Xihe Dagu

Home Culture 2019-06-30

Xihe Dagu

Xihe Drum is a form of drum script and drum music in northern China. It is one of the traditional quyiqu. It is widespread in Hebei Province and in the surrounding areas of Henan, Shandong, Beijing, Tianjin, Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. In the process of spreading, there have been such names as "Dagushu", "Meihua Diao", "Xihe Diao", "Hejian Dagu" and "String Zigu", which were named Xihe Dagu in Tianjin in the 1920s.

Xihe drum was developed from wooden drum. Its founder was generally regarded as Ma Sanfeng, an artist of wooden drum. It originated in Daoguang and Xianfeng in Qing Dynasty. In the early period, Xihe drum mainly composed of middle and long bibliographies of rap and singing, such as "General Yang Jia" and "General Hu Jia". After Xihe Drum entered Tianjin, it developed rapidly. Many famous artists appeared, including Beikou Zhu (Hualin) School, Wang (Zhenyuan) School, Nankou Li (Dequan) School, Zhao (Yufeng) School, and the short-term Ma School founded by Ma Zengfen and his father Ma Lianden in the 1940s, which made Xihe Drum School flourish. It shows a colorful artistic style.

The performance form of Xihe Drum is one person hitting the copper plate and the book drum to rap, and a special person playing three strings accompaniment. Its singing tone is concise and vigorous, its style is like talking and singing, and its charm is very unique. The traditional bibliography of Xihe Dagu has more than 150 long and 370 small sections. Most of the contents are war stories, historical romances, folk stories, popular novels, myths and fables, jokes and so on. Many of these bibliographies reflect the thoughts and feelings of the working people to varying degrees, with twists and turns in plots and vivid language, and inherit the fine traditions of Chinese folk literature. In 2006, Xihe Dagu was listed in the first national intangible cultural heritage list.

development history

Name Source

Xihe drum was developed from wooden drum. Hejian was the main birthplace of Xihe drum. It originated in Daoguang and Xianfeng years of Qing Dynasty, and was popular in Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Tianjin, Beijing and parts of Northeast and Northwest China.

Relevant experts investigated that the original name of Xihe Dagu was "plum blossom tune" (which is still called "plum blossom tune" by the elderly in the rural areas of central Hebei Province until it was introduced into Tianjin before it was renamed "Xihe Dagu". Because Tianjin people used to call Daqing River and Ziya River as Xihe River, and the original plum blossom drum is the most developed in these two river basins. In order to distinguish the two, the plum blossom tune from Jizhong is called "Xihe Tune".

historical origin

Xihe Drum was born in the "string book" and "single drum board" in the middle of Qing Dynasty. "String Zishu" originated from "Drum Ci". During the reign of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1736-1795), it was very popular in rural areas of central Hebei Province. Artists embraced strings or three strings, played and sang by themselves, and spoke and spoke with each other. "Single drum board" is also known as "wooden drum board", which originates from "words". According to legend, during the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, three artists, Liu Chuanjing, Zhao Chuanbi and Wang Lu, from Baoding Prefecture, jointly put "string Zishu" and "single drum board" on the same stage, and used drum, board and string together. Folk artists followed suit and became popular in Hebei Province.

Xihe Drum originated in Xianfeng and Tongzhi Periods of Qing Dynasty. The first artist should push horse three peaks. Ma Sanfeng (the date of birth and death is unknown), the original name of Malihe, Hun No. 3 madman, Gaoyang County. Shicheng Hejian Boardboard Drum Artist Bai Yufu. In many years of artistic practice, he not only consolidated and perfected the accompaniment system of the combination of wooden drum and string book, and the combination of drum and board string music, but also changed the small three strings to the big three strings to increase the volume and expand the range. The sound quality was improved by replacing wooden simple board with steel lunar bud board. At the same time, the board drum has only one board and one eye, which is expanded to head plate, two board and three board type. The old tunes of Leather Spring, Bangzi, Bangzi and Jizhong folk songs and slang melt into the tune of the drum, creating new tunes such as double high, counter-tune, tight five sentences, one horse and three jian. Thus formed the basic form of Xihe Drum.

This singing system was inherited and developed by his disciples Zhu Hualin (1866-1941), Wang Zhenyuan (1853-1917, Mao Bi, Xiongxian people), Wang Zaitang (1865-1942, Turning Eye King, Xiongxian people), and gradually matured Xihe Drum. Zhu Hualin's contribution seems to be greater. In the process of performing arts, he collected local folk tunes extensively, and learned martial arts, accumulated rich life experience and profound artistic experience. On this basis, Ma Sanfeng's reform achievements will be further strengthened to make them more standardized. Zhu Hualin's artistic style pursues "handsome", "smart" and "smart", which is called "Zhu School" in the industry. Wang Zhenyuan's artistic style is famous for his loud voice and heroic manner, which is called "Wang School" in his profession.

Maturity Period

Before and after the Revolution of 1911, the transformation from wooden drum to Xihe drum had matured. In the countryside, the way of "catching up with temple fairs" was the main way to rap and sing novellas, which was popular in the countryside of Hebei Province. Some artists entered the city to make a living. The closest city to its birthplace is Tianjin. The earliest performers to Tianjin were Zhang Shuanglai, Jiao Yongquan, Jiao Yongshun, Zhang Shide, Zhang Shiquan, Bai Wensheng, Bai Civilization, etc. At that time, there was no name for Xihe Drum. They were still called "plough bamboo piece" or "plum blossom tune" in rural areas, and some were called "storytelling".

In 1924, Wang Fengyong of Yixian County cooperated with Liu Baoquan and other famous artists in Tianjin's "Four Seas Rising Peace". When writing posters, he named Xihe Drum because Jin Wanchang had sung the plum blossom drum (also known as "plum blossom tune") in Tianjin. Because this kind of music comes from the Daqing River and Ziya River basins, Tianjin people are accustomed to calling these two rivers Xihe and Xixia River, so they get their names. Although it was named by accident, it was recognized by its peers because it accorded with the actual situation of the variety.

After Xihe Dagu entered Tianjin, it first "dropped the ground to talk" in the area of Xicheng Gener, then moved to the storytelling studio in the initial period, with the library and Tea Club as the main performance venues, and gradually developed into the form of long rap books. As a result, many actors continued to improve their "bookways" and their singing voice was placed in a secondary position. As a result, some people abandoned singing and changed their voice into commentary books. Actors, such as Xianshizhang, Zhang Qirong, Zhang Shuxing, Zhao Tianliang, etc. These people still perform with the original drum book's "book road" after commenting on books. Generally speaking, they lack the delicate description, knowledge intersection and comment on the book's love story, but they can make the plot compact, and they can also be welcomed by many audiences, forming a balanced trend with commenting on books.

Others mainly sing short passages and participate in various performances in comprehensive music theatres. On the basis of the original short passages, they learn from the popular drums such as Jingyun Dagu. They use Xihe Dagu tune and sing fixed scripts to enrich their singing performance, improve their singing skills and perform in the comprehensive music theatre. For example, Jiao Xiulan and Jiao Xiuyun who travel to and from Beijing and Tianjin, Ma Zengfen, Ma Zengfang and Wang Yanfen who settled in Tianjin, have all made some achievements in developing the short section of Xihe Dagu. In the 1930s, the "Zhao School" represented by Zhao Yufeng appeared in Tianjin, the "Hao School" formed by Hao Yingji and her children (Hao Qingxuan, Hao Yanxia, etc.), and the "Ma School" represented by Ma Lianden and Ma Zengfen's father and daughter before and after the founding of the People's Republic of China, which made Xihe Dagu School appear in a rious way and displayed a colorful artistic style.

Boom period

From the early period of the Republic of China to the mid-1930s, Xihe Dagu entered a period of prosperity, and a number of people emerged, such as Li Dequan (1869-1932, formerly known as Li Pibing, Dacheng County), Wang Yunfeng (1869-1937, Dingxing Ren), Wei Jukui (1875-1946, Qingyuan County Ren), Zhao Yufeng (1894-1971, artist Zhao Shuanghe, Hejian City Ren), Cai Baoguang (1898-1976, Gaobeidian Municipal) and other well-known and distinctive actors.

Li Dequan sat in the book of Kexian Zishu, and later found the strengths of Xihe Drum and changed to sing Xihe Drum. In his art, he pioneered the second plate tail cavity and standardized the common tunes, thus creating the "Beikou" of Xihe Drum, which is called "Li School" in the industry. Wang Yunfeng's characteristics are "vulgar", that is, popular diction, easy to understand and memorable doctrine, which is very popular with the public. Wei Jukui's artistic style is simple but elegant, euphemistic and sincere. Zhao Yufeng was known as the "Zhao School" in Beijing and Tianjin because he had been acquainted with Liang Dianyuan, a Book critic, and got acquainted with Gao Fuan, a student of Beijing Opera. He was able to introduce the "button" of the book critic and the "body" of Beijing Opera into the singing of Xihe Drum, which was quite in line with the fashion of Beijing and Tianjin. Cai Baoguang learned not only the ingenuity of "Zhu School" but also the impulse of "Wang School", and became his own style. His fame rose at that time, which had great influence in Baoding area.

Low tide period

In the period of the Anti-Japanese War and the War of Liberation, the Japanese-puppet occupied areas in Hebei and the Kuomintang-controlled areas under the rule of the Liberation War, the opera artists had difficult livelihoods, the popularity of the literary world, the vulgar content of the bibliography, and some female artists were subjected to inhuman humiliation. At this time, Xihe Dagu has fallen into an extremely tragic Valley in the city. In contrast to the occupied areas and the areas under the control of the Kuomintang, the art of folk art in the anti-Japanese base areas and the liberated areas in the Jin-Cha-Ji border area under the leadership of the Communist Party of China has received considerable attention and has become a powerful weapon to propagate the masses and attack the enemy.

Xihe drum artists in the liberated areas of central and Western Hebei, such as Wang Kuiwu, Wang Zunsan and Li Guochun, have made due contributions to the cause of people's liberation by using Xihe drum as a fighting weapon.

A period of prosperity

After the founding of New China, Xihe Dagu gained new life. Xihe Drum is the most popular, bibliographic and widely distributed music. Xihe drum artists, cooperating with the central work of the Communist Party of China, have contributed to the socialist transformation and construction by speaking new books and singing new words. Many artists have come out of the mountains again to show their skills, such as Wang Shuxiang, Wei Bingshan, Li Chenglin, Zheng Ruitian, Zhu Xiaochun, Li Quanlin, Gao Qingen, Li Yuede, Wei Dequan, Wu Yingzhan and other famous artists, revitalizing the music world. Ma Zengfen returned to Beijing opera circle, learned a lot from Zhu Xiaochun, a famous choreographer, and later cooperated with his father, Ma Lianden, to create a new Ma-style female tune. Wang Yanfen returned to Baoding from Beijing and participated in the provincial Quyi experimental team. In 1957, he broadcast "Hujia Jiang" on Hebei Radio, causing a stirring effect. At this time, many famous and old actors accepted their apprentices, such as Liu Dexin of Lixian County. Since 1949, there have been more than 40 Christians and more than 20 disciples. Liu Dexin, together with Wang Yanshun, Liu Desan and Li Baoguang, received more than 200 apprentices and was called the "four families" of Xihe Dagu in Lixian County. Bai Jianzhang, Zhang Junping, Zhang Xiaodi, Li Chuntian, Li Xiaohong, Chen Dezhao and Zhao Changfa were also well-known actors at that time. Others were Ma Junying (female), Duan Shaofang (female), Ren Lianjun (female), Zhao Lanzhang (female), Zhao Haofen (female), Zhang Xinyan (female), Song Wen, Liu Huanzhang, Liu Yanqin (female), Wang Zengying, Liu Suxian (female), Xu Yinchun, Li Lian. Kui, Zhao Lianfang, Tao Yanxia (female) and Guo Jinling (female) are also outstanding actors of Xihe Drum emerging in succession during this period.

In order to strengthen the leadership of Quyi work, Hebei Provincial Cultural Administration established quyi working group in July 1954. In 1956, the provincial folk artists were registered and assessed. More than 3,860 artists were issued professional performance certificates. There were no fewer than 2,000 Zhonghe drum performers. In 1959, a Quyi School was founded in the province. The main type of Quyi was Xihe Dagu, and a number of new people were trained. In 1960, Hebei Quyi Working Group and Hebei Quyi Workers Association held a symposium on Xihe Dagu School in Tianjin, capital of Hebei Province. The history of Xihe Dagu and the singing arts of various schools were discussed and studied. The development of Xihe Drum has entered the best period in history.

Recovery period

In 1962, with more than 3,000 rural professional artists being devolved to the countryside and the disbandment of provincial Quyi schools, the development of Xihe Dagu was once frustrated. During the "Cultural Revolution" in the mid-1960s, a large number of traditional bibliographies were lost. After the reform and opening up, Xihe Drum gradually recovered. The creation and performance of Xihe Drum have achieved gratifying results, and a group of new people stand out.

In 1984, Liu Xiaomei of Baoding performed the new novella "The Soul of Lotus" in the countryside, which was valued and encouraged by the leaders. It was broadcast on Hebei People's Broadcasting Station and expanded social influence. Some artists, such as Liu Huanzhang of Renqiu County and Liu Fengxi of Cangzhou, who have been engaged in storytelling and family studies for generations, have also been revitalized.

Tianjin Opera Troupe also has young actors Hao Xiujie (daughter of Hao Yanxia), Yang Yaqin and so on. Yang Yaqin specializes in short passages, while Hao Xiujie plays both in long books and short passages, becoming familiar actors to Tianjin audiences.

Inheritance and Protection

Since the middle and late 20th century, the inheritance and development of Xihe Drum has experienced an unprecedented crisis, which is in danger of extinction and urgently awaits rescue and protection.

The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the opera was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.

Accordingly, all over the country has also increased the protection of the ancient art of Xihe Drum.

Since July 2009, Hejian City of Hebei Province has launched the protection and inheritance activities of national intangible cultural heritage projects, formulated a long-term plan for the protection and inheritance of national intangible cultural heritage, allocated special funds. The inheritors of Xihe Dagu Project are tutors, carefully compiled and printed inheritance textbooks, purchased training equipment, and selected and recruited students of the right age for transmission in schools.

On the morning of December 27, 2010, Sun Wanxiang, the blind inheritor of Xihe Dagu, a intangible cultural heritage project in Hebei Province, formally accepted Zengtai, Zhang Zengrong, Zhang Zengshuang and Bai Zengchen as apprentices, thus taking an important step for the promotion and inheritance of Xihe Dagu.

He used "oral delivery" to teach students, and the students he taught were quite successful. He won many prizes in national, provincial and municipal competitions.

In the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage project successors list, Wu Zhenying of Hebei Qunyi Museum and Zhang Lingdao of Hejian Municipal Cultural Museum are both successors of Xihe Dagu. Wu Zhenying and Zhang Lingdi are both famous drum artists of Xihe River. Zhang Lingdi has skillfully combined the Zhu School and Zhao School in singing and created new singing tunes with their respective strengths. In order to inherit the art of Xihe drum, Wu Zhenying has begun to accept Zhang Lijing as an apprentice.

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