Xinjiang Opera, commonly known as "Xinjiang Xiaoqu", is a kind of local opera with unique style, which has been gradually formed and perfected after Shaanxi Opera, Qinghai Pingxian Opera, Lanzhou Drum Opera and Northwest Folk Song were introduced into Xinjiang. Hami and Barikun, which are mainly popular in eastern Xinjiang, Urumqi, Changji, Yili, Tacheng and Korla and Yanqi in southern Xinjiang, are local dramas created and shared by Han, Hui and Xibo nationalities in Xinjiang.
There is no written record of the formation of Xinjiang Opera. According to the artists'legend, around the seventh year of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty (1857), Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai immigrated to Xinjiang. A large number of Hui and Han people brought opera and opera forms such as eyebrow, Tao and sentiment to Xinjiang. Afterwards, influenced by the life and art of the local nationalities, they gradually formed their own opera types. Early activities of Xinjiang Opera were performed in temple fairs or fairs in the form of amateur self-music classes (also known as "pedestals"). Since the 1930s, some opera troupes began to perform locally in various ways, thus expanding the influence of Xinjiang opera.
In the long-term spread process, a branch of the Xibo people flowed into Yili and absorbed the music and dance of the Xibo people. It became the Xinjiang music of the Xibo people and began to sing in Chinese. In 1944, after the Revolution of the Three Regions, dramas reflecting the national life were produced and sung in Xibo language. In 1958, the Xinjiang Quzi Opera Troupe of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture was established, which was the first state-owned professional opera troupe of this kind. In order to distinguish it from other provinces and regions, it was officially named "Xinjiang Quzi Opera". Xinjiang opera music singing belongs to the syntheses. Its music originated from the original "Ping" (Qinghai Pingxian), Fu (Xining Fu Zi), Yue (Shaanxi Opera), Drum (Lanzhou Drum). With the passage of the times and the evolution of culture, the "Fu Tune" gradually merges with the "Ping Tune", and the "Drum Tune" mostly falls into the "Yue Tune". In addition to the "four major tunes" mentioned above, folk songs also account for a considerable proportion. Xinjiang Opera also absorbs the music of various ethnic minorities. In the accompaniment instruments of early Xinjiang operas, strings were mainly composed of three strings, four HUS and banhu.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, with the support of relevant departments, this kind of drama has made new development. After the 1956 Xinjiang Autonomous Region Opera Workshop Conference, the Xinjiang Opera Troupe of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture was established in 1958 on the basis of investigation and observation, as well as the organization of talks with veteran artists. This is the first state-owned professional theatre troupe of this kind. In order to distinguish it from other provinces and regions, it was officially named "Xinjiang Opera". Drama". The troupe recruited students, trained actors, and, while digging and sorting out traditional plays, adapted and performed "Fish and Mussel Margin" in early 1959. Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Xinjiang's music has shined again. In 1981, the Urumqi County Cultural Museum created and organized performances such as "Hard-necked County Order". In 1982, the Xinjiang Opera Troupe of Hutubi, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, also created and performed modern operas such as "Tiantou Storm", "Spicy Sister" and "Mind". At the same time, it made some innovations in music singing.
Xiaoqu has a profound cultural heritage in six towns in Manas. There are self-music classes for Xiaoqu in villages and villages.
Music for voices in a Chinese Opera
Xinjiang opera music singing belongs to the syntheses. Its music originated from the original "Ping" (Qinghai Pingxian), Fu (Xining Fu Zi), Yue (Shaanxi Opera), Drum (Lanzhou Drum). With the passage of the times and the evolution of culture, the "Fu Tune" gradually merges with the "Ping Tune", and the "Drum Tune" mostly falls into the "Yue Tune". In addition to the "four major tunes" mentioned above, folk songs also account for a considerable proportion. The melody of the "flat tune" repertoire has always been dedicated to tone work, mostly through the whole time. The title of the repertoire is also the name of the play, such as "Shili Dun" and "Dao Bao". "Overtone" is the main component of Xinjiang opera music. In the process of spreading and evolving, it has been perfected and developed continuously, and many new tunes have been derived. Now, besides the "Gang Tune" and "Wu Geng" tunes, which are similar to the original tunes and are similar to the original tunes, other tunes have changed greatly. Commonly used tunes are "Yuetou", "Yuetou", "Yuetou", "Beigong", "Hard Xijing" and so on. Xinjiang Opera also absorbs the music of various ethnic minorities. For example, the Salar tune used in the traditional opera "The Blind Man Watches the Lamp" originated from the Salar folk songs in Xunhua County of Gansu and Qinghai Province, and the Tianshan Ling and Camel Guest used in "Fake Grand Ye Langyuan" originated from Uygur folk songs. The matches and lanterns in Chi Xin Ai She are from Xibo folk songs.
In the accompaniment instruments of early Xinjiang operas, strings were mainly composed of three strings, four HUS and banhu. Percussion music is mainly composed of tiles, also known as four-page tiles (bamboo), a total of four pieces, two pairs of one, the singer holding a pair of left and right hands to play; flying son (also known as fling son), playing method is to use the edge of the upper fan to knock down the fan bowl. Watts and flyers are used to master the rhythm, set off the atmosphere and enrich the performance effect. Since the 1950s, accompaniment instruments have been constantly enriched, with pennies and martial arts. Wenchang has three strings, Banhu, Erhu, Zhonghu, Yangqin, Pipa, cello, flute, sonar, flute, clarinet; Wuchang has bandrum, tooth, drum, bracelet, gong, cymbal, water bracelet, wooden fish and so on.
The lyrics of Xinjiang operas can be classified into elegant and vulgar. Those who belong to historical stories, heroes and boudoirs are elegant in language, while those who belong to folk stories and legends are relatively popular and fluent in language. For example, "Zhang Lian sells cloth" in a section of Zhang Lian singing: "That year you harmed dolls, all you want to eat a big pumpkin... Mules, carts, pulls, pulls, pulls and pulls to our house, cuts, cuts, cooks a pot of big pumpkin..." This kind of opera often uses dialect and local language, which shows strong, vivid and interesting flavor of life. The Tao Bai of Xinjiang Opera used to use Shaanxi pronunciation from time to time, and Xinjiang pronunciation from time to time. It is not standard, and it is difficult to form its local characteristics. After a long period of practice and research, the Taobai of Xinjiang Opera is refined and processed with the standard pronunciation of Jimusar County dialect in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, which has become a stage art language.
Xinjiang Opera is a local opera in Xinjiang, which is still in the process of formation and improvement. Although it has the role of industry, it is not complete. Characterized by Xiaosheng, Xiaodan, clown-based, other lines of business. The evolution of the role of Xinjiang Opera is influenced by Meihu Opera, Qin Opera Opera and Lanzhou Opera. It has undergone a long process of development. On the basis of sitting and singing, it has gradually emerged from scratch, from imperfection to perfection, and now it has developed into a role-playing system mainly based on "three small".
There are many kinds of rows. Among them, the poor were born in poverty, wearing green robes (pleats), high-soled boots and black scarves, such as Wang Yi in "Three Sons for Father". Rich and noble children are the children of wealthy families. They have decent faces and ugly children (also known as ugly children), wearing gowns (folds) and scarves. Wen Xiaosheng is a scholar of letters, such as Fu Peng in Collecting Jade Bracelets. There are many luxurious and elegant Taoist gowns (folds). Wu Sheng often wears jewelry and bowed boots, Luo caps or tips, such as the auditorium meeting in Sanchakou. Old folklore, known as "White Three Shoots", wears bronze or gray Taoist robes (folds) and old hair buns, such as Zhang Gengru of "Three Sons for Father" and Liu Ziming of "Baking Bowl Plan". Must be commonly known as "black sandwich", such as "sitting in a building" Songjiang.
Danxing can also be divided into many kinds. Among them, Xiaodan is a gentle, honest and pure unmarried woman, such as Sun Yubo in Collecting Jade Bracelets. Boudoir Dan is a lady with elegant manners, such as Lianxiang in Tiger's Mouth Margin and Xiaoguxian's sister-in-law. She usually wears a long skirt with water sleeves. Huadan is a cheerful, lively, enthusiastic and bold young woman, such as Meixiang in Li Yangui's Selling Water and Yan Xibao in Killing Towers. They dress differently and usually wear more short jackets. Spicy women, such as Jiao Shi in "Killing Dogs and Advising Wives", usually wear fancy costumes, some wear pairs of silk and skirts, or some wear plain clothes because their families are poor. Zhengdan is a dignified and respectful middle-aged woman, who is divided into officials and poor people. Officials play the women of a rich family, while poor people play the women of a poor family, such as Liu's in The First Scholar and Beggars. Wadan is a naive girl, such as the aunt of Tiger's Mouth Margin, who wears short children's clothes or jackets and pants. Lao Dan is an old woman. She usually does not wear a headdress or stick a film. She wears a bun or a bun on her head. She wears a long skirt, such as the Queen Mother of Zhang Lian's Selling Cloth and the Cao Mother of "Killing Dogs and Advising Wives". The matchmaker is a good-spoken matchmaker or a cruel old woman who is 40 years old, such as Yao's in Xiaoguxian and Wang's matchmaker in Changing Old and Young. Wudan is a woman who is good at martial arts, such as Sun Erniang in "Cross Slope" and Yang Paifeng in "Jiao Zan". She usually wears battle dresses or improvements.
There are many kinds of scandals. Among them, clowns, rich and poor, are all sexually cunning, non-professional people, such as "Zhang Lian sells cloth" Zhang Lian. According to family background, there are those who wear ugly clothes and small waistbags, others wear tuanhua gowns (folds) and tapestry, and some wear quadrangular caps and felt caps. Old clowns are the older and the wrong-minded, such as the joy of Changing Old and Young, and Chen Jishan of Shepherd Boys and Ladies. They wear clothes outside the staff, scarves and clouds. Wudan is a knowledgeable martial artist with quick and quick movements, such as Liu Lihua in Sanchakou. Generally wear black bow boots, felt caps, waist scarves, but also wear jewelry, fast boots, straps.
Zhang Lian sells cloth, picks up jade bracelet, Sanchakou, Hukouyuan, Cross Slope, Herdsman and Lady, Old and Young Exchange, Hukouyuan, Li Yangui sells water, kills buildings and sits in a building, etc.
Zhang Lian sells cloth is a traditional costume opera of Xinjiang opera. Through the contradiction between a couple, Zhang Lian praises diligence, kindness and idleness. The performance was lively and interesting. As Zhang Lian sings, "In that year, you harmed the doll, and you were determined to eat a big pumpkin... Mules, carts, pulls, pulls, pulls and pulls to our house, cuts, cuts, cooks a pot of big pumpkin..." With dialect and local language, it seems that life is full of flavor, vivid and interesting.
Xinjiang is a region inhabited by many nationalities. All nationalities have jointly created rich and colorful culture in Xinjiang. The historical evolution, formation and development of Xinjiang operas also reflect the characteristics of absorbing and drawing lessons from each other, which has special cultural value. Therefore, the protection and fostering of the opera is of great practical significance and far-reaching historical significance for strengthening national unity and promoting the common prosperity of all ethnic cultures.
The content of Chinese opera covers China's long history and culture, and Xinjiang opera is a part of Chinese opera. After Shaanxi Opera, Qinghai Pingxian Opera, Lanzhou Drum Opera and Northwest Folk Song entered Xinjiang, it gradually formed and perfected a local opera with a unique style by integrating the multi-ethnic music and art of Xinjiang.
Xinjiang opera originated from folk life and has strong folk and local characteristics. It is close to life, the masses and the reality. It is very popular among the Han, Hui, Xibo and other ethnic groups. Its form of performance is lively and lively with songs and dances; its music is rich and melodious; its language is funny and humorous, and easy to understand. It is really popular and appreciated by the masses. It can not only perform traditional plays, but also create modern plays more conveniently, because it has not yet fully formed a rigid performance program. Through long-term performance in the countryside, it has been proved that Xinjiang Opera not only carries the national history and culture, cultivates people's moral sentiment, but also vividly expresses folk customs, and more adapts to the appreciation habits and aesthetic tastes of the masses. Xinjiang Opera is a kind of opera developed on the basis of self-entertaining "self-entertainment class" which widely exists among the masses. It is a cultural progress and also a need for the construction of socialist spiritual civilization. Therefore, it can not be retrogressed, let alone extinct.
These changes are inevitable for the development of history, but there are also many problems. For example, the ageing of performing artists. At present, the youngest artist is over 40 years old, no matter Barikun or Hami, so the inheritance and development of Xinjiang's music is facing a crisis. In addition, the lack of effective inheritance, protection and support policies is also a problem that can not be ignored. Although Xinjiang Opera has been listed in the national non-legacy list, in the process of its protection and inheritance, the local mainly built some platforms for competitions and performances, and did not dig its essence in depth, and closely linked it with the spiritual needs of local people and folk beliefs, which will inevitably affect Xinjiang. The long-term development of music.
The existing operas in Xinjiang, such as Beijing Opera, Qin Opera and Henan Opera, are all introduced into the opera genre, while Xinjiang Opera is the only local opera singing in Chinese in Xinjiang, which is more rare in the country. Xinjiang Opera Troupe is also the only one in the country. The troupe undertakes the historical mission of inheriting the opera. Therefore, it is necessary to give special protection to the opera and special support to the troupe.
It is true that Xinjiang opera is not as mature and powerful as Beijing opera and Henan opera, nor does it have the facelift of Sichuan opera and Longjiang opera and the brilliance of handkerchief playing, but it can not die out. So, how to develop this unique opera art? I think, in addition to the hard work of opera performers, the government's strong support is particularly important. Peking Opera is a good example. Through the ups and downs, the charm of Peking Opera is not fading, which is inseparable from the strong support of the government. Many nationalities and regions in China also have some new operas, such as Longjiang Opera and Jiju Opera. Their history is shorter than that of Xinjiang Opera. However, due to the leadership's attention and appropriate measures, they have developed into a full-featured opera.
The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the opera was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.