiang Opera and the decline of Daqiang Opera.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, Yongan Daqiang Opera has not established a professional theatre troupe, but because of its strong adaptability, strong local flavor, simple singing, easy to be accepted by the people, it naturally becomes a form of literature and art for the local people to entertain themselves. But after the 10-year Cultural Revolution, Daqiang Opera was banned, a large number of scripts were burned, and old artists died one after another, which undoubtedly worsened the decline of Daqiang Opera. People born after the "Cultural Revolution" have hardly heard Daqiang Opera. Although some people in the village can hum and sing, few of them can come to power.
Music for voices in a Chinese Opera
Yongan Daqiang Opera, as a branch of Yiyang Opera, belongs to Yiyang Opera. The structure of the singing chamber is a series of songs and cards, with great fluctuations and high pitches. Daqiang opera has more and less vocal characters, rough and high-pitched, simple and straight. "Words with more words and less voices drain away." Actors'voice is mainly big voice, combined with big voice and small voice. They constantly help in the backstage of the performance, retaining the characteristics of Yiyang tune that "one person opens one's mouth and all people help one's voice". Most of the lyrics are long and short sentences, which belong to Zhongzhou phonology. At the same time, in the process of formation and development, Daqiang Opera, which is good at combining with local folk songs, Taoist tunes, has the characteristics of "misusing native language", "singing with the mouth", "changing tunes and singing with the heart", and so on. It has opened up a unique opera singing tune on the Chinese opera stage.
There are only gongs, drums, cymbals, suonas and boards in the grand opera troupe.
Stage decoration is very simple. There are only one table and two chairs on the stage. Actors'costumes are relatively simple, or they simply don't wear costumes. They only wear red, black and white costumes, and then hang a unique "beard set" to perform at the table. This is the symbolic costume of grand opera. Style drum sits on the chair playing drums, and from beginning to end constantly singing, and acting with actors.
The early role is 8, commonly known as "Eight Immortals", also known as "Eight-cornered Quan", namely Zhengsheng, Xiaosheng, Zhengdan, Huadan, last Dan, Dahua, Erhua, Ugly. Later, we added the last corner, which is called "four doors and nine rows", and "four doors" are life, dan, clean and ugly. "Nine line head" is Sansheng, Sandan and Sanhua face. "Sansheng" means Zhengsheng, Xiaosheng and Associate (Laosheng in some places); Sandan means Zhengdan, Xiaodan and Fudan; Sanhua Face means Dahua, Erhua and Sanhua (Ugly). Finally, Daqiao Opera adds the roles of foreigners and Zhan Dan (Tiedan). Generally speaking, the performance is dominated by "Nine Corners". If the performance is not enough, the performance will be counteracted by other performances.
"Four doors and nine lines" are all played by actors. Jing and Ugly sing in their own voices (big voice), Xiao Sheng and Xiao Dan sing in their false voices (small voice). Men and women sing in tunes regardless of palace. However, there are certain requirements for the use of tunes and performances in all walks of life. The pithy words drawn up by artists are: "Danyin, Shengyang, Dahua, Erhua Chi, Laosheng Ran (p n), Sanhua singing is fast or slow." Meaning: Xiaodan sings in a small voice with ease and euphemism; Xiaosheng sings in a small voice with a bright and clear voice; Dahua sings in a big voice with a high and exciting voice; Erhua sings in a throat with a tingling sense; foreigners sing in a nasal tone with a slow but empty voice; Sanhua sings in a fast and slow way.
There are more than one hundred traditional operas in Yongan Daqiang Opera. They often perform White Rabbit, Golden Seal, Zhongsanyuan, Sunflower Story, Armor Collection, Huang Feihu, Broken Qingyang, Three Generations of Glory, Hedao Story, White Luo Shirt, Platform Dream, Water Sale, etc.
Inheritance and Protection
In addition to entertaining themselves, Toyota Village's Daqiang Opera often performs in the village's celebrations, ancestor worship and festivals. After Chengfeng in Qing Dynasty, Daqiang Opera began to decline due to the popularity of Xiaoqiang Opera in Northwest Fujian. By the 1920s, many opera troupes with big tunes had disintegrated one after another, and the range of activities of the remaining opera troupes had been gradually narrowed down. Toyota Village is situated between high mountains and dense forests, and traffic is blocked. Therefore, Daqiang Opera, an ancient opera form in the Ming Dynasty, has been preserved for more than 500 years. Daqiang Opera's performance, stage scheduling and dance beauty are all endowed with the precious relics of Ming Dynasty's drama. They are the first-hand important materials for the study of the history of Chinese opera, culture and social life.
Current situation of inheritance
Nowadays, the Toyota Village Opera Troupe has fewer than 20 members, and its performance scope is limited to its own village and home town. In recent years, with the continuous enrichment of cultural life, Toyota local people's interest in Daqiao Opera is decreasing year by year, amateur performances of Daqiao Opera are becoming fewer and fewer, and the age of artists tends to aging, while the poverty of mountain life makes the younger generation eager to change the economic situation have no time to learn to inherit this ancient drama. The shrinking performance market and the lack of successors make Yongan Daqiang Opera in an endangered state, which urgently needs rescue and protection.
Xing Chengbang, male, born in 1954, is from Toyota Village, Qingshui She Township, Yongan City, Fujian Province. In May 2006, Yongan Daqiang Opera was listed in the first national intangible cultural heritage list of traditional drama category, project number IV-10. In February 2008, Xing Chengbang was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Yongan City, Fujian Province.
Xiong Deqin, male, born in 1953, is from Toyota Village, Qingshui She Township, Yongan City, Fujian Province. In May 2006, Yongan Daqiang Opera was listed in the first national intangible cultural heritage list of traditional drama category, project number IV-10. In February 2008, Xiong Deqin was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Yongan City, Fujian Province.
In 2008, Qingshui She Nationality Township was designated by the State Ministry of Culture as the "Town of Chinese Folk Culture and Art". As the only Qingshui She Nationality Township in Yongan City which has won the reputation of "Town of Chinese Folk Culture and Art", it has always regarded the promotion and development of folk culture as an important part of enriching the connotation of civilized villages and towns and increasing villagers'income. Rong. For example, the government of Qingshui Township incorporates the protection and development of Yongan Daqiang Opera into the overall planning and tourism development planning of Qingshui Township's cultural construction, establishes a leading group for the protection of ethnic and folk culture in Qingshui Township, with the main leadership of Qingshui Township Government as the leader of the leading group, whose members are finance, culture, education, religion, tourism, village construction, planning, etc. The head of the laughing department is composed. Establish an office and appoint a special person to take charge of it. The funds for the protection and development of Daqiang Opera and the folk culture and art of Daqiang Opera are included in the financial budget of Qingshui Township, and the funds for the development of folk culture and art are set up, and the special financial accounts are set up.
In 2017, the Daqiang Theatre Troupe participated in the national non-legacy opera public welfare special exhibition of "eternal love, Huayun Liufang" held in Taihe Square of the May 4th Movement in Fuzhou.
In 2005, Lu Tiansheng wrote "The Historical Draft of Yongan Daqiang Opera", which was published by China Drama Publishing House.