Yangge Opera

Home Culture 2019-07-10

Yangge Opera

Yangge Opera is a traditional opera art widely popular in China, mainly distributed in Shanxi, Hebei, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shandong and other places. It originated from the songs sung by the working people in ancient China when they worked in the fields. It was combined with Chinese folk dances, acrobatics, martial arts and other performing arts, singing programs with story plots in the January social fire every year, and gradually formed a form of opera. In the mid-Qing Dynasty, after the prosperity of Bangzi Opera, Yangko Opera in Shanxi, Hebei and Shaanxi drew lessons from and absorbed the local Bangzi Opera's repertoire, music and Performing Arts in varying degrees, and gradually developed into stage performances and evolved into local operas.

Yangko twist appeared as a form of singing at the earliest, and later developed into dance and theatrical performances, which were popular in China's southern and Northern regions, and gradually evolved into a lantern festival, which must be performed during the festival.

On May 20, 2006, Yangge Opera was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.

historical origin

Yangge was originally a song sung during transplanting rice seedlings and cultivating fields. It was based on folk farming songs and Lingge songs, and gradually developed into the most common form of folk dance in China (singing and some instrumental performances tended to disappear, only retaining the rhythm of gongs and drums, so it was also called "Yangge is not a song". It mainly refers to the popular folk dances in the Han nationality areas of China.

Yangge opera has a long history. There are records of "village music" in the Southern Song Dynasty, and its formal name appeared after the Ming Dynasty.

Song Dynasty poets such as Su Dongpo and Lu You, who cared about rural life, wrote many poems for rural peasants, or said that later Yangge might have absorbed the words of agricultural songs, but the word "Yangge" was not found in their poems, indicating that the form of "Yangge" was formed at the end of that time. Lu You wrote a poem entitled "Time and Time": "Rain and awn seeds, seedlings are transplanted in all fields, wheat and rice are beautiful at home, and the song of Ling is everywhere." The word "Ling Ge" is easily mistaken for the word "Yangge". In the south of the Yangtze River, the word "Ling Ge" refers to folk songs and farm songs. It is often used in Lu You's poems, such as "How does a Ling Ge rise and wash away the fame and mind of Wanli Gong" ("Boat Crossing Jize"), "Chaosheng Fishing Sets, Moonset Ling Ge"("New Autumn will be a poem with the rhyme of old people in the window and autumn trees in front of the door").

By the Qing Dynasty, Yangko had gradually become a standard form of traditional singing and dancing, with the largest number of documents recorded. Later, it developed into two folk operas (once ugly) and three folk operas (once born, Dan and ugly) which played the role of opera characters.

In Zhuzhi Ci of Qing Dynasty, there are two poems: the opera house in early spring changed its new tune, and the half-mixed Yangko Yuke came into being. This shows that there were Yangko tunes in the theatres during the Qianlong period. But these two poems still can not explain whether the "new tune" in the theatre has Yangko opera or whether the "miscellaneous" in the opera uses the tone of Yangko.

After the founding of New China, Yangko Opera has been developed in different degrees. Fanshi, Xiangyuan, Yuxian County, Hebei Province and other places have established professional Yangko Opera troupes. After regular training, performers'singing level has been further improved. However, after entering the new era, Yangko Opera, as a kind of small folk opera, is not only facing fierce competition with major operas, but also being squeezed by modern pop songs and dances. As a result, there are fewer and fewer performances, and many kinds of Yangko Opera are on the verge of extinction.

artistic characteristics


The performances of Yangko Opera are mostly in progress or in the square. When the Yangko Team marches in a spacious square, it surrounds a "court" in situ. When it is surrounded, some Yangko Teams will perform some simple plots and humorous passages by two or three actors in the middle of the court. Over time, the "Yangko Opera" was born.

The form of Yangge Opera is flexible and free, and it is good at expressing real life. Although it is a mountain village play, it is not inferior in the aspects of role, action performance, plot structure, character and language characteristics. Yangko Opera is similar to Peking Opera in its roles, which are divided into Sheng, Dan, Jing, Wei, Ugly, Lao Sheng, Xiao Sheng, Wu Sheng, and Lao Dan, Xiao Dan and Wu Dan. The costumes, costumes and facial makeup of the characters are similar to those of Peking Opera. The facial makeup of individual characters such as Xu Yanzhao and Bao Zheng are slightly different in details.

After Yangge became a drama, it inherited the small and short tradition. Small refers to small roles and fewer actors. Xiaosheng and Xiaodan, together with clowns at most, can become a play, so they are often called "three small plays". On this basis, Xusheng, Huafa and Qingyi were added. Short is short, Yangko opera has no cost-effective "grand drama", mostly reflecting the daily life and short life of parents. Its music singing style absorbs the characteristics of Bangzi tune, and forms a system compatible with Bangzi tune. Its performance has also been greatly enriched and improved.

Yangge opera also has its own characteristics, such as "modern opera" at that time, simple costumes and props, flexible and flexible performance, local minor singing, dialectal Dao Bai, funny language, close to life and so on.

Singing Style

Yangge opera has a long history and strong singing voice. The integration of local dialect slang and life customs makes it have distinct local characteristics. It is the representative of the style of the fusion of Ming and Qing folk songs and local melodies and languages. Yangge opera is a vocal opera. Its singing tone is known as "nine tunes and eighteen tunes". This is not an exact number. There are many extreme words. The main ones are: Shuihu, dolls, head line board, weeping millet, soul-restoring film, Daqing Yangzi, Erqing Yangzi, artillery throwing, bald claw dragon, Cassia branch incense, mountain goat, lotus flower falling, Erban Qiqiang and so on.

The two most popular tunes in Yangko Opera are "Shuihu" tune and "doll" tune, which are divided into male Shuihu, female Shuihu, male doll and female doll. There are also headline boards, cries and rejuvenation movies with male and female accents, each with different rhythms. Some tunes are gradually forgotten because there are usually many male tunes, such as Daqing Yangzi, Erqing Yangzi, throwing guns, bald claw dragon, cinnamon branch incense, goats on the hillside, mostly male ones; usually female ones are lotus flower falls and second board tunes. The characteristics and functions of these modes are different, for example, there is only one sentence in the second board, which is used at the beginning of a lyric passage to introduce and transit; while the melody of crying is mostly used in the sad tune, the soul-returning film is mostly used in the soliloquy before the death of the characters.

Yangko operas in various places are named after the rising or popular areas. Some of these Yangkos are mainly composed of folk songs, such as Qitai Yangko, Hancheng Yangko and Northern Shaanxi Yangko. Some combination of folk songs and plate changes, such as Shuoxian Yangko, Fanshi Yangko and Weixian Yangko, are mainly composed of Banzi Tune and plate-style ones. First sex (adagio), second sex, third sex, intermediary board, loose board and rolling white, etc., in which folk songs are collectively referred to as "discipline", including "four peace training", "bitter Acacia training", "high character training", "down hill training", "falling money training", "push door training", etc. When singing, Banhu, flute, three strings and other accompaniments are used, commonly known as.“ Some belong to plate type changes, such as Dingxian Yangko and Longyao Yangko. They are composed of adagio, androgyny (26), Allegro, loose board and guide board. When singing, they use plate drum or bang festival, mostly without orchestra, accompanied by Gong and drum, so they are also called "dry board Yangko".

After Yangge became a opera, the singing tune gradually developed toward the direction of "operatization". By the 1980s, there were four singing styles in Yangge Opera.

One is to retain the minor form of early Yangge folk songs. Singing is still dominated by folk song minor, performing a minor opera, the title of the opera is the title of the opera. Although this kind of Yangko opera retains the form of folk song minor, it has absorbed more "tunes" (mainly "Ming and Qing folk songs") and other popular songs in the development process, and the tunes are gradually enriched. This kind of Yangko opera is represented by Jinzhong Yangko.

The second is to simplify the traditional Yangko minor into an infinite repetition of the above and the next two lines. There are only one or two or three types of aria. The basic structure and tone of the aria are the number of words in the aria. This kind of Yangko opera includes Zezhou Yangko, Pingqiang Yangko and Fenxiao Yangko.

Thirdly, the traditional tunes of one or several Yangko minors are used as the basic tunes to make the tunes of the aria slab. Although the singing tune is called "plate style", the gene of "four sentences of Yangge" is still retained in the singing tune. This kind of Yangko opera is represented by Xiangwu Yangko in southeastern Shanxi.

Fourthly, although the tune of a traditional opera is still retained, it not only makes its own singing board in the development, but also absorbs all kinds of board types in Bangzi opera, and applies them to the opera with the original tune. This kind of Yangko opera is represented by Jinbei Yangko (including Shuozhou Yangko, Fanshi Yangko and Guangling Yangko).

In the early stage of Yangge Opera, percussion instruments were the main bands. In the continuous development, Yangge Opera gradually had orchestral accompaniment. Most of the instruments used in Yangge Opera were local Bangzi Opera, other operas or folk bands.

The performance forms of early Yangko include "singing", "dressing up" and "performing". It is because of the variety of performance forms of Yangko that Yangko becomes a traditional folk art form of "song", "dance" and "drama".

Performing characteristics

The performance of the Yangko Team has the following characteristics: first, the performers hold props such as fans, handkerchiefs and silk picking, step on gongs and drums, and sing popular Yangko lyrics of local literati in their mouths. They walk lightly and dance twisting. The second is walking field, which usually starts and ends with a big field and intersperses with a small field in the middle. The grand hall is a large-scale collective dance of various formation combinations while walking and dancing, performing various patterns such as "Dragon Wagging Tail", "Double Crossing Street", "Nine Links" and so on. The small venue is composed of two or three people performing dances or singing and dancing plays with simple plots, such as "Liu Haiying Opera Jinchan", "Che Youmei", "Drought Boat Running", "Fool Receiving Daughter-in-law" and so on. Thirdly, dancers dress up as various characters in folklore and historical stories, such as civil and military princes, young women, ugly women, salesmen, fishermen and children. Fourth, singing, accompanied by Suona, gongs and drums, singers sing local folk songs. The number of Yangko Team can be more or less, less or less, more than eight or ninety. It can not only perform a large-scale program in a unified way, but also perform their respective small programs. The leader of the Yangko Team is called "Umbrella Head", and he is the General Commander of the Yangko Team. He danced and sang with an umbrella, symbolizing good weather. The content of his singing is basically improvisation, and there are also local folk tunes. He was followed by various figures dressed up as men, women, children and clowns, out of various formations. With the accompaniment of gongs, drums and suonas, they twist and dance.

Representational repertoire

The traditional operas of Yangge Opera can be divided into two categories: small operas and big operas. Small operas are commonly known as "playing tricks". They include "Wang Xiaojie", "borrowing", "abductor", "embroidered lanterns", "making shirts", "Tianqi Temple", "Xiaoguxian", "Blue Bridge Fair" and "Lu Meng Zheng Chai". Big operas include "Flower Pavilion Fair", "Flower Pavilion Fair" and "Lu Meng Zheng Chai".《 Nine Clothes, Luhua, Sun and Moon Pictures, Legend of White Snake, Changing Wives for Old and Young, Boxia Mountain of Liangshan, Lida Shop, Top Lamp, Clay Kiln, Wuyu Belt, Jianglang Xiuwei, Lulin Meeting, An An Sending Rice, etc.

Important schools

Longyao Yangge Opera

Longyao Yangge Opera came from the development and change of rice song of the local labourers in transplanting, harvesting and working in ancient times. Longyao Yangge was born in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty. It formed a group to go on stage to tour in Jiaqing. It has a history of more than 400 years. It is one of the ancient local operas in Hebei Province.

According to the performance characteristics and regional differences, Longyao Yangge can be divided into three roads: north, South and middle. The main characteristics of Longyao Yangko are as follows: first, it has stage performance, complete business, perfect singing, reading, doing and playing, which is different from the folk dancing Yangko. Secondly, the performance style is full of local flavor. Thirdly, the repertoire is abundant. According to statistics, there are more than 200 plays. Fourth, the language is popular, the lyrics are plain and vivid, the oral customs are strong, and the singing is simple and lively. Fifthly, accompaniment is simple, singing freely. In the early stage, there was only a martial field, mainly drums, gongs and bangles, and there was no literary field. In the later stage, there were additional literary instruments such as string, flute and so on.

Longyao Yangko has a simple singing voice and matches silk bamboo. The study and excavation of Longyao Yangge is of great value to the study of Hebei and even the history of Chinese opera.

Longyao Yangge, which was bred and produced by farmland labor, is not a compilation, branch or subordinate of any other opera, and has its own unique position in the history of Chinese opera.

Longyao Yangge has accumulated abundant traditional operas in the long-term development process. Among these projects, there are not only Longyao Yangge opera, but also other operas. Most of Longyao Yangge's old artists have no culture, so most of its plays have no scripts. They are handed down orally from generation to generation by their masters. There are more than 200 known traditional plays and modern plays created after the founding of the People's Republic. During the peak period of Longyao Yangge, there were more than 200 groups with more than 3000 employees. However, with the death of some old artists, or some of them are old enough to perform on stage. Young actors have made great achievements because of the depression of traditional Chinese opera. Only a few old artists occasionally form groups to perform some minor operas or operas. Longyao Yangko performers are aging day by day, the audience is very narrow, the development has fallen into a low ebb, urgently in need of rescue and protection.

Dingzhou Yangge Opera

Dingzhou Yangge Opera, also known as Dingxian Big Yangge, is an ancient opera popular in the central and western part of the North China Plain, named for its birthplace in Dingzhou. According to legend, it originated from a folk ditty, which was handed down through the collation of Su Shi, a Song Dynasty writer.

Dingzhou Yangko has its unique features in language, singing, mode and repertoire. The opera is easy to understand, clear as words, there are a large number of dialect slang, strong breath of life; male and female singers are mainly in palace mode, singing is the way of the original voice, real voice shouting. Traditional singing has no accompaniment of literary music, no fixed tune door, and the actors set the tune at will. With orchestral accompaniment, the tune value is D. Lining function words are widely used in singing. There are many melodies below the melody, but there are many witty and witty singing methods; the rhythm is dominated by one-sided and one-sided, and there are 28 kinds of traditional slats, which still retain the form of percussion accompaniment (i.e. Dagong tune); Dingzhou Yangko opera is rich in repertoire and covers a wide range of fields, including love, filial piety, official cases, funny and so on.

Dingzhou Yangko has a unique singing style. Traditional operas retain a lot of folklore and humanistic information, and become the first-hand material in the study of Chinese folklore and traditional culture.

Dingzhou Yangko Opera began by singing only in the fields, then on the ground; at first, it was just singing ditties, and then it was compiled into Yangko Opera.

Dingzhou Yangge was compiled into a song book in the mid-Qing Dynasty. Affected by other operas, some folk artists began to wear simple costumes to play characters. After 1926, Yangko artists rose in large numbers and Dingzhou Yangko became popular. In 1952, Dingxian Yangko Opera Troupe was founded and reached its peak in 1959.

After several prosperities, Dingzhou Yangko gradually went to a low ebb. In 1988, the Dingzhou Yangko Troupe was abolished, and actors began to turn to folk activities, performing in groups of 35. Although Yangge has a group of new and old opera fans in the countryside, due to the serious shortage of manpower, material resources and financial resources of the troupe, its performance, whether in scale, number or quality, has fallen far behind the past. Some old artists died one after another and many plays were lost.

In order to rescue this ancient opera, Dingzhou established a leading group for the protection of Dingzhou Yangko, formulated a protection plan, and successfully declared the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage masterpieces, which is a good opportunity for rescuing and protecting Dingzhou Yangko.

Shuozhou Yangge Opera

Shuozhou Yangge Opera is a comprehensive folk art form that integrates martial arts, dance and opera. It is popular in Shuozhou City and the surrounding areas of Jining, Hushi, Baotou and Hetao in southern Inner Mongolia. It also exists in Zhangjiakou of Hebei Province and cities and counties near Shanxi Province. Shuozhou Yangko, which was performed by Yangko Dance Team in the square and street in the early period, has a long history. Wushu was added in the Song Dynasty, and stories were added in the late Qing Dynasty. Later, dance and opera were used in folk activities.

The dance-oriented Yangko is called "kick drum Yangko", which is mainly performed in festivals and birthday celebrations, birthday celebrations, son-in-law worship, invitation to return vows and other folk customs. Yangko is called "Big Yangko". The Dayangge aria concentrates on the local popular folk tunes and draws lessons from the aria structures and tunes of other operas, thus forming a unique "complex" of Banqiang and Qupai. The plays are mainly Taoist stories and folk stories.

Shuozhou Yangko has been popular in the local area for a long time, and has evolved into different art forms, providing fresh materials for the study of the development, spread and evolution of Chinese folk art.

In the 1930s and 1940s, Shuozhou Yangko was seriously damaged. After liberation, artists scattered around voluntarily assembled and gathered to perform in villages and towns. Shuozhou Yangge entered a prosperous period. Besides performing traditional performances, meetings and plays, it also performed transplanted plays. In 1953, the State appointed relevant personnel to assist in the selection of artists with high skills, and organized the new musical troupe of Qishuo County, becoming the first organized performing group of Dayangge. In 1956, the opera troupe was formally renamed Shuoxian Dayang Opera Troupe, which recruited the first actresses and expanded its business. In 1966, the troupe was forced to stop acting. The next year it was dissolved and the artists returned home. Until 1970, the troupe was restored. The artists returned to the troupe again and recruited the third batch of trainees. Twenty-one amateur Yangko troupes were set up in the county. After the end of the Cultural Revolution, the opera gained a new life. In 1977, the historical drama returned to the stage. In 1979, the Art Research Institute of the Ministry of Culture videotaped the traditional opera "clay kiln" of Shuozhou Yangge. In the 1980s, Shuozhou Yangko was once again full of vitality, but after the 1990s, Shuozhou Yangko was challenged in many ways and faced with serious survival problems.

Due to the shortage of editors, the loss of excellent actors, the lack of fixed rehearsal venues, and the serious shortage of funds, the large Yangko Opera Troupe can only participate in some public welfare performances or social activities, and is facing an embarrassing situation.

Fanshi Yangge Opera

Fanshi Yangge Opera is popular in Fanshi County and surrounding areas.

The tune of "Yangge" was introduced to Fenshi and Baima Shi (now Yingxian) in Wanli period of Ming Dynasty. At that time, it was only a kind of square art sung in street stalls. It was called "Yier" by the masses and "Fendi Yangge" by the local name. During the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty, folk artists Zhang Xin and Zhang Dai improved the collection of popular Yangko tunes and instrumental music cards, and absorbed the singing tunes of other operas into the "Yangko" and transplanted the repertoire of other operas to the stage.

There are 86 repertoires of Fanzhi Yangge Opera, more than 70 of which are often staged. Among them, there are early folk operas and gradually developed Lianben Opera. The structure of Fanshi Yangge singing cavity is composed of board cavity and qu-pai body. There are 10 basic boards of board cavity, 17 "tunes" of qu-pai body, and several minor tunes and 75 instrumental music cards.

Fanshi Yangge Opera evolved from folk dance to opera. Its singing tone combines various forms of opera singing, which is of great value for the study of the history of Chinese drama development.

In 1956, Fanshi County Government organized the dispersed artists and formally established Fanshi Yangko Opera Troupe. After the establishment of the troupe, a large number of outstanding actors emerged successively, and formed their own artistic characteristics and styles.

In 2006, Fanzhi Yangge was listed as the first national intangible cultural heritage list by the State Council. Since then, the professional and amateur classes of Fanzhi Yangge have gradually resumed their activities, and traditional operas have appeared on the stage.

Huazhou Yangge Opera

Huazhou Yangko is called Huazhou Yangko Opera, also known as Puyi Opera. Yangko is most famous in Jiangjia Village, Guocun Village, Huitoufang Village, Jiangcun Village of Dongyang Township and Gaotang Township of Chishui Town, Huaxian County.

Huazhou Yangge Opera has a long history. Relevant information records: it originated from the "Nuo Dance" of the Han Dynasty, evolved from the "Village Music" of the Song Dynasty, and flourished in the Qing Dynasty. In 1957, it was named "Weihua Yangko" and "Huaxian Yangko" was called "Huazhou Yangko" in Huaxian Zhi.

From the 1930s to the 1950s and 1960s, Huazhou Yangko was popular for a time. It participated in many provincial and municipal literary performances and won wide acclaim. After a short pause during the Cultural Revolution, Huazhou Yangko revived in the 1970s. In 1975, Huazhou Yangko participated in amateur music and dance performances of the whole province. In 1982, at the "Weinan Folk Literature Census Report Conference", it sold groceries, handled New Year's Goods, Burned Pomegranate Dolls, and Xiaoxijie. Mei and other plays were well received. But in the late 1980s, with the progress of the times, the development of economy and culture and the diversity of culture and art, Huazhou Yangge Opera gradually lost its former prosperity and vitality. The creation and performance market of the opera is declining year by year, the talent shortage and the innovation of the script are stagnating, which makes the Huazhou Yangge Opera on the verge of extinction.

Since 2004, the Huaxian government has used the data of Huazhou Yangko Opera for census, investigation, excavation and collation, supported provincial folk literature artists and playwrights to collect, excavate and collate Huazhou Yangko Opera, and printed and published the book Weihua Yangko. Huaxian Bureau of Culture and Sports employs experts to inspect and demonstrate Huazhou Yangge Opera, excavate its value, and perform more than 30 classical small operas in Huazhou Yangge Opera salvagely. From 2006 to 2007, special people were organized to conduct another survey, collect and collate Huazhou Yangko Opera, forming text and audio-visual materials, recording and video recording of artists, and establishing the art archives of Huazhou Yangko Opera. Huazhou Yangko will be declared as a provincial and national non-heritage protection list. Huazhou Yangko is also inherited by teachers and apprentices at the same time, gradually onto the professional group performance program.

Yangge Opera in Western Diao

In many villages in the western mountainous area of Pingshan County, the folk custom of singing Yangko Opera has been spreading whenever farmers are idle. It originates from agricultural production and labor. Yangko Opera in Pingshan County has its own unique style, so it is called Yangko Opera of Pingshan Diao.

According to the records of Pingshan County, Yangko became popular in the countryside in 1853 (the third year of Xianfeng). It often delayed farming because of singing Yangko. So the government issued a ban. Yangko is east of Shijiazhuang and west of Shijiazhuang. Because of the different dialects in the region, the tunes of Yangko are different, so there are differences between East and West.

Pingshan Yangko, also known as Big Yangko, is a native local opera with only martial instruments, drums, gongs, spinners and cymbals. It takes the form of "seven sings, eight dozens and nine leisures, small jackets, overcoats, plus a shoulder, one singing door to door, two singing and playing stalls, dressers do their own work, people call the burden class".

Every New Year's Day, the temple fair is spontaneously organized by the masses to perform in groups, almost no literati participated, so all of them are oral and heart-to-heart teaching, passed down from generation to generation. Compared with Peking Opera, the Five Big Banks are at the end of their lives, but there is no end.

The plays are all folk trifles, legends, anecdotes and funny stories about parents'shortcomings, beating their wives and training their children.

The singing style of Yangko in Pingshan Diao is euphemistic and pleasant, and the accompaniment form of percussion music with changeable tunes of upper and lower sentences and long and short points has formed the artistic features of popularity, conciseness, easy singing, comprehensibility and humor.

In the late Qing Dynasty, under the word-of-mouth transmission of artist Cui Tianbao, there appeared Li Tongxiang (artistic name "Grasp Xindan") and other people, and formed several major schools. Among them, Tongxiang School has the greatest influence. In 1926 (15 years of the Republic of China), Yangko in Western Diao was still quite common in Pingshan County, and almost every village had Yangko Opera. After liberation, the Yangko in Western Diao was innovated and developed. Some Dynasty operas were adapted and processed. The reforms in tune and music were carried out to try to change the tradition of Yangko without strings and open up the precedent of Yangko hexagram strings. Later, in Guyue Town, Pingshan County, Liu Jiagou Village and Bailongchi Village, there were more than 30 hand-copied Yangko opera scripts in Western Diao. There were also performances in these two villages. But on the whole, it is in a state of few people, difficult to develop, and in urgent need of protection.

Reed Water Yangge Opera

Weizishui Yangge Opera is an ancient folk opera in Mentougou District. It is formed by the combination of Yangge with other art forms such as singing, dancing and opera. Yangge Opera originated in the period of Jiaqing in Ming Dynasty.

The accompaniment of Weizi Shuiyangge Opera is mainly percussion music, mainly consisting of single skin drum and sandalwood board. The whole play only uses gongs and drums, without silk and bamboo. During the performance, we play "guys" for a while and sing a piece of opera. The accompaniment is strong, rhythmic, vigorous and vigorous. According to textual research, Yangko Opera is very similar to Gaoqiang Opera prevailing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (singing alone and joining others in tune, accompanied by percussion only, with high pitch and rich recitation meaning). The Yangko Opera in Weizishui Village has the characteristics of Gaoqiang Opera in the Ming Dynasty, with the main tunes being "gong tune" and "big Yangko tune". Some of them are similar to the Hunan Flower Drum tune. The repertoire includes Zhao Yunjie Jiang and Zhang Fei Catching Ships.

Weizishuicun Yangge Opera has strong local folk opera characteristics. Its repertoire is complete, long history and simple style. It has a certain historical value for the study of folk opera in Western Beijing. It also provides historical data for the study of cultural exchanges and commercial exchanges between Western Beijing and the outside world in history. In addition, the Yangge Opera of Weizishui has enriched the local people's spare time life and become a unique local opera.

Although the props, clothes and musical instruments of the performing team have been updated with the help of the state and the government, due to the old artists'age, the performing team also has the predicament of lacking successors, so it is urgent to cultivate new inheritors.

Qitai Yangge

Qitai Yangko is a folk opera originating from Taigu, Shanxi Province, also known as Taigu Yangko and Jinzhong Yangko. Originated from agricultural labor, it is a folk ditty sung by rural farmer accompanied by agricultural activities. Its origin can be traced back to Tang and Song Dynasty. With the development of society and economy, this folk minor gradually integrates movements, dances, martial arts and skills. It has developed into a "Yangko" and a "Yangge Dance" that can perform and appreciate. After drawing on the essence of folk art in the field, the street singing has gradually developed into a local opera with 388 dramas.

Qitai Yangko is a comprehensive art that integrates music, dance, singing, chanting (Taobai), performing (performing) and playing (Wuyangko), and mainly focuses on singing. Or a play or a play with many melodies, beautiful melodies and lively language. The content mainly reflects the rural life of Qixian, Taigu and Jinzhong farmers, such as labor and love. The plot is simple, the lyrics are mostly paralleled sentences, and the dance movements are lively and diverse. The performance is simple, concise and rough, with a strong sense of life and local characteristics.

In the early days of the founding of New China, there were 71 amateur Yangko Opera Troupes in Qixian County, with over 2000 artists. The Yangko left from the old society, the essence and the dross coexist. In the performance, there are not only the essence art extracted from life, but also the ugly and obscene trash in our life.

In November 1951, Qi County Cultural Museum sponsored the establishment of "Qitai Yangko Research and Reform Society", in the performance reform, has done a lot of "weeding out the old and bringing forth the new". Thus, the unhealthy things were eliminated, a number of traditional Yangko operas were reorganized and adapted, modern operas such as "Choosing a Son-in-law" and "Giving Dowry" were transplanted and staged, and rhythm was strengthened and drums were enriched in terms of voice and music. Some plays are accompanied by strings. From then on, Qitai Yangko gradually moved towards the road of healthy development.

Due to the influence of multi-cultural entertainment and other reasons, the inheritance and development of Qitai Yangko has been restricted to a certain extent, and its survival and development are facing an endangered situation. In order to better protect, inherit and develop Qitai Yangko, Qitai Yangko has been officially approved to be included in the provincial intangible cultural heritage protection list in 2006 according to the recommendation of relevant departments.

Xiangwu Yangge

Xiangwu Yangko is a kind of opera form which is popular in Xiangyuan and Wuxiang of Shanxi Province and Yushe, Zuoquan and Heshun of Jinzhong. It is a folk minor in Xiangyuan and Wuxiang area at first, and then merged with Xihuo Yangko. Under the influence of local language, it gradually evolved into Shangdang area, which is second only to Shangdang Bangzi and Shangdang. A local opera of Laozi.

Xiangwu Yangko began to sing for Ganban. The masses called it Ganban Yangko and Diyuan Yangko. During the reign of Qianlong and Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty, there were semi-professional class activities.

After the first year of Xuantong (1909), Xiangwu Yangko learnt from Shangdang Bangzi in terms of repertoire, performance program, accompaniment musical instruments, music tablets, costumes and stage installations, and even appeared in the form of Dangbangzi singing with Yangko clips, that is, Bangzi singing by those who play officials, Yangko singing by those who play ordinary people, or Bangzi singing with flower faces. Sheng and Dan sing Yangge.

Xiangwu Yangko is the combination of Xiangyuan Yangko and Wuxiang Yangko. Xiangwu Yangko belongs to various folk songs and dances according to the classification method of opera music tunes. The structure of the aria is a slab chamber. The two sentences above and below the aria are a basic unit, changing regularly and repeating. There are two kinds of traditional singing tunes: running water and pool couplets. The style of Xiangyuan Yangko is different from that of Wuxiang Yangko. The former is mainly in the middle tone area, with the characteristics of low euphemism and graceful delicacy, while the latter is mainly in the high tone area, with the characteristics of high excitement and clear and bright. According to textual research, there are 239 traditional operas and 157 modern operas in Xiangyuan Yangge. Most of the actors in traditional dramas are Xiaosheng, Xiaodan and Joker. Their language is easy to understand, their local flavor is strong, and their images are funny. The representative plays are Lan Ying's Into Beijing and Yu Feng Pair. The modern representative repertoire of Xiangyuan Yangge is "Li Youcai's Talk", "Xiao Erhei Marriage", "Lao Balu" and so on.

Xiangyuan People's Opera Troupe is a professional Xiangwu Yangko Opera Troupe. The local government attaches great importance to it and gives some financial subsidies every year. The troupe mainly performs Yangko, sometimes Bangzi and Song and Dance. Compared with other county-level troupes in Shanxi Province, its living condition is better.

Yuxian Yangge

Yuxian Yangko, also known as Weizhou Bangzi, originated in Yuxian County, Hebei Province, and is popular in Zhangjiakou District, Hebei Province, Yanbei, Jinbei District, Shanxi Province and some banner counties in Inner Mongolia. It originated from the folk, developed from the field minor and folk song and slang, absorbed a large number of ancient opera tunes which spread in the northern region in the early stage, and formed a relatively complete Bangzi opera genre. Yuxian Yangge highlights its own characteristics in the form of "dialect vernacular" and the ingenious combination of Banqiang and "Xunqu" repertoire.

Yuxian Yangge originated in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, and formed Bangzi Opera with its own repertoire, music, performance, singing and other contents during the reign of Kangxi. By the time of Tongguang and Tongguang dynasties in Qing Dynasty, there were more than 210 non-governmental classes. The performance market is far from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. After liberation, a professional Yuxian Yangko Opera Troupe was established. In the late period of the Cultural Revolution, it was adapted into a literary troupe and later into a Jin Opera troupe in Yuxian County. In 2005, the troupe resumed the excavation, inheritance and innovative performance of Yuxian Yangko Opera.

Han Cheng Yangge

Hancheng Yangko is a folk art which integrates singing, dancing, speaking and expressing, and has the embryonic form of opera and dance with opera elements.

There are 60 music cards in Hancheng Yangko, with the exception of song heads, song tails, number boards and some variations of music cards, there are about 40 actual music cards. These music cards have different emotional styles, different rhythms, strict restrictions on lyrics, impromptu singing, free play, long or short, funny and interesting. Hancheng Yangko is called "singing Yangko" or "Yangko Opera", rather than "twisting Yangko" or "jumping Yangko", because it always focuses on singing and the main body is folk songs.

The Hancheng Yangko is usually performed by 2-4 people. The program is short and concise, lively and simple. The singing is graceful and graceful, and the dance is lively and vigorous. With the development of the plot rhythm, dancing moves take posture (posture) as "rise", flash as "inheritance", twist as "turn" and jump as "closure"; sometimes "big and medium sets" include small movements, such as body swing, head shake, arm shake, hand twist, leg kick, wrist turn, etc. In short, the dance movements of Hancheng Yangge can be summarized as follows: flicker, twist, turn, run, swing, swing and jump; slow and tight, big and medium sets are small, coincidentally beginning to return, the next earthquake is winding up, in a hurry, in a singing way.

The Ming and Qing Dynasties were the finalization period of Hancheng Yangko. In the mid-Ming Dynasty, some scholars from Hancheng were officials in Zhejiang, Sichuan, Yungui and other places. After their servants returned home, they brought the southern Yangge minor back to Hancheng. They also absorbed a lot of nutrition from operas such as Qin Opera, Pu Opera and Meihu Opera, which made Hancheng Yangge unique.

During the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, Hancheng Yangko entered its heyday. In the second year of Guangxu (1876 A.D.), Han Minqing, a Yangko artist from Hancheng, led the Yangko troupe to Beijing and was recruited by Empress Dowager Cixi to perform in the palace. In the palace, a "Yangko coach" was set up to teach and perform Yangko. In the twenty-five years of Guangxu, Ji Guanying of Zhixian County of Hancheng held a performance of Hancheng Yangko Convention to welcome Zhang Qihua, an imperial official of the Qing Dynasty, which showed the charming charm and exquisite art of Hancheng Yangko.

During the Spring Festival of 1926, Jiande and Tianbao, the red artists of Xue Fengchuan, were the leaders of the Yangko class in their respective villages and set up a platform to sing Yangko in pairs. For a moment, Bo Zhong was inseparable.

In the 1940s, with Meihu, Pu Opera and Qin Opera occupying the stage of urban and rural Hancheng, Hancheng Yangko went downhill step by step. By the 1950s and 1960s, the performance of Yangko was seldom seen in Hancheng.

After the founding of New China, Hancheng Yangko was excavated and injected with new vitality by literary and artistic workers in provinces, prefectures and cities, and a number of new forms and contents of Hancheng Yangko operas were created, which made Hancheng Yangko very popular for a time. Especially in 1963, Yangko operas such as "May Day", "Song of the Flat Bearer" and "Female Club Members" gave special performances in Tiananmen, Beijing. Later, they went to Zhongnanhai to perform, and achieved great success, and were recorded.

Having experienced the silence of more than ten years during the "Cultural Revolution", the reform and opening-up has revitalized the Yangko in Hancheng. In 1985, the "Hancheng Yangko Society" was founded. Subsequently, a series of books of "Selected Hancheng Yangko Opera" and "Hancheng Yangko" were published and published, and the operas and music of Hancheng Yangko were widely collected and sorted out.

In June 2008, Hancheng Yangge was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage protection list.

shanbei yangko

North Shaanxi Yangko is mainly distributed in Yulin, Yan'an, Suide, Mizhi, Jiaxian, Wubao, Zizhou, Qingjian, Yanchuan, Ansai, Zhidan and other areas, while the northern Shaanxi Yangko in Suide County is the most complete, systematic and representative. The Yangko of northern Shaanxi in Suide County can be divided into North Road Yangko and South Road Yangko in terms of artistic style. The representative folk artists of North Road Yangko are Wu Jiye and Li Zengheng. The representative folk artists of South Road Yangko are Su Shuwang, Su Guitang and He Junyi.

In 2006, the Yangge in Northern Shaanxi was named as the national intangible cultural heritage protection project by the Ministry of Culture.

Jiaozhou Yangge

Jiaozhou Yangko is the representative of Jiaodong Yangko, which is mainly spread in Jimo, Huangdao, Jiaonan, Gaomi and other areas in Shandong Province. The area around Jiaoxian County is prevalent, especially around the Dagu River.

Jiaozhou Yangko originally had the names of "ground Yangko", "running Yangko", "three bends" and "twisting broken waist". After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in order to distinguish it from the Yangko in other areas, it was generally called "Jiaozhou Big Yangko" because it was mainly active in the suburbs of Jiaozhou City. Jiaozhou Yangko has 24 performers. If the number of performers increases, they must increase by a double number. The Yangko team needs one or two organizers and leaders who are responsible for the affairs of the whole team, commonly known as "Yangko Master". Another person is the coach or veteran actor of the Yangko Team, called "umbrella head". The umbrella head must have the ability of quick-sighted, flexible and articulate. Before the performance, it must read some pleasant words or say some auspicious words. The language must be funny and humorous. In addition, the Yangko Team has three to five coaches, who specialize in training actors and acting as actors. Yangko's roles are divided into five categories: Cuihua, Fan Nv, Xiao Lian, Drum and Bar Hammer. Generally, there are two or four people in each role, which can't be singular. Cuihua is a young woman and girl. She acts gracefully and extensively, expressing the spicy, open-minded, gentle and quiet character of women. Xiao Liang is a young girl. Her acting is naive, lively and beautiful. Both drums and mallets are middle-aged and young males. The drums are smart and witty, and the mallets are martial and vigorous.

The music accompaniment of Jiaozhou Yangko is usually feather-style folk percussion music with beautiful melody, changeable tone, lively rhythm and strong local flavor. The music of Yangko is closely coordinated with the dance movements. The octave notes used to express the rhythm characteristics of Yangko dance are typical and appropriate. The music is flexibly used according to the dancing mood. They are highly harmonious and unified in strength and speed.


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