Wool Textile and Rolling Techniques
Flower felt is the most popular among all ethnic handicrafts in Xinjiang, and it has a long history. Felt caps from the 1st to 3rd centuries A.D. are among the cultural relics unearthed at Lop Nur Loulan Site, an important post on the Silk Road, and numerous felts, felt boots and other relics unearthed later in Xinjiang. The "brocade felt" mentioned in "Wei Shu Xiyu" refers to flower felt. In Han Dynasty, it is called "felt" and "shi" and so on. In the poem Hu Teng Er written by Li Duan, a poet of Tang Dynasty, there are sentences of "raising eyebrows and striking eyes on the flower felt". There are four kinds of flower felt in Xinjiang: patch felt, printing felt, embroidery felt and rolling felt.
On June 7, 2008, wool textile and rolling technology was approved by the State Council and listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. Record .
Flower mat: Uygur called "Sirdak", is the most widely used variety of Kazakh, Mongolian, Kirgiz, Tajik and other nationalities living in pastoral areas. It uses color cloth or felt shears, and is opposed to complementation. The patterns are mostly lamb horns, branches, cirrus clouds, water patterns and other styles. The tone of the patterns is bold and bold, and the color contrast is strong.
Printed felt: Uyghur is called "Basmarguerik Ikezi". The printing method is the same as that of the earth-printed base cloth. When making the blanket, lay it on the line, lay a different layer of background color on different areas according to the need, draw out the edge line, and use black, also known as "black leather", then print different patterns with different colors, delicate patterns, gorgeous, and many varieties of patterns. But the pattern durability of this kind of felts is poor, the felts themselves are good when used, and the patterns are already totally different, so this kind of felts is not very popular.
Embroidered felt: Uyghur is called "Kathy Tank Ikezi". It symmetrically embroiders various patterns on the felt with the method of color silk thread lock and plate needle. It is well-made and time-consuming. This kind of felt is mainly laid on the theme of the living room, is one of the old noble articles, mainly popular in the upper class society. Hetian, Moyu, Cele and Yutian are the most popular areas.
Rolling felt: Uyghur is called "Tanlimat". This kind of rolling felt takes a lot of work to make, but it is firm and durable, with clear patterns and elegant appearance. This kind of felt has been widely spread in Xinjiang.
The procedures of rolling felt are as follows:
(1) Shell hair. Choose the best wool, preferably the lamb wool of that year. Carefully check the dirty wool, spread the wool on the clean mat curtain manually three times, so that the wool is soft, all the wool scattered.
(2) The thinner colored felt dyed and woven beforehand, cut out the required shape, and put all kinds of patterns on the curtain. According to the pattern requirements, the elastic colored wool should be filled in the middle of the pattern, and different colored wool should be added on the four sides to make the flow comb pattern. This is the most complex handicraft work in the felt. Craftsmen do not need to put together drawings completely by experience. Some craftsmen have more than 100 kinds of patterns in their minds, which are arranged according to people's requirements and constantly have new patterns. After the color picture is laid out, the elastic wool is laid on the top. The wool should be evenly laid and empty. The wool is actually the base color of the felt. After the wool is laid, the hot water is sprayed once.
(3) Roll up the straw curtains sprinkled with water, laid with wool and patterns, tie the ropes tightly, and begin rolling. Four to six people tread rhythmically to roll the curtain back and forth with their feet. Unfold the curtain in about an hour and take out the preliminary formed felt.
(4) Drag the tapestry straight on the paved curtain and sprinkle hot water again to dissolve the wool keratin completely, and then roll it into one. In order to make the felt smoother, people also roll the blank into a barrel. Several people roll the blank on the curtain with their elbows again and again. The edge of the blank is constantly pulled apart and flattened, repeatedly until the craftsman approves it.
(5) Drying. Flatten and straighten the rolled felt and air it on the wooden pole, but keep it from being exposed to the sun. After drying, a beautiful felt is made.
Uygur felt patterns are influenced by Islamic culture. They are mainly made of plants and flowers. Generally, there are no animals or characters. There are dozens of varieties such as Abu Du Wa pattern, Anaguli pattern, Peony pattern, Mulberry pattern, Taji pattern, Sesame pattern, Tuan pattern, Chrysanthemum pattern, Safflower pattern, Claw-tooth pattern, Window lattice pattern, Comb pattern, Badamu pattern, Rose pattern, Papillar pattern, Double-Papillar pattern, etc.
She said that the precious silk products are mainly due to the precious raw materials and hard work. It uses raw silk as warp and cooked silk of various colors as weft, and the price of mulberry silk is very expensive. In order to ensure the quality of silk products, the best silk will be selected. Making techniques include falling, pulling, ascending, crossing and overturning. Techniques include leveling, scraping, hooking, shuttle, knot, three-blue scraping, ink scraping, etc. It takes half a year to finish a silk reeling work and two or three years to finish it, depending on the size of the picture and the complexity of the pattern.
Another exhibition hall displays a number of finished products, beautifully mounted, the pattern color transition symmetrical. Cheng Miaoxin said that the more uniform the pattern color transition, the more time-consuming, because the silk is "through longitude and weft breaking" technology. After the warp thread is worn on the loom, the weft silk is needed. The more complex the pattern is, the color of the silk thread needs to be changed many times on the same latitude line, and the change of the line is very time-consuming and labor-consuming.
Speaking of Dingzhou silk can not bypass Shen Zifan, he is a silk craftsman of Song Dynasty, whose ancestral home is Mengjiazhuang, Dingzhou, known as "Disheng". During the Southern Song Dynasty, under the oracle of the Holy Oracle, he assumed the post of weaving inspector and supervised the history of weaving. The special administrators run Silk fangs and weaving courtyards, which promoted the development of the weaving industry in the south of the Yangtze River. In the local Shenzifan Cultural Square, there are also statues of him.
China News Agency, Beijing, Feb. 16 (Reporter Yan Xiaohong) In 2014, China's wool textile exports to the EU and the United States increased significantly. The European and American economies are expected to be better in 2015, and China's woolen textile exports are expected to benefit from it.
Reporters learned from China Wool Textile Industry Association on the 16th that the total import and export volume of wool textile raw materials and products in China was 16.289 billion US dollars in the first November of 2014, an increase of 4.43% over the previous year. Among them, total exports amounted to $12.474 billion, an increase of 8.27% over the same period last year.
European and American markets tend to have strong demand for Chinese wool textile products, and the performance of the two markets is relatively prominent. Over the same period, China's woolen textile exports to the EU and the United States increased by 8.33% and 13.59% respectively over the same period last year, increasing by 1.78 percentage points and 10.58 percentage points respectively. Although the total export volume of Chinese wool yarn declined slightly, the export volume of wool yarn to the United States increased by 65% year on year.
According to the latest IMF forecast, global economic growth is expected to accelerate slightly from 2015 to 2016, rising from 3.3% in 2014 to 3.5% in 2015. Among them, the economic growth rate of the United States in 2015 is projected to be 3.6%, 1.2 percentage points higher than that in 2014: the economic growth rate of the euro area is 1.2%, 0.4 percentage points higher than that in 2014.
Industry experts say that the economic growth expectations of major developed economies are good, which will have a positive impact on China's wool textile industry. The export growth of wool textile raw materials and products in 2014 illustrates this point
Dubai will launch the International Textile Fair
The Gulf Times reported that the first Dubai International Textile Fair was held at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The organizers believe that this development will further promote the textile industry in the Middle East with a scale of $56 billion .
Reported that the United Arab Emirates is the largest textile consumer market in the Middle East, Dubai has been the hub of regional textile trade for decades. In 2011, the United Arab Emirates imported textiles amounted to 13 billion US dollars, and the textile industry revenue reached 13.2 billion US dollars. From 2006 to 2011, the industry revenue increased by 9.9% annually. According to the data of Dubai Statistical Center, Dubai textile production increased from 383.5 million US dollars in 2007 to 448.2 million US dollars in 2011, with an average annual growth of 4%.