Xinjiang Uygur Mukam Art

Home Culture 2019-07-06

Xinjiang Uygur Mukam Art

Xinjiang Uygur Mukam Art is a large-scale integrated classical music art form which integrates singing, dancing and music. It is the general name of "Twelve Mukam" and "Daolang Mukam", "Turpan Mukam" and "Hami Mukam", which are popular in the Uygur inhabited areas of Xinjiang. It mainly distributes in southern Xinjiang, northern Xinjiang and Eastern Xinjiang. The Uygur communities in Xinjiang are also widely spread in large, medium and small towns such as Urumqi. Especially "Twelve Mukam", which is the main representative of Uygur Mukam, is widely spread in the southern Xinjiang region and the northern Xinjiang Yili region.

historical origin

folk culture

Uygur Mukam art originated from folk culture and developed in the palaces and official residences of oasis city-states. Through integrated development, it has formed a diversity, comprehensiveness, integrity, improvisation and popularity of artistic style, and has become an outstanding manifestation of Uygur. Mukam is an excellent classical music of Uygur nationality, which is the title of large classical music suite. It is a huge musical wealth created by the Uygur people, known as the "Pearl of Oriental Music".

In modern Uygur language, Mukam has many meanings, such as rules, norms, tunes and so on. It consists of twelve Mukams, each of which consists of Naqma, Dastan and Maxrap, including songs and music. 20 to 30 pieces, about 2 hours in length. It takes more than 20 hours to complete the 12 Mukam. Mukam has a variety of genres, complex rhythms and rich melodies. Vivid musical image and language, deep and slow classical recitation songs, warm and cheerful folk dance music, smooth and beautiful narrative group songs are unparalleled in artistic achievements. "Twelve Mu cam" is the backbone of Uygur music, the golden key to open the Uygur culture, and the fusion of the essence of China, India, Greece and Islamic classical music.

Twelve Mukam music has a very long history. It inherits and develops the musical traditions of the ancient Western Regions such as "Qiuzi Music", "Shule Music", "Gaochangle", "Yizhou Music" and "Yutian Music". It has formed a complete artistic form in the Han and Tang Dynasties and has had a positive impact on the development of Chinese music. In the sixteenth century, musicians were organized by Queen Amanisahan of Yerkang Khanate to systematically regulate the twelve Mukam music, which was spread among the people, so as to preserve the Mukam music more completely.

There are many different styles of Mukam music, including Kashgar Mukam, Dolan Mukam, Hami Mukam, Turpan Mukam, Ili Mukam and so on. Among them, Kashgar Mukam is the most complete and representative, and it is widely spread in the north and south of Tianshan Mountains. There are ten sets of Kashgar Mukam, so it is customary to call them "Twelve Mukam".

The origin and development of Twelve Mukams are mainly two points in terms of time and regional factors. One is the suite and songs developed on the basis of traditional music handed down from ancient times; the other is the local music, namely Kuqa, Kashgar, Turpan, Hami and Hotan, and Daolang music. This kind of time and regional factors interweave and permeate each other, forming the national mode characteristics of Uygur people's life style, national characteristics, moral concepts and psychological quality. This characteristic is embodied by the unique musical form, playing method and playing instrument. As early as in the Uygur ancestors engaged in fishing and hunting, animal husbandry life period, produced in the wilderness, mountains, grasslands improvised emotional songs, and then through continuous integration, evolution, to the 12th century A.D., developed into a Boyawan suite, which is the embryonic form of Mukam. The official incorporation of "Mukam" into the cultural treasure house of the Chinese nation is closely related to a great Uygur woman, Amanissa (1533-1567 A.D.). In 1547, Amanissa, who loved music and poetry, became the queen of the Yerqiang Khanate, whose capital was Shache in Xinjiang.

King Abdul Resitihan was a knowledgeable and popular Khan. He was a poet and musician; he knew Persian and Turkic poetry and Greek music (Mullah Musa's History of Peace). During his reign (1533-1570), he presided over the rebuilding of the Royal Islamic Academy of Classics and Literature in Kashgar (Khanlakmaidlis) and the relocation of the tomb of Yusuf Has Hajifu, a famous Karahan poet, from the Turman River to the Royal Cemetery (Altunruk), south of Kashgar City. Because old graves are threatened by floods. He is a ruler who loves culture and art at all times and in all countries; besides governing government affairs, his interest lays more emphasis on the development of culture and art, which is understandable; and his combination with Amanisahan, who is also skilled in Uygur culture and art, is natural.


One's native Heath

Shabrook Village, Karsu Township, 50 kilometers from Shache County, is the birthplace of Amanisha Khan.

When talking to the villagers about the princess, their faces were filled with pride. Many women here regard the princess as a "spiritual placebo". When a man goes to the mosque to worship during the festival, the women in the village will quietly stand in the direction of the former residence of the princess and silently tell the princess their thoughts or good wishes.

Amanisahan was born in a poor family by the Daolang River, the land of singing and dancing. From her childhood, she developed her interest in music and poetry and her super talent. Later, she grew up to be a famous Uygur calligrapher. Playing the pool is her masterpiece. She sang Pangil Mukam with her own lyrics, which once moved Abu Djeti Khan, who was hunting past here.

The Mother of Mukam

Under the influence and advocacy of Queen Amanissa Khan, Abdul Resitihan, who had been fascinated with culture and art, ordered Uighur musicians, singers and poets scattered in Kashgar and Yerkang to collect and organize Mukam movements circulated among the people in the palace. Among them, Isila Angzimukham, written by Amanisahan himself, has become an important part of Twelve Mukham, which has been handed down from generation to generation. She is a musician as well as a poet. Her masterpieces "Beautiful Poems", "Virtue" and "Thinking of the Mind" make her famous throughout the Khanate. As a female artist, her outstanding artistic talent has also had a far-reaching impact on the development of Uygur culture and art.

During this period, the first standardized Muqam Suite was formed, which was divided into 16 parts at first, and then evolved into 12 Muqam. The main success was Omanisahan, the source of the twelve Muqam. Omanisahan was the mother of the twelve Muqam.

A competent assistant

No one can replace the powerful assistant of Amanisahan and the famous court musician, Yusuf Khadir Khan, in this large-scale project. Yusuf Khadir Khan is a Yerkang. According to historical data, the famous Uygur musical instrument Rewafu came from his hands; the stringed bowel strings were changed to silk strings, which was also the outstanding music master; the beautiful tone and rich expressive force of Uygur musical instruments were inseparable from his achievements. His profound attainments in music and literature have given him an astonishing prestige in the Yerkand Khanate and even in Central and Two Asian regions: many people travel thousands of miles across the town Gobi, from Iraq, Iran, Tiberiz, Huroshan, Huaruzi, Samarkand, Andijan, Istanbul, Kashmir and Banri. He and Shiraz learned music from him.

Before he actually compiled Mukam music, his poems had been widely circulated throughout Central Asia. The vast majority of the music and tunes in the Mukam movement handed down to this day were arranged and processed by him. It is no wonder that he has a prominent position in the court of the Yerkang Khanate. In his spare time, Abdul Resiti Khan liked to call in celebrities from all walks of life and listen to them deliberately for discussions and debates on poetry, music and religious academics, while Yusuf Khadir Khan became an inseparable adviser and bosom friend of the Khan.

The era has created such an unparalleled group of talents, and these talents together have made remarkable contributions to the great progress of Uygur culture and art. Thanks to their joint efforts, the Yerkang Khanate became an ideal center of Mukam art at that time. Mukam music and dance, with Kashgar Yierqiang as its important birthplace, spread widely to the north and south of Tianshan Mountains in the next few years, and formed Mukam with local characteristics and local names, such as Daolangmukam, Hami Mukam, Ili Mukam, etc., which developed in the history of Shaogur music and dance. It has played an immeasurable and tremendous role.

Timur's Contribution

Timur Dawamaiti is a contemporary Uygur national leader in Xinjiang who cherishes, actively supports, vigorously advocates and has made great efforts to promote Uygur Mukam.

Mukam artists, scholars and even the common people in Xinjiang all praise and admire his contribution to Uygur Mukam. Uygur Mukam, widely spread in Xinjiang, is the crystallization of the wisdom of the Uygur people, the artistic spirit in the hearts of the Uygur people, and the indispensable spiritual companion in their lives.

Temur Dawamaiti wrote in his memoir The Course of Life: "I have loved Twelve Mukams since I was young and regarded them as my own life. For this reason, I have worked hard for them with all the experts and scholars of Twelve Mukams." Under the organization and leadership of Timur Dawamaiti, China has held three international symposiums on Mukam. In addition to China, there were many well-known foreign scholars attending the conference. These meetings have benefited Chinese scholars and artists from learning, understanding and drawing lessons from the world Mukam, which has also promoted the academic research and artistic performance of Chinese Uygur Mukam.

Representative Works

"Daolang Mukam", "Turpan Mukam", "Hami Mukam", "Twelve Mukam" and so on

Inheritance Significance

Uygur Daolang Mukam is an important part of the twelve Mukam. It originated in the tenth century A.D. and has been handed down till now. It is an invaluable treasure in the cultural heritage of the Chinese nation and one of the precious heritage in the rich national cultural treasure house of the Uygur people. She is now only preserved in the area where the people of Daolang Uygur live. Her melody is not influenced by other Mukam or other local music. She always maintains strong local characteristics and national color, representing the ancient Uygur Mukam.

The Uygur Daolang Mukam in Maigaiti County, Xinjiang, is a unique local folk culture in Maigaiti County. It is inextricably linked with the Daolang Mukam circulated in other places and various Uygur Mukam in Xinjiang. At the same time, it has relatively independent artistic characteristics and has high artistic value.

With the spread and integration of culture, people's memory of traditional culture is becoming more and more indifferent. The function of Daolang Mukam as a cultural expression in the Uygur people's Festival ceremony and life etiquette is gradually weakening, and its inheritance is in crisis. There are not many old folk artists who can play and sing in Megati County, and few of them can complete nine preludes. Therefore, the relevant departments must take rescue and protection measures to make it inherited in an orderly manner.

The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, Xinjiang Uygur Mukam Art was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.

In August 2005, the Chinese Academy of Art was commissioned by the Ministry of Culture to organize a national review meeting on China's declaration of representative works of the world intangible cultural heritage. The "Xinjiang Uygur Mukam Art" has become a pre-selected project for China to declare the third batch of "representative works of human oral and intangible heritage" to UNESCO.

On November 25, 2005, the "Xinjiang Uygur Mukam Art" project submitted by the Chinese Government was selected into the third batch of UNESCO "representative works of human oral and intangible heritage".