Forest chant is a traditional folk song in Northeast China. It is a kind of song sung by woodcutters who are engaged in carrying wood in the forest. As the saying goes, "trumpet". At present, this kind of forest trumpet still exists vividly in today's Changbai Mountain forest, which provides conditions for rescuing and protecting this precious natural ecological culture.
On June 7, 2008, the forest trumpet was approved by the State Council to be included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.
The forest trumpet is a kind of song sung by woodcutters who are engaged in carrying wood in the forest; the forest trumpet of Changbai Mountain is a kind of song sung by woodcutters when carrying wood in Changbai Mountain, as the saying goes, "trumpet".
The trumpet is the natural voice of people when lifting wood. The leader of the lifting wooden people "bars head" (also known as trumpet head) will lead the singing. The others "pick up" (also known as receipt number) will make it easy to walk neatly and make the wood leisurely, so as to equalize the pressure and carry the wood.
Since the forest and logging, the forest chant has never stopped. It has lived in the forest of Changbai Mountain for thousands of years. However, in recent years, because the forest is in the stage of stopping mining and protecting, and the mechanized transport of wood can be carried by the crane in the log yard, which makes the activities of lifting wood less and less, so the number of such forest chants is becoming less and less. And the old loggers who used to sing this kind of chant are getting old and dying, which makes the forest culture which has been circulating for thousands of years difficult to be inherited and in a real state of endangerment.
However, because the forests in Changbai Mountain need to be "cut down" every few years in order to make the forests transparent and ventilated, and in addition to mechanized timber transportation, some timber yards organize some forestry workers to lift timber. In fact, this kind of forest trumpet still exists vividly in today's Changbai Mountain forest, providing conditions for rescuing and protecting this precious natural ecological culture.
Wonderful music, clear rhythm, rich content and legendary stories of forest chant truly record the life form and ideological connotation in the course of human development of nature, have distinct local characteristics, show the outstanding cultural creativity of the working people in Changbai Mountains, reflect the survival wisdom and humanistic spirit of the people living here, and are the excellent culture of the Chinese nation. Important remains. Forest chant also has high academic and practical value, conveying a lot of wisdom and beauty of life. Its rich content, basic characteristics and inheritance history have distinct characteristics and unique charm in all kinds of cultures created. In recent years, it has gradually attracted the attention of experts and scholars at home and abroad. To excavate, rescue and protect the forest slogan of Changbai Mountain can not only enrich the traditional culture of the Chinese nation, but also make an important contribution to the protection of the world cultural heritage.
Because the forest chant originated from the local folk labor life, developed in the vast forest harvesting groups in Changbai Mountains, after continuous processing and inheritance of "bangtou" (people who lead the chant), the forest chant has become a collective culture used by the forest harvesting gang and a cultural achievement of the unique wisdom of "chant head". This not only represents the collective thoughts and emotions of forest logging workers, but also inherits the full individuality of each trumpet leader, the creative subject.
The forest chant of Changbai Mountain has become a work of comprehensive artistic elements and cultural significance including literature, music, behavior, singing, and even life identity and Ideological Expression of speaking to each other.
The content of the slogan includes philosophy proverbs, folk proverbs, allegorical sayings, folk stories, jokes and legends, etc. It is an encyclopedia reflecting the life and natural features of the people in Changbai Mountain Area. The genre of chant has not only a loose body which can be created temporarily and at any time, but also a complex which can be used continuously for several days or longer, and also a long narrative song. Although the singing method of chant is relatively fixed, the rhyme and rhyme of lyrics are often full of diversity and infinite changes.
Starting and receiving numbers are the important characteristics of Changbai Mountain forest chant. The first sentence of the initiator often decides the success and communication ability of the initiator, which is mainly reflected in the voice and time of the initiator. The initial tone of each trumpet is particularly important. The size, height, thickness and strength of the trumpet all determine the strength of other callers, the pace, and even the control of transportation distance and time, which are controlled by the trumpet.
One kind of tune, many kinds of contents, this is another important characteristic of Changbai Mountain forest chant. A fixed tune has long been remembered, so that everyone can "walk on the number". Lifting wood is a kind of work form of concerted efforts. Chant is to use its own rhythm to regulate people's pace, so it is called "walking on the number", which is the role of tuning. The change of the content of the chant is completely accomplished by the chant head, and his "change" should also be carried out in the same regulation. This kind of change can only be the change of words. We can find different words in the same tune and instruct people to carry wood together.
The beginning content of the trumpet makes the trumpet colorful and varied. From the beginning of "waist-hung" to "support up", "step forward", "go forward", until he saw scenery and sentiment on the way to lift wood, the expression of material comparison, not only for everyone to relieve boredom, but also "command" when jumping up (springboard). When it comes to the "ridge" (wooden pile or car), how to put the wood, where to land first, and so on, it is his "chant" to "command". This makes the content of chant changeable under the fixed tune, which fully reflects the unique connotation of forest chant in Changbai Mountain.
The main characteristics of forest chant in Changbai Mountain are as follows:
Various types: In addition to Lifting Wood Chant, which is mainly represented by Lifting Wood, Lifting Wood Chant, Lifting Wood Chant and Drawing Big Rope are also popular.
The contents are varied: there are not only folk proverbs and idioms, but also many local dialects such as proverbs and slang, as well as life philosophy mottos, stories and legendary caps, etc.
Movements are varied: the singer sings the trumpet with the same steps, but the hands, waists and steps are beautiful and peculiar, which gives people a sense of movement beauty in the heavy scene.
The forest chant of Changbai Mountain is a kind of improvised ballad created by the librarians. Owing to the improvisation of the scenery, many unique creative wisdom of the "King of Chants" have been retained. Repeated description of a person, a scene, an action, but not boring, do not appear to repeat. This is mainly the chant through adjusting the pitch height, thickness, length and size, which satisfies the audience's psychology and produces charming rhythm. Moreover, although the rhythm is fixed, because of its creativity, it never tires of listening.
The forest trumpet of Changbai Mountain is an indispensable part of the life of the loggers in Changbai Mountain. People often say that if there is no trumpet in the forest, there will be no spirit in Changbai Mountain, which is true at all. This kind of trumpet sound drifts in Changbai Mountain people's life from time to time. It has become an unforgettable melody in people's life and is closely related to the people living here.
The value of forest chant in Changbai Mountain includes:
1. The Value of Anthropology and Folklore
The forest chant of Changbai Mountain is based on the background of logging, lifting and transporting timber in Changbai Mountain. It is the voice of life when people are engaged in hard and dangerous physical labor, which makes this culture have important anthropological and folkloric values. Here, we can not only see the background of human dealing with cruel nature, but also reflect the various thoughts, emotions and virtues of human caring for relatives and enduring hardships and hardships. If women are not allowed to move forward, it expresses the ideological virtue that men can bear hardships to face life and death, and not let their relatives and weaknesses move forward. This slogan comprehensively, profoundly and vividly describes and preserves the concept of human existence and cultural tradition in Changbai Mountains.
2. Unique artistic value
Changbai Mountain Forest Chant is a collection of folk tunes, folk songs, Yangko hats and duet talks in Northeast China. Many Chant Kings are also excellent performers of this folk art. They also created chants through their own experience of lifting wood, thus making the chants have their own unique rhythm and rhythm.
More importantly, it has its own personality characteristics.
It is the feeling of lifting wood every time, expressing the psychological state of people in every period, and recording the complex living background and space of people. The slogan is an important foundation for the study of Changbai Mountain culture and Northeast regional culture.
3. Important Resources for the Harmony of Human Spirit
The trumpet produces a sound that is chanted when people are carrying wood under heavy pressure. Man's voice under heavy load is the need of human physiology, but more importantly, the need of human spirit. The chant is of great harmony to the construction and development of human life. It is the result of the integration of human and natural ecology.
Lifting wood and singing chants is good for the body, is the need of the natural structure of the human body, and is a part of the movement of human life.
When starting the number, the number is sometimes a directive sentence, such as "hang up". Sometimes it is a direct word "hey" or "cough", which is the natural expression of people when they are heavily stressed.
The trumpet song is an important resource for studying the structure of human life, which is of great scientific value. At the same time, the forest slogan truly embodies the typicality and representativeness of human cultural creation. Labor created the forest chant, which itself recorded the course and form of human existence.