Yiquan, also known as Dacheng Quan, is one of the traditional Chinese boxing and belongs to Neijia Quan. It comes from mind boxing. Including: standing pile, trial, footwork, strength, sound test, push hand, single-handed, broken hand, strong dance. It was founded by Mr. Wang Xianzhai, a villager of Wei Jialin in Shenxian County, Hebei Province (now Shenzhou) at the end of Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, on the basis of Xingyi Quan, who absorbed the merits of various families. There are no fixed methods and boxing gloves, emphasizing the idea to guide action, so Dacheng boxing (Yiquan).
According to legend, Xinyiquan was created by Yue Fei, a famous national hero in the Song Dynasty. Jijike, from Ming to Qing Dynasty, visited a famous teacher in Zhongnanshan, Shaanxi Province, and received advice from different people. He awarded "Yuewu Mu Quan Pu" to study and practice day and night. In middle age, he participated in the fight against Qing Dynasty and restored Ming Dynasty, lived in seclusion in Shaolin Temple for 10 years, and passed on his art to Ma Xueli, Henan Province, and Ca Martial. Since Jiji's founding of the sect, after hundreds of years and more than ten generations of inheritance, a huge system has been formed.
Mr. Wang Xianzhai was very weak and sick when he was young. In order to improve his health, he studied all kinds of martial arts.
In 1918, in order to further explore the essence of traditional Chinese boxing, Mr. Xianzhai left home and traveled to the Shaolin Temple in Songshan, Henan Province. He had several months of discussions with the monk Henglin, who was the father of the temple.
Development and Inheritance
History of Development
Wang Xianzhai, founder of Dacheng Quan (Yiquan), also known as Zhenghe, also known as Nibao, Ziyu monk, was born on November 24, 1885 in Weijialin Village, Shenxian County, Hebei Province. He died in Tianjin in July 1963 at the age of 78.
Mr. Xiangzhai was weak and sick when he was young. In order to improve his health, he studied various martial arts.
Mr. Xiangzhai does not focus on the local knowledge of boxing which can be acquired by one skill, nor does he have the view of the faction gateway of boxing. He believes that Chinese traditional boxing has a long history and that the accomplished boxers in different periods and regions have different styles and specialties.
Around 1907, Mr. Xiangzhai left his school to broaden his horizons and increase his knowledge. In 1913, Jin Yunpeng, Minister of the Army of Yuan Shikai, and Qi Zhenlin, Vice-Minister of the Army, set up a Wushu Coaching Institute of the Ministry of Army in Peiping. Mr. Fanzhai was hired to preside over the educational work. He had to consult with Liu Wenhua (son of Mr. Liu Qilan), Shang Yunxiang, Sun Lutang and other famous boxing artists to learn from their strengths and complement their weaknesses.
In 1918, in order to further explore the essence of traditional Chinese boxing, Mr. Xiangzhai left home and traveled to the Shaolin Temple in Songshan, Henan Province. He consulted with Henglin Da Monk, the abbot of the temple who passed on Xinyiquan for several months. Later, through Hubei, Hunan and Fujian, he came to know Mr. Fang Qiazhuang, a famous psychologist of Nanshaolin Temple, and introduced by Mr. Fang to Jinshao, a famous Hequan master. Mr. Feng knows each other and exchanges experiences. After that, Mr. Wang Xianzhai returned to Hunan and met with Mr. Xie Tiefu, the great master of mind boxing in Hengyang. He was defeated in his skill and was given a lot of money by Mr. Xie Lao.
In 1925, on his way back to the north, Mr. Xiangzhai met Mr. Huang Muqiao in Huainan, Anhui Province by chance. He got the gist of healthy dance, and later created such healthy dances as dragon-walking, snake-frightening, crane-playing and wave-waving.
In the mid-1920s, Mr. Xiangzhai sorted out, summarized and studied the first-hand materials collected during his years of travels. In view of the disadvantages of the time when the martial arts circles advocated embroidering legs with flower boxing and the one-sided tendency of sticking to one-way tactics, he explained the truth and meaning, drew on the merits of various families on the basis of Xingyiquan, and abandoned the set that had been followed for hundreds of years. The way and the fixed way of action, with the help of theory and recognition, created a new style of Yiquan. Yiquan has no routines and fixed moves. It is called Yiquan in order to emphasize the important role of "Yiquan" in the process of boxing training. The establishment of Yiquan is a major revolution of Chinese traditional Wushu, which has caused great shock in the field of Wushu.
The earliest disciples of Yiquan were Qi Zhidu's uncles and nephews. Shortly afterwards, Mr. Xiangzhai visited his brother Zhang Zhankui (Zhaodong) in Tianjin, and set up accounts in Tianjin Taigu Company and Youth Association to teach Yiquan. There were Zhao Daoxin, Gu Xiaochi, Machichang, Zheng Zhisong, Miao Chunyu, Zhang Zonghui, Qiu Zhihe, Zhao Fengyao, Zhao Zooyao, Zhang Entong and others who learned Yiquan. At this time, Yiquan has initially formed a new type of boxing without routines and fixed methods, including standing stakes, trial, sound test, walking, strength, pushing hands, Sanshou and other training content, which is different from the traditional Xingyiquan.
In 1928, at the invitation of Mr. Zhang Zhijiang and Mr. Li Jinglin, Mr. Xianzhai took Mr. Zhang Zhankui, the son of Yiyi, Zhao Daoxin, to Hangzhou to participate in the martial arts competition of the Third National Games of Old China. He served as the referee of the conference and performed the trial of Yiquan (including voice test) at the conference. After the meeting, at the invitation of my brother Qian Yantang, I went to Shanghai to teach Yiquan and set up the Yiquan Club on Niuzhuang Road. At that time, there were famous scholars Gao Zhendong, Zhu Guolu, Zhu Guozhen, Zhang Changyi, Zhang Changxin, Youpengxi, Han Xingqiao, Han Xingyuan, Buenfu, Wang Shuhe, Ma Jianchao, Ning Dachun and other worship Yiquan.
In 1929, Mr. Xiangzhai wrote Yiquan Orthodox. During his stay in Shanghai, he also exchanged skills with Mr. Wu Yihui, a famous artist of Liuhe boxing, and defeated the Hungarian world lightweight professional boxing champion Eng. After that, Eng published the article "Chinese Wushu I See" in the British Times.
In 1935, Mr. Xiangzhai and his disciples Bowenfu, Han Xingqiao, Zhang Changxin and Zhang Entong went north through Tianjin Huishen County to further study Yiquan.
In 1937, at the invitation of Mr. Zhang Yuheng and Mr. Qi Zhenlin, the famous resident of Peiping, Mr. Xiangzhai went to settle in Peiping. In the autumn of the same year, Hong Lianshun, a famous boxer in Peiping, visited Mr. Xiangzhai, who failed three times in three trials, and then led his apprentices to worship Mr. Xiangzhai. Mr. Hong was most praised by Mr. Xiangzhai after his proud disciple Yao Zongxun. Mr. Xiangzhai teaches Yiquan, Divided Fighting and Health-keeping classes in the Sports Class of the Four Survivals Society. The skilled strike team is located in the private residence of Mr. Yao Zongxun, No. 14, Hutong, Xicheng City. It has absorbed students such as Yang Demao, Li Yongyan, Dou Shiming, Dou Shicheng, Ao Shuobang, Ao Shuohong, Zhang Zhong, Zhang Fu, Wang Binkui, Yang Shaogeng, Li Wentao, Li Jianyu, Wang Shichuan, Tong Guozao, Jiao Jingang, etc. After several changes of places, the health-preserving class has been set up in different places. The Taimiao in Peiping (today's Labor People's Cultural Palace) has students Qin Chongsan, Chen Haiting, Yu Yongnian, Buyukun, Mijingke, Sun Wenqing and Mr. Xianzhai's sub-queen Yufang. Zhang Yuheng and Qi Zhenlin also participated in the study.
At the beginning of 1940, Mr. Xiangzhai publicly issued a statement in Peiping Shibao: Wushu circles are welcome to come and teach, to discuss the development of Wushu with Wushu associates, so as to advocate Yiquan and clarify the true meaning of boxing. Subsequently, Chinese and foreign visitors continued, including six sections of Judo, Ichiro Yamada, representing Japan in the wrestling competitions of the 11th Olympic Games, and three sections of Japanese Judo, Kenichiro Sawai and Mr. Ichisai Yuanzhai, who were skilled clothes visitors at that time. Sawai learned Yiquan and later returned to Japan to create Taiqi Quan.
In the summer of 1940, Zhang Bi (Ziyuheng) and Qi Zhenlin praised Yiquan and gave it the name "Dacheng Quan". Because it did not fit Mr. Xiangzhai's original intention, they had intended to thank him at that time, but it was inconvenient to refuse. Moreover, on April 2, 1940, Mr. Zhang Lao published the article "Naming of Dacheng Quan" in Shibao, and the name of Dacheng Quan spread. 。 Although one Yiquan was restored after that, because Dacheng Quan has been known for many years and has been widely circulated, the coexistence of Yiquan and Dacheng Quan is the product of history.
By 1941, Mr. Xianzhai had given names to six disciples of different periods who had made achievements in fighting skills: Zhao Enqing gave names to Daoxin, Han Xingqiao gave names to Daoguan, Buen Fu gave names to Daoguai, Zhang Entong gave names to morality, Zhao Fengyao gave names to Daohong, and Yao Zongxun gave names to succeed him.
In 1944, Mr. Xiangzhai wrote his masterpiece The Center of Boxing and Dacheng Boxing (also known as Dacheng Boxing Theory) on the basis of The Right Track of Yiquan. After the liberation of Peiping, Mr. Xiangzhai went to Zhongshan Park in Beijing to teach fitness and health preservation skills based on standing piles, and no longer to teach skills and attacks.
In 1950, at the appointment of the Preparatory Committee of the All-China Sports Federation, Mr. Xiangzhai took the post of Vice-Chairman of Wushu Team and went out to work for reasons.
In 1958, at the invitation of Beijing Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guang'anmen Hospital was established to treat various chronic diseases by staking, which opened up a unique staking therapy in China.
In 1961, he was invited to Baoding Hebei Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine to teach Zhuanggong.
In 1963, Mr. Xiangzhai died in Tianjin.
Mr. Xiangzhai has a large number of people, but he is outstanding in fighting skills, especially Wang Xuanjie, Zhao Daoxin, Youpengxi, Han Xingqiao, Bo Enfu, Zhang Entong, Zhao Fengyao, Yao Zongxun and Wang Binkui.
There are no fixed tactics and boxing gloves, emphasizing the idea to guide the action, intentional name boxing. With the idea of commanding the limbs, concentrating, breathing naturally, relaxing the whole body, so that all parts of the body into a whole, and then use the spirit, so that the whole body everywhere to build up competitiveness, and with the outside world to build competitiveness, known as Hunyuan strength. Strive to achieve a high degree of coordination and unity between the mind and limbs, limbs and the outside world, so as to give full play to the energy of the mind and body.
Since the establishment of Yi Quan, Mr. Xiangzhai, has a history of nearly 80 years. As a study of human activities, today's fist is the product of combining the essence of Chinese and foreign boxing with modern scientific theories. It has strict scientific and systematic scientific theoretical basis. Over the past decades, Yiquan has taken modern kinematics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, neuromedicine, human mechanics as its theoretical basis for training. It has scientifically expounded the principles of Yiquan in combination with traditional Chinese philosophy, and gradually perfected its theory of boxing under the constant verification of scientific theory, and then scientifically pointed to it. The practice of guiding Yiquan training has further sublimated and improved the research and practice of Yiquan.
Specifically speaking, Yiquan exercises focus on fitness and practicality. There are no routines and fixed moves. It emphasizes guiding movements with ideas, so it is called Yiquan. It mainly consists of stake, trial, sound, walking, strength, fist (palm) method, push hand, free hand and so on. Standing stake is the basic skill of Yiquan. It is the basis of various training of Yiquan. It is the core content and main training means of Yiquan. According to the different purposes and stages of training, standing piles can be divided into skilled piling and fitness piling, both of which are exercising under the condition of static appearance.
Standing pile is the mother of Yiquan, and the first priority of standing pile is the idea. The idea of standing on a pile first lies in holding the ball in the arm and holding the ball in the thigh. This idea is to look at the beautiful river from a distance on the basis of the inner virtual collar and the outer straight and comfortable strength. At the same time, holding the ball and pinching the ball leisurely and thinking that, with the deepening of understanding, from simple to complicated to hanging wire, a stool is like sitting on a stool (here refers to breaking a stool, really sitting scattered, slightly leaving it). If the arm or part of the body is tired, it is necessary to stop and adjust the body and mind to start anew. It does not require a long time to concentrate on the spirit. This is the interpretation of loose form and tight meaning. On the contrary, insisting on mistakes is far from the way of boxing. The so-called internal movement of the stake is not a subjective movement, but a relaxation of the actual spirit. This process lies in the unexpected, natural attainment of self-cultivation, self-cultivation and self-cultivation. The core of this process lies in the idea that the body is wrapped in a circle behind the body. On the contrary, the body is only a piece, and the true meaning of the God is also "false" (hereinafter referred to as "false". It's far-fetched, and it's bound to make the body unnatural. Therefore, only one minute is enough for the first pile to benefit, so that repeated and daily edification can meet the conditions for the training of the pile, the deepening time of the pile body recognition will naturally extend gradually to 40 minutes or even one and a half hours, and even the entry will occur during the training. Once a week, the body feels more comfortable and energetic. Satisfaction is overflowing with words
From hazy recognition to gradual recognition, it is almost the same as the fog gradually dissipated, the original puzzled "ideas" and "struggle" issues have gradually been recognized, the stake tells the unity of knowledge and practice. There is a deep understanding of all the people who are aware of it. At first, there is a big difference between what the brain understands and what it understands. In my teacher's words, it is the same as in life. If you want to do something, if you want to do something at first, if you want to do something, when this thing is done, you can recall that it is very different from the beginning, reflecting on the station. There is also some truth in the pile. If you don't understand your idea, you will not feel relaxed. If you don't feel relaxed, you will become cumbersome. Yiquan Station Pile is not a commentary on the world and a wonderful listening to entertainment, but a process of substantial change from abstract to concrete.
Over the years, Yiquan has made fruitful contributions to the improvement of people's health. More importantly, it has retained and developed the effectiveness of traditional boxing in China, and has formed a complete system. Yiquan has been widely spread throughout the country and in all walks of life. There are also a large number of fans in other countries and regions of the world. In many provinces and municipalities in China and in many overseas countries and regions, there are corresponding Yiquan organizations.
Yiquan has broad prospects for development. "Promoting the essence of Yiquan, spreading Wushu culture and inspiring national spirit" is the purpose and common goal of Yiquan. We believe that Yiquan will make a positive contribution in the process of Chinese Wushu going to the world and benefiting mankind.
Yiquan can cure all kinds of diseases, some may not be cured, but at least it will make the condition better. Moreover, Yiquan can make blood flow, strengthen people's strength. Those who have practiced Yiquan have great strength.
Even western medicine can not cure myopia, hyperopia, amblyopia and other eye diseases, Yiquan can achieve the effect of all, can not ensure amblyopia, but as long as myopia and hyperopia hard to practice, more than an hour a day, months later, vision can basically return to normal. Even if a 15-minute stake in a day is still practised in bed, it is still effective.
Yiquan is very effective for cervical spondylosis, especially for those who watch computers. Exercise for the elderly can also ensure the health of the body.
The training of Yiquan pays great attention to balance and contradiction, so Yiquan can strengthen the balance of left and right brain, accelerate the speed of thinking, and achieve the fitness effect of brain.
Specific Gong Fa
Sound testing is a unique method of practicing Yiquan, which is generally classified into the category of trial, in order to make up for the lack of subtlety in the trial.
Walking, also known as friction step, is a very important subject in the training system of Yiquan. The so-called friction step means that when we move our feet, the sole of our feet does not seem to touch the ground, and constantly rubs forward or backward with the ground in our ideological activities. In fact, the friction step is the trial force of our legs and feet. Its basic principle of exercise is "move up and follow down, move down and take up oneself", and in the process of footwork transformation, keep the balance and overall coordination of the body's center of gravity, and combine the specific exercise with the trial, that is, preliminary walking test.
Strength is the motive force of effective punching force in boxing. Strength in Yiquan, in short, is the initiation of Hunyuan power. Therefore, the training of basic skills, such as standing pile, trying and walking, is to create conditions for exertion. The fist (palm) method of Yiquan is a special training, which essentially means strength. It requires a very short distance, with a very small action, the speed of explosion, to strike a very complete force in order to complete an effective blow.
Pushing and breaking hands are two different but closely related training forms in Italian boxing practice, both of which have strong antagonism.
Pushing hands can be said to be the concretization of trial and walking. From the point of view of practice, it can also be called double trial. From the point of view of training purpose, it is mainly for training to restrain the other side and strike effectively when both sides have physical contact. In this sense, pushing hands is a conditional actual combat, which is to make up for the deficiency of actual combat.
Sanshou, Yiquan is also called actual combat or practice. It is the assembly of all kinds of training in boxing, and it is the comprehensive embodiment of direct examination of boxing exercise. In the original sense, free hand is a free-hand struggle without any additional conditions. In addition, besides the basic contents mentioned above and the specific exercises for these contents, there are also some auxiliary exercises, such as sandbagging, body resistance training, eye training, body flexibility training and endurance training.
Yiquan believes that the instrument is the extension of its own arm. The instrument training of Yiquan is essentially the same as bare-handed training. The main instruments of Yiquan are: half-pole and double swords.