Year of the Yi Nationality

Home Culture 2019-07-12

Year of the Yi Nationality

In the year of the Yi people, the Yi language is called "Kusi", "Ku" is the year of the Yi people and "Si" is the new year. It means "New Year". It is a traditional sacrifice and festival for the Yi people in Liangshan and Liangshan Autonomous Prefectures of Sichuan Province. Kus usually chooses the season when the crops are harvested in October of the lunar calendar. The year of the Yi nationality is three days. The first night of the Yi people's New Year is called "Jueloji", the first day of the New Year is called "Kus", the second day is called "Dobo", and the third day is called "Apji".

Festival Contents

brief introduction

The year of the Yi people , which is called "Kusi" in the Yi language, means "Shi" is new. It means "New Year". It is a traditional sacrifice and celebration festival for the Yi people in Liangshan and Liangshan Autonomous Prefectures of Sichuan Province. The Year of the Yi Nationality is an important festival of the Yi Nationality. From ancient times to today, the Yi people attach great importance to the Spring Festival and are very lively. There is no way to know when the Yi people's New Year began. Many rituals of the Liangshan Yi people's New Year are related to ancestor worship, and the whole festival is full of strong ancestor supremacy.

Summary

The year of the Yi nationality is three days. The first night of the Yi people's New Year is called "Jueloji", the first day of the New Year is called "Kus", the second day is called "Dobo", and the third day is called "Apji".

Juroki

Family reunion, or killing pigs, chickens, celebrating the prosperity of the people of that year, the next year auspicious and well-being and other matters.

KUs

It means the New Year, the main content is to sacrifice ancestors. After the chicken crows in the morning, the whole village will slaughter the Nian pig. The Nian pig will be slaughtered in sequence from the elder or respected families in the same village. With the pig's bile, pancreas and urine package, the good fortune of the master's family is very good. The pig's gallbladder is full and its color is good. The pancreas is flat and flattened without defects. It is auspicious for the fullness of the urine. It indicates that people and animals will thrive in the coming year, and their families will be healthy and the grain will be plentiful. At the same time, there are two meals of "Shefu" and "Shemin". Shefu mainly commemorates ancestors. Pig kidney, liver, tongue, pancreas and buckwheat are cooked together to worship ancestors. "Shemin" is a family meal. After eating "Shemin", men cut pork into pieces, while women poured sausages. On the same day, fresh meat and sausages were hung on the fire pond to roast. At the same time, it showed the master's pig fat, good luck and wealth.

Dot

Meaning the first day of the month, in the morning, the owner of the cockcrow will get up and make Sanxian Soup for heart and lung. He will pound the heart and lungs, boil the oil in the pot, add water and bean sprouts, dry (fresh) bamboo shoots, etc. to make Sanxian soup. In the morning, the whole family will enjoy the delicious soup. In the morning, women organize the whole village's children to sacrifice fruit trees, which is the "community day" ceremony. Each child should bring a pig's front hoof and a sweet corn cake and so on. Choose a growing fruit tree. A child will be accompanied by a tree. The children, under the guidance of a woman, pray that the God of the tree should bear more fruit, so that the children can share and protect the children's healthy growth, and then cut the children's meat into small pieces. On the trees or in the bark. After the end of the New Year celebration, the New Year celebrations of the Yi people are spectacular and lively. In general, dozens of people in groups greet the New Year from the whole village door to door. During the New Year celebration, the host's house serves water and wine for everyone to drink. At the same time, the New Year celebration team also sings New Year's song for the host, young people dance, wrestle, pot dancing and so on. Everyone, regardless of each other, regardless of family alienation, happy to stay up all night.

App Aircraft

It means to send off Zuling and cook pork sausages and vegetables in the afternoon. Women pay New Year's greetings and men receive New Year's greeting teams at home. After three days of New Year's celebration, the Yi people will carry large pieces of pork shoulders (generally divided into three, five and seven pieces), wine, sugar, thousand-layer cake, fried noodles, eggs and so on until their parents-in-law's home New Year's Day, the whole October Yi people are immersed in the joy of New Year's Day.

Time Selection

The year of the Yi people is usually chosen in October of the lunar calendar, when the crops are harvested. According to the research of experts and scholars, it originated from the October solar calendar of the Yi nationality (see Chen Jiujing, Lu Yang, Liu Yaohan, History of Astronomy of the Yi Nationality, Yunnan People's Publishing House, 1991). The October solar calendar is a special calendar created by the Yi ancestors. According to this calendar, there are three hundred and sixty days in ten months a year, thirty-six days a month, and five to six days of New Year's Day. This calendar has no difference between big and small months. It has 36 days a month, which is easy for people to remember. In the October solar calendar, the tail (handle) of the Big Dipper (Shanie) is observed in winter evening, and the tail (handle) of the Big Dipper (Shanie) in summer evening refers to June of the Great Summer Lunar Calendar. It accurately reflects the law of seasonal change with the big cold and the big heat as the first day. The two winter and summer festivals, the Yi Year and the Yi Torch Festival, are scheduled for December 16 and June 24 of the lunar calendar, respectively. According to the calculation, the time of the round trip between winter and summer is 365.33 days. Its structure is neat, scientific and concise, and its use is the characteristic of the solar calendar. The research of some experts and scholars shows that the two popular festivals of Torch Festival and the Year of the Yi Nationality in the Yi Nationality area were originally formulated on the basis of the solar calendar. When the star return marks the battle handle of the Big Dipper, it is the Torch Festival. The year of the Yi nationality is when the star return marks the battle handle of the Big Dipper.

In the year of the Yi people in Liangshan, the Yi language is called "Kushi" or "New Year". The Yi language of "Nian" calls it "Ku", which means: turn, turn, turn, return, cycle. In the Yi people's space-time concept, the northernmost endpoint is usually taken as the starting point. After the sun moves south to the southernmost end in winter, it does not move southward any more. After staying here for a few days, it moves northward again. This endpoint is called "Bugu", which means "solar turning point". Then in summer, the sunset point moves to the northernmost end point, and then returns to the South instead of moving northward. This end point is called "Bujiu", which means "solar return point". Since then, it has moved southward to the southernmost point. A round trip cycle from the northernmost endpoint to the southernmost endpoint is one year. This time is around the winter solstice, the summer solstice. The year of the Yi people usually passes at this time of the winter solstice.

As for the specific time of passing the year of the Yi people, the Yi people in Liangshan usually pass the Bu Kui period. According to relevant scholars (see Wang Changfu's Liangshan Yi Ethnic Ethnic Ethnic Customs, Sichuan Ethnic Publishing House, 1994; Luo Ziqiang's Liangshan Ethnic Customs, Sichuan Ethnic Publishing House, 2002). Investigation shows that in the past, some alpine areas such as Yuexi, Zhaojue, Hanyuan and so on were held in October of the Gregorian calendar. In some areas, such as Xichang, Xide, Mianning, Huili, Miyi, Yanbian, Yanyuan, Muli and Ninglang, Yongsheng, Huaping and Yongren counties in Yunnan, the first day of the New Year is December 16.

Torch Festival is a unique traditional festival of the Yi people, which has been followed for more than a thousand years since the Han and Tang Dynasties. Torch Festival usually takes place on the 24th day of the lunar calendar every year and lasts for three days. There are dozens of records and legends about the origin of Torch Festival, which are rich in content and beautiful. Some of the more common statements are:

1. Legend has it that Entiguez (the God of the Yi mythology) sent people to the earth to endanger all living beings and crops. People, led by Zhige Aru (the hero of the Yi mythology), did not fear it. On the day of June 24 of the lunar calendar, they burned pests with torches and defeated the gods. Therefore, the Yi people designated this day as Torch Festival. It is handed down from generation to generation.

Second, Shulun compiled Xichang County Chronicle, which contains:... During the Kaiyuan period of Tang Dynasty, there were Deng Geng's imperial edicts, one of the six. Nan Zhao wanted to have five edicts. Because of the Star Return Festival, five edicts were recalled to drink in Songming Tower. Dunggeng's wife is charitable. She is afraid that her husband will not do it. She refuses to listen to her. Instead, she says goodbye to her husband. Comparing with Nanzhao, Huoqi Tower, Zhuzhao's skeleton is not visible, but charity returns the skeleton with the help of Qian. Nanzhao did not benefit from it. It was hired in coins, and it was good to say that its husband had not been buried. It was buried in Cherry City. Nanzhao is surrounded by soldiers, eaten up in March, sat in good clothes and starved to death. Nanzhao seeks regret, and its city is called Deyuan. Today, Yunnan vulgar June 24, than the household Songyan. Liao Changzhangyu, fighting to burn it in the night, used to pray for the year according to the field, with the torch bright and dark to divine the abundant and apologetic. Friends and relatives gather, chop animals and drink alcohol, the same as the Yi and Han people. As the "Xichang County Chronicle. Literature and Art Chronicle" (Jianchang Zhuzhi Ci) contains: the banquet prophet does not return, the firewood smoke is cold and sad, but now the fire tree has become popular, endure to turn the ice heart into ash; Huixin early divination is difficult to return, to give the Golden Cup hidden sorrow. Thousands of people still illuminate the festival, swallowing six imperial edicts has become ashes.

3. In ancient times, a mighty man in the sky wrestled with a mighty man on the earth. The mighty man in the sky was defeated by the mighty man on the earth. He fled to the sky in a wolf and made a mistake in front of the god. So the God indiscriminately moved to the world and sent a large number of pests to the earth to trample on crops and endanger the people. People lit torches to drive away insect pests in the fields and defeated the God of heaven. It happened on June 24 of the lunar calendar. The Yi people designated this day as Torch Festival.

Non-material Heritage

On May 18, 2010, the State Council of China announced the list of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list recommended projects (new entries). The "Year of the Yi Nationality" declared by Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province was selected as a folk custom item.

Historical Evolution

Origin

In the year of the Yi people in Liangshan, the Yi language is called "Kushi" or "New Year". The Yi language of "Nian" calls it "Ku", which means: turn, turn, turn, return, cycle. In the Yi people's space-time concept, the northernmost endpoint is usually taken as the starting point. After the sun moves south to the southernmost end in winter, it does not move southward any more. After staying here for a few days, it moves northward again. This endpoint is called "Bugu", which means "solar turning point". Then in summer, the sunset point moves to the northernmost end point, and then returns to the South instead of moving northward. This end point is called "Bujiu", which means "solar return point". Since then, it has moved southward to the southernmost point. A round trip cycle from the northernmost endpoint to the southernmost endpoint is one year. This time is around the winter solstice, the summer solstice. The year of the Yi people usually passes at this time of the winter solstice.

The Yi people's traditional festival in the past years is called "withered knowledge" in the Yi language. In October of the lunar calendar, it is held in November of the Gregorian calendar. The villages where the Yi people live together begin to choose auspicious days from October 16 to the end of the Yi calendar year. Because of the differences in choosing auspicious days in different places, the time of the Gregorian calendar is in the first ten days, in the middle ten days and in the second ten days. The villages have passed the Yi calendar for three days. So there is an interpretation of Yi calendar year after month. The Yi calendar year has the meaning of celebrating that year, offering sacrifices to ancestors and praying for the next year's good weather, plentiful grain, thriving six livestock and all the good things. Why do you celebrate the New Year in October on the Chinese calendar? Legend has it that there are two reasons. One is that the Yi people have a calendar of ten months for one year in their history. According to this calendar calculation, October is the first year of the year, just the New Year, so it is customarily known as the "October Year". Second, because at this time, the Yi people's area harvested all the crops, the grain was plentiful, the farming was idle, and it was time to celebrate the New Year.

Legend

Long ago, there lived a Yi family with three brothers on the mountain. They worked hard every year, but every year they were sent by the King of Heaven to overturn the land and destroy crops. One year they caught a day general. The elder brother advocated killing, the second brother advocated fighting, and the third advocated fighting again after asking for clarity. The third asked the general of heaven, who said that he was forced to do evil things according to the will of the king of heaven, and knew that the king of heaven was trying to monopolize the land and would decide on the matter of the river of heaven. When the three brothers asked what would happen to the sky, the general said, "The eldest brother builds a tin house at the foot of the mountain, the second builds an iron house on the hillside, and the third builds a wooden house on the top of the hill, so that he can take refuge." The three brothers lived in the house according to the rule of the day. Thirteen days later, the huge flood flooded all over the world. The elder man living in the tin house and the second man living in the iron house sank under the water and drowned. Only the third man's soaking wooden house floated on the water and stayed on a hill after the water retreated.

The old three's wooden house attracted many fleeing birds and animals. The old three warmly received the guests who had escaped from the dead. Later, Lao San wanted to marry the daughter of the King of Heaven as his wife, and the birds and animals living at home consulted to complete his marriage.

One day, the King of Heaven drew away the clouds and inspected the earth. He found that there was still a house on the hilltop. On the roof of the house, there was a crow crying. Crow shouting is an ominous omen. The King of Heaven busily asked his wife to read Tianshu. When his wife opened the cabinet and opened the book, she found that the mouse had bitten Tianshu to pieces. The King of Heaven pursued the mouse angrily. On the way, he was bitten by a python on his toe. The pain made him dead and alive. Then a lark flew to tell the King that the frog could heal his wound. The wife of the King of Heaven immediately invited the frog. The frog asked him to promise to marry his daughter to the third child before treating him. The King of Heaven could not help but promise. The frog saw that the plan to marry the third man had come true, and jumped into the pond. The King of Heaven could not catch the frog, and the wound became worse and worse, so he died.

The third man married the daughter of the King of Heaven, and the flower dog offered three grains of millet sticky to his tail. The old couple planted the three seeds and harvested three hanging ears in autumn. The next spring, they planted the three suspended grain ears and got 900 suspended grain ears. In the third year, the old three harvested kilograms of rice. In order to celebrate the harvest, the couple cooked a white-flowered rice banquet on the first to fifteenth day of October in the summer calendar to invite the generals who had saved the third child and the birds and animals who had married them. This day has gradually become a New Year's Festival for the Yi people. After harvest in autumn every year, the year of the Yi people is celebrated solemnly to honor their ancestors and to celebrate the harvest in that year. At the same time, I wish you a better harvest in the coming year.

form

Like the Spring Festival of the Han nationality, the Year of the Yi Nationality is the most joyful and yearning festival of the year. There are many traditional rules in the Yi people's year. The main ones are: one month before the Spring Festival, a pot of buckwheat liquor should be prepared. Three days before the Spring Festival, every household must chop enough firewood and prepare enough rice noodles, salt bars and bean flowers for the Spring Festival. On the morning of the day before the New Year, every household cleaned the house, inside and outside, and around the courtyard in order to show that the old and the new are welcome.

At the same time, each family put a pile of firewood in front of the door so as to ignite smoke during the Spring Festival. It is said that this is a symbol of welcoming the ancestors back to celebrate the New Year. The thirty day of the new year just came to the dawn, and every household lit a bonfire in the simple pit, burning the pig water to wait for the boys to kill the pig. When pigs are killed, they should be divided into young and old, first killed by pigs from elders and older people. When the pig killers arrived, the host's house offered them "pig killing wine". The Yi language was called "black ambition". The heart, gallbladder, pancreas and urinary vesicles of the Nian pig were the favorite viscera of the Yi people. The heart replaces the climate of the coming year, and those with hard texture show drought in the coming year, while those with soft texture show no waterlogging in the coming year; the gallbladder and pancreas are good omens for the host in the coming year, and the gallbladder and pancreas show no signs of good luck for the host's home in the coming year, otherwise, there will be bad luck; the urine bubble replaces the crops in the coming year, and the urine in the vesicle will come mostly. A good year's grain makes a bad harvest. After cutting the New Year Pig, first cut the tongue coating, back sliding, liver, waist and so on, then cook it in a wooden bowl and put it on the wall hanging board above the pool for ancestors. Starting the Year of Cooking Meat, after eating the Lunar New Year meal, children were asked to send cooked meat and rice to people who did not kill pigs.

In the evening, the whole family sits beside the fire pond, called "accompanying ancestors" or "vigil", the elder tells about the suffering of the old society and the sweetness of the new society, and also tells a lot about the truth of life.

On the morning of New Year's Day, people dress up in festival costumes and flock to congratulate each other and congratulate the New Year. Every time they go to a house, the workers treat each other with a lot of meat and bowls of wine. The Yi language is called Zhiyibo.

Cut the pigs'feet and give them to play with the dam on the hill. Adults accompany them to light a bonfire and instruct them to throw pig's hooves into the fire and cook them, no matter you or me. When you are together, I will take them out and eat them one by one, so as to cultivate the moral custom of unity and friendship from childhood.

Young people will sing, dance and play the piano on the slopes beside the village. Later, the boys led the horses to race on the Zhaibian Dam. All the men, women and children in the village went to see horse racing. Horseshoe, whip and cheer are intertwined to form a high-pitched sound, which pushes the atmosphere of the New Year to a climax. At the end of the horse race, the boys wrestled again, so that they could get exercise and make everyone happy.

During the New Year's Day, people in the village like to eat "reunion dinner". They eat from home to home, and play from home to home. They come and go, have fun, dissolve their usual worries and strengthen the unity and friendship among their neighbors. If people from other nationalities pass by the village, they will be dragged to eat enough drunk food with everyone, and then they will not be able to keep it until they are satisfied. On its way.

On the last night of New Year's Day, the whole family sat around the fire pond. In the first half of the night, adults earnestly draw lessons from past production and life, and carefully plan the blueprint of production and life for the coming year. In the middle of the night, the parents asked the children to carry a small corn, a bean, a bean and a handful of oats to the dam, and toss corn, beans, beans and oats up to the East, South, West and North. At the same time, they learned horses, pigs, cows, sheep, and chickens. Pigs, chickens and other animals. Then the corn, beans, beans and oats in the winnowing were scattered into the animal pen to show that the livestock would flourish in the next six years.

After the cock announces the dawn, the married women from other villages in Waizhai take dolls with them, carry on their backs pigs, oat barley, eggs and a jar of buckwheat wine to celebrate the New Year. Other people who need to visit relatives and friends also set out at this time to make good fortune.

Food custom

foodstuff

Thousands of miles of Yishan, the scenic spot is natural. The Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the southeastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are the inhabited areas of the Yi people. With the colorful natural environment, rich resources and diligent wisdom, the Yi people create a happy and beautiful life, inherit unique dietary customs and write a rich and colorful dietary culture.

In the areas inhabited by the Yi people, the geographical environment and natural conditions are complex, and the plant and animal resources are extremely rich. The Yi people living in mountainous and semi-mountainous areas mainly grow buckwheat, barley, wheat, maize, oats and potatoes; in valleys and lake basin mountainous areas, Pingba is mainly planted rice, maize and other crops are supplemented by most areas of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Xiaoliangshan Yi community in Northwest Yunnan and Weining County in Guizhou, the oldest area. The old crops are buckwheat, followed by oats, rice, wheat, barley, potatoes and so on. Vegetables are old with round roots, followed by radish, green vegetables, cabbage and so on. Livestock and livestock are mainly pigs and sheep, while cattle, horses, chickens and so on. People from Liangshan, Zhaotong and Bijie eat buckwheat cakes, rice and corn. They like pig and mutton to make "mound" or big pieces of meat. They like to eat sauerkraut soup made from broth.

In cooking, the Yi people in southern Yunnan, central Yunnan, Kunming, Yuxi, Chuxiong and other places have their own characteristics. Southern Yunnan is an area where the population of the Yi people is more distributed, while the crop production level of the Yi people in Shiping, Jianshui and Kaiyuan is developed. Agriculture is mainly based on rice, supplemented by maize and wheat. Fishing along the lake area, rice as the staple food, also made of wheat flour noodles, baked cakes. The main meat products are pork, chicken, duck and fish. After entering the winter, they killed the new year's hog for pickling bacon for all year round.

In the economically developed areas of central Yunnan, Kunming, Yuxi and Chuxiong, the Yi people live on different ratios of rice, maize and wheat. Vegetables are available throughout the year, and livestock products also account for a certain amount. Varieties of food and dishes and their eating habits are similar. The Yi people of Kunming (Yujun) in the Dianchi Lake Basin have much in common with the Han people because of the influence of the Han people around them. The staple food is rice. They steamed rice in wooden steamers, accompanied by pasta eaters. During the fishing season, they used fishing as a dish. Vegetables are mainly Chinese cabbage, green vegetables, pumpkin, radish, arbor beans, eggplant, pepper, knife beans and so on. The Yi people in central Yunnan preferred pickled vegetables and dried radishes for the season of vegetable shortage. It also uses wheat silk paste: first put the wheat flour bamboo in a sack, then bury it in rice sugar, make it alcohol, then take it out to dry, then grind, pepper noodles and salt brewing.

Pig eating

Yi people in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi usually kill pig food, especially killing new year pigs. According to the customs of the Yi family, the pig's head should be salted in two halves. Half of the pig's head should be eaten or served by the host's family. The other half should be given to his parents-in-law by his son-in-law within a few days after New Year's celebration. In addition to eating pork in other parts during the Spring Festival, generally all the cured pork is eaten slowly. After killing pigs, the Yi people in the suburbs of Kunming and Xuanwei, Weining (Guizhou) and Mianning (Liangshan) have to salt their own ham, among which Xuanwei's ham is well-known throughout the country.

Sheep eating

The Yi people living in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guishan or semi-mountain areas generally like to raise goats and sheep. Sheep is one of the sources of their meat. Whether they kill or eat mutton, the Yi people have some special dietary customs. Goats can be killed with knives, while sheep can not be killed with knives, only with wooden sticks to break the neck of the sheep, and then with the hand strangled to death. Sheep liver and stomach should be used separately to sacrifice ancestors, and then olefin to eat. Sheep body, limbs and viscera, head and hoof are cooked for guests. In some areas, the head of sheep and four hooves are boiled and eaten the next day; the head of sheep is traditionally eaten by the old people in the Yi family. Young women in childbearing period are forbidden to eat rams, only ewes and castrates, and shepherds are forbidden to eat sheep's tails. In some areas, when the Yi people kill sheep, they marinate the sheep's blood mixed with Rocca silk. When they eat it, they put it in a porcelain bowl and steamed it on the rice. It tastes very delicious. The Yi people in Yunnan also like to raise dairy goats. They drink goat's milk and process it to produce many kinds of dairy products.

Chicken eating

The Yi people eat chicken mainly by returning to pot and stewing. The Yi people in Liangshan and Weining, Guizhou, usually chop chicken and mix it with seasoning. The Yi people in Liangshan often use the chicken to return to the pot and the spicy chicken to entertain guests. In the past, the Yi people in Yunnan used to cook chicken in pottery pots. They usually tore the chicken into pieces with their hands instead of cutting it with knives. In particular, prepare a bowl of chicken soup into chili water, chili water also put a little pepper, garlic and fried salt. When eating, chicken scattered into pieces is dipped in chili water. In addition, chicken heads are generally eaten by the elderly, chicken wings for the young girls, the elderly said that they would comb their hair and chicken legs for the children, but children can not eat chicken feet, chicken blood. The Yi people in Yunnan also have a habit of eating chicken. Before killing chicken, they should prepare a bowl of cool boiling water and salt to make chicken blood coagulate into pieces, and then pour pepper noodles, chili noodles, vinegar and sesame oil into chicken blood to mix and eat. It tastes good. The most famous dishes at Yi banquets are "Four Drops of Water". The procedure is to serve four dishes of cold dishes: ham, stewed pork liver (or dried dish), gray eggs, purple meat (or cold chicken). Secondly, 8 dishes of eight kinds of brocades on Chen Shang: sweet-scented osmanthus eggs, fried Youyu shredded fish, fried public-fried meat (or fried chicken), braised elbows, stewed deer tendons, steamed chicken, braised sea cucumber, crisp-skinned fish. Again, Chen Shangsan Sanxian soup and Babao rice (Babao rice is mainly made of sweet glutinous rice, with preserved winter melon, dates, lotus seeds, soap horn rice, cinnamon, sand washing, Yima, red and green silk, walnut slices, and almond). Finally, four bear paws boiled with feet and elbows on the bronze pot are used to make the claws open and set up the edge of the copper pot. They are called "Bear Paw Club", which symbolizes "attracting money and catching joy". Bird's nest soup 1 basin, mainly bird's nest, plus longan, ice sugar, symbolizing the silver wave ball, known as "Jubao pile of silver", guests eat here, congratulations on each other's prosperous financial resources, auspicious door.

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