Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Club
Xiaolan Town, located in the middle of the Pearl River Delta, is an important town in Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province. Xiaolan has the reputation of "Chrysanthemum City". Chrysanthemum culture runs through Xiaolan's history. At first, there were "Chrysanthemum Trial" and "Chrysanthemum Society" and other non-governmental organizations. Later, it gradually evolved into the annual "Yellow Flower Club" every 10 years. In the Jiaxu year of Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty (1814), 10 chrysanthemum societies jointly held a large chrysanthemum festival, which was held once in 60 years when the ancestors settled in Xiaolan.
Xiaolan people are good at making potted chrysanthemum with exquisite skills. Every time chrysanthemum blossoms in history, various families put all kinds of chrysanthemum art together to appraise, called "chrysanthemum test", and then developed into chrysanthemum fair. The duration of the meeting varies from several days to more than ten days. The activities mainly include chrysanthemum appreciation, chrysanthemum contest, chrysanthemum chanting, chrysanthemum painting, chrysanthemum tasting, water color floating, chrysanthemum drama and so on. Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Club takes flowers as its medium and chrysanthemum friends as its companion. It is exquisite in skill and large in scale, which constitutes a unique comprehensive folk traditional flower festival.
On May 20, 2006, Xiaolan Chrysanthemum will be listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
The Origin of Appreciating Chrysanthemum
Southern Song Dynasty
Xiaolan people love chrysanthemum cultivation, which has a long history. It is said that in the nine years of Xianchun in the Southern Song Dynasty, Duzong left to track down Hu Fei, and the residents of Zhujixiang in Nanxiong moved southward. Some refugees fled to Xiaolan in the 10th year of Xianchun (1274 Jiaxu), where the land was fertile, the climate was mild, the yellow chrysanthemum was everywhere and the fragrance flowed with gold, so they settled and reclaimed and built their homes. From then on, Xiaolan people and chrysanthemum formed an indissoluble bond.
the Ming dynasty
The breeze of Xiaolanyi chrysanthemum has been flourishing, and the cultivation of chrysanthemum is very common. According to the article "Landscape and Landscape Mapping of Lianglan" written by Li Sun-chen, the Li Ren in the Rilang Shangshu of Nanjing in Ming Dynasty at that time, there were already praises of "Sanya Water on Wusong Six Road, a 12-hole plum blossom bridge, endless chrysanthemums at the age of five, drinking wine and appreciating flowers Village in the poetry circle", which sufficed to show that Xiaolan people at that time had a good artistic chrysanthemum, and gathered three chry Five bosom friends, drink wine and enjoy flowers, so it has become a habit to rejuvenate.
The reign of Kangxi in Qing Dynasty
The level of Xiaolanyi chrysanthemum has been further improved, and a set of systematic experience has been gained in the cultivation of chrysanthemum, such as shaping and heart removal, maintenance and management. According to historical records, at this time, new species have been introduced from Shanghai and other places, which has increased the variety and color. Some gentry and merchant officials'homes in the countryside, on the basis of leisure and leisure, follow the example of Tao Ling Weier Hedge, and the style of artistic chrysanthemum flourished in the past. At this time, Xiaolan has been called "Xiaochaishang" reputation.
The First Year of Qianlong
Xiaolan began the chrysanthemum test. "People in the countryside like chrysanthemum not to fear the cold and frost, and appreciate its various flowers and meaningful and elegant aroma. In the first year of Qianlong Emperor of Qing Dynasty (1736), there was a contest for chrysanthemum. According to Xiangshan County Chronicle, the chrysanthemum test is to collect the famous species planted by the villagers when the chrysanthemum flowers are in full bloom, set up the appreciation and appraise the top and bottom. In the contest, a flower shed was built in front of the ancestral temple in the countryside, famous flowers were displayed and evaluated in different venues, and the chrysanthemum was chanted, ranked and elected as an official. The chrysanthemum was evaluated according to the criteria of "three no", i.e., not taking off leaves, not crossing branches, not kneeling feet; the "three yarns and six tops" model was adopted, and the Dali chrysanthemum branch art was first used, and the first prize was given to yarn, Satin towel, satin towel and kneeling feet. Fans and other articles.
However, five years after Qianlong, because Xiaolan's famous chrysanthemum "a handful of snow" was lost, the chrysanthemum trial was no longer held, instead, "chrysanthemum club" was replaced by "chrysanthemum club". Every year, when chrysanthemum blossoms, people gathered all kinds of good chrysanthemum in the club "couplet with two or three bosom friends, under the fence, before the Suoju blossom". Regarding the chrysanthemum club, He Dazuo, a person in the Qing Dynasty, wrote in the book "Elegant Crumbs": "People in the chrysanthemum club are not prepaid, they pay for nothing, unlike the chrysanthemum test, but collect and cut comrades and friends of chrysanthemum, move all the good things to the club, scatter the stars, incense screen paintings, morning and evening, or drink poetry, or even music, its prosperity. Turn the play, the night lights brilliant, until dawn extinguished, the viewer forget tired, distant visitors Sao Yishi, every chrysanthemum festival, often come by boat, chant a lot. After the end of the club, there was a cable flower as a donator, and the boat was loaded with flowers. "
In Qianlong's 47 years, that is, 1782, the "Chrysanthemum Club" expanded in scale, renamed "Huanghua Club" and transformed the former Chrysanthemum Club into a small group participating in the Chrysanthemum Fair. At that time, every village in Lanxiang had decorations. The chrysanthemum farms in every village not only set up chrysanthemums, but also set up flower terraces, flower towers, flower bridges, and acted to boost the performance. There were more than ten performances alone. In the evening, lights and colours were put up all night, and visitors were very crowded.
Nineteen Years of Jiaqing
In 1814, Xiaolan people held a grand chrysanthemum Congress to commemorate their ancestors'settlement, and agreed to hold a chrysanthemum Congress every Jiaxu year (that is, every 60 years). In the thirteenth year of Tongzhi (1874), in 1934 and 1994, the Great Chrysanthemum Fair was held successively, and a total of four Jiaxu Chrysanthemum Fairs were held.
In order to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the first Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Exhibition was held in New China. More than 4000 pots and more than 100 varieties of chrysanthemum were exhibited. In the aspect of chrysanthemum art, a new pattern of creation was created. For the first time, the mural "Peace Pigeon" with chrysanthemum was built 10 meters wide and 7 meters high, which caused a sensation. The media has reported a lot of times, calling Xiaolan "Chrysanthemum City". Since then, "Chrysanthemum City" has become Xiaolan's reputation, widely known.
It is in the period of the Great Cultural Revolution, and all the flowers of culture and art are withering. Under the strong demand of Xiaolan people, we broke through the resistance and held a small chrysanthemum exhibition called "horticultural exhibition".
A Chrysanthemum Exhibition was held. The Congress is divided into the main court of the People's Park and the Miaoling Palace of Dalan, and three flower streets are also arranged. More than 30,000 pots of chrysanthemum with more than 800 varieties were exhibited at the conference, and many famous traditional species were reappeared. The celebration activities are rich and colorful. The audience was 600,000. The greatest achievement of this chrysanthemum meeting is to use the spring breeze of reform and opening up, "Huang Hua Chuan Friendship, the grand gathering to narrate the feelings of the homeland". Hong Kong Lanzhen Township Association organized a group to visit the exhibition and became the first community in Zhongshan to restore contact with his hometown after the reform and opening up. Since then, after 30 years of disconnection, overseas Chinese and compatriots from Hong Kong and Macao have returned to their homes and made indelible contributions to Xiaolan's economic development and various undertakings.
It is the 60th Annual Annual The conference has three major exhibition areas, namely, New Town, People's Park and Riverside, and four major exhibition venues, Yongning, Jiuzhou Ji, Zhuyuan and North District. It has 31 flower streets with a total length of 16 kilometers. The exhibition covers an area of 10 square kilometers, exhibiting 820,000 pots of chrysanthemum, 1568 varieties and more than 50,000 pots. The cultivation techniques of Dali chrysanthemum are more advanced. Among them, 43 circles of "white peony" Dali chrysanthemum and 42 circles of "green clothes and red clothes" have set the highest number of flowers per plant of Dali chrysanthemum in the world, and "white peony" Dali chrysanthemum has also been identified as the largest in the world. During the conference, 17 exhibitions such as "Xiaolan Town Construction Achievement Exhibition" were held. More than 20 performances by literary, artistic and sports groups were organized both inside and outside the province. A number of books and periodicals were also published. During the conference, a series of economic and trade negotiation activities were also held. Many leaders of the central, provincial and municipal governments were invited to attend the conference. Guests and businessmen from home and abroad gathered, and the media flocked in. Six million people attended the exhibition. The 4th (Jiaxu) Chrysanthemum Conference showcased Xiaolan's exquisite chrysanthemum art level, greatly promoted Xiaolan's economic development and urban and rural construction, and further expanded exchanges with domestic and foreign. "Let the world know Xiaolan, let Xiaolan go to the world", the 4th (Jiaxu) Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Congress is recorded in the annals of history.
The New Century Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Appreciation Meeting was held.
The Chrysanthemum Culture and Art Festival in Xiaolan Town was held. In July 2003, Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Culture Promotion Association was established to vigorously promote the development of Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Culture.
Xiaolan Town held (Jiashen) Chrysanthemum Culture and Art Appreciation Meeting, with the theme of "Charming Xiaolan, Showing the New Charm of Chrysanthemum Art". New breakthroughs have been made in the exhibition and chrysanthemum art. A single standing chrysanthemum with 6211 flowers in 45 circles and a giant chrysanthemum dragon with 168 meters stretching length have both set the Guinness World Record in Shanghai; a 23.26-meter-high "ornamental chrysanthemum building" with chrysanthemum decoration and 247 different varieties of Dali chrysanthemum grafted on a single plant have been listed in the Guinness World of Britain. Record book. During the chrysanthemum festival, the Ministry of Culture awarded Xiaolan the title of "the hometown of Chinese folk art (chrysanthemum culture).
Xiaolan Town folk chrysanthemum varieties exhibition and appraisal were held.
In May 2006, "Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Club" became the first batch of "national intangible cultural heritage". Chrysanthemum spirit has been integrated with Xiaolan people, which embodies the spirit of Xiaolan people who are united, diligent and brave, struggling and innovative. It has become a powerful driving force for modern Xiaolan people to grasp the opportunities and explore various brilliant undertakings.
The 9th China (Xiaolan, Zhongshan) Chrysanthemum Exhibition was held in Xiaolan. The theme of the exhibition is "Autumn Rhyme of Chrysanthemum City and Chinese Love". There are 25 provinces (cities), autonomous regions, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, 44 cities and 123 units in Japan, Korea and Malaysia. The exhibition area includes Xindi Park, Jiangbin Park, Longshan Park and People's Park. The exhibition area is 300,000 square meters, and 460,000 pots of chrysanthemum are displayed, with nearly 1800 varieties. 513 varieties of 13 circles of grafted chrysanthemum and imitation Tengwang Pavilion chrysanthemum building landscaping were listed in the Guinness World Records. During the conference, the "2007 China (Xiaolan, Zhongshan) International Chrysanthemum Seminar and the 16th Annual Meeting of China Chrysanthemum Research Professional Committee" were also held. The number of visitors to the Chrysanthemum Fair reached 3 million. The Chinese Landscape Architecture Society awarded Xiaolan Town the title of "Town of Chinese Chrysanthemum Art".
As one of the series of activities celebrating the 30th anniversary of reform and opening up in Xiaolan Town, chrysanthemum gathering was held with the theme of "celebrating great changes, congratulating Shengping and extolling Party grace". Since the 2008 Chrysanthemum Fair, the name of the Chrysanthemum Fair has been unified as "Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Fair", and the opening date has been fixed as November 23. Each chrysanthemum Festival has different themes.
It is the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. The theme of Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Club is "China in a flourishing age, celebrating the whole world". Chrysanthemum will use its unique chrysanthemum culture to show Xiaolan's brilliant achievements. Among them, "water color turn" and "Xiaolan light rail" become two highlights.
Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Fair coincides with the grand event of Guangzhou Asian Games. For this reason, the theme is "fitness for all, better life". The chrysanthemum scenery, such as the greenway landscaping and the small dragon boat (five-man airship) race, is vivid and full of vitality. Chrysanthemum Fair shows the fruitful achievements of scientific development and social harmony in Xiaolan Town.
It coincides with the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China and the 100th anniversary of the 1911 Revolution. Therefore, the theme of the chrysanthemum meeting in 2011 is "praising the Party's grace, following the Party, opening new businesses and creating happiness". In Longshan Park and Riverside Park, there are exhibitions of Dali Chrysanthemum, Taju, Columnaria, Cliff Chrysanthemum, Variety Chrysanthemum, Chrysanthemum Bonsai and Chrysanthemum Art Models. More than 30 chrysanthemum scenic spots are arranged and more than 150,000 pots of chrysanthemum are displayed, which shows the inheritance and development of Xiaolan chrysanthemum cultural tradition. The landscapes of the former residence in autumn, 1911, Nanhu Red Ship, Jinggang Holy Fire, Yan'an Pagoda, and pioneering and innovative projects demonstrate the centuries of struggle for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and sing the theme of the era of the good Communist Party, socialism, reform and opening up, and the great motherland.
The Origin of Jucheng
Xiaolan is also known as "Chrysanthemum City", "Chrysanthemum City", which is a well-known name for women and children all over the world. Many people know that chrysanthemum started, but few know when to call it. In fact, "Chrysanthemum City" was spread by a Chrysanthemum Exhibition in 1959.
1959 was the first Chrysanthemum Exhibition held by Xiaolan after the founding of the People's Republic of China. This chrysanthemum Festival not only inherited the traditional art of chrysanthemum, but also created a new style of modelling. For the first time, Xiaolan people built a huge mural of "Peace Pigeon" with chrysanthemum, which is 10 meters wide and 7 meters high. They also made huge slogans and designs with chrysanthemum, and exhibited a large number of large standing chrysanthemum, cliff chrysanthemum, tower chrysanthemum and products. Growing chrysanthemum. Although the exhibition lasted for seven days, the audience was nearly 300,000. Zhujiang Film Studio also produced a special documentary called "Chrysanthemum". Some newspapers and magazines inside and outside the province reported the grand chrysanthemum festival day after day. Xiaolan was praised as "Chrysanthemum City". Since then, "Chrysanthemum City" flower events have become increasingly prosperous.
Xiaolan is unique in Chrysanthemum art. It is the traditional 4th Jiaxu Chrysanthemum Congress in 1994 that makes the "Chrysanthemum City" famous at home and abroad. There were more than 820,000 pots of chrysanthemum and 1,568 varieties of chrysanthemum. Among them, 113 pots of Dali chrysanthemum with more than 1,000 flowers per plant attracted more than 6 million tourists from 23 countries and regions.
Xiaolan people love chrysanthemum and grow chrysanthemum, so they have the reputation of "Chrysanthemum City". There are countless chants about chrysanthemum from ancient times to modern times, which left a valuable cultural heritage to this land rich in chrysanthemum. Xiaolan people cultivate and tie chrysanthemum traditional art from generation to generation, and continue to carry forward, especially tie chrysanthemum, Xiaolan people are more skillful skills, constantly refreshing the world record.
Xiaolan's chrysanthemum festival will be amazing every 60 years and 10 years. The chrysanthemum festival will be characterized by "nature, humanities, flowers, chrysanthemum city", with chrysanthemum landscaping as its main feature, highlighting the cultivation techniques. The beautiful scenery of chrysanthemums with different shapes is a grand gathering of Chrysanthemum Culture in Lingnan. After the reform and opening-up, Xiaolan Town took advantage of chrysanthemum culture, holding a medium-sized chrysanthemum Fair every three years, holding an annual chrysanthemum appreciation meeting, and making the Chrysanthemum Exhibition a major carrier to display the mass culture and art of Xiaolan Town.
Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Club is the most concentrated expression of Chinese chrysanthemum culture, with strong participation of the masses, profound cultural connotation and high historical and cultural value. At the same time, chrysanthemum has a noble character, which has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. The small olive chrysanthemum which inherits chrysanthemum culture will play an important role in cultivating temperament, improving the cultural literacy of the masses, promoting cultural exchanges with foreign countries and building a harmonious society.
Since the development of Xiaolan Chrysanthemum Club, its scale and most of the chrysanthemum art have been inherited, but some famous chrysanthemum species have been lost, some traditional characteristic chrysanthemum art has been replaced by modern decoration, and the inheritance of artistic chrysanthemum skills has become less and less.