White Tea Making Skills Fuding White Tea Making Skills

Home Culture 2019-04-03

White Tea Making Skills Fuding White Tea Making Skills

brief introduction

The production technology of Fuding White Tea is the central process of creating Fuding White Tea. It has superb production method and unique scientific and artistic charm. Its inheritance is closely related to the history of white tea. In the early years of Jiaqing in Qing Dynasty, silver needles were made from the strong buds of Fuding vegetable tea. Around the sixth year of Xianfeng (1856), Dabai Tea was cultivated as a good tea plant. In the twelfth year of Guangxu (1886), silver needles were made from the buds of Dabai Tea, which was called Baihao Silver Needles. It opened a new history of white tea manufacturing. On the basis of inheriting the ancient tea-making method, Fuding White Tea is mainly made by withering and drying processes, and the technological production process is in the form of waterline. Fuding White Tea has excellent quality characteristics, thanks to its long-standing production skills.

historical origin

White tea was originally created by Fuding in the early years of Jiaqing in Qing Dynasty. At that time, the strong buds of "Fuding Vegetable Tea" were used as raw materials to make silver needles; about six years after Xianfeng (1857), Fuding bred a good variety of Dabai Tea, in Guangxu twelve years (1885), it began to make silver needles from Dabai Tea Buds, called Baihao Silver Needles. The history of making white tea opened the first page in Fuding. Later, white peony tea, Gongmei tea, Shoumei tea and new technology white tea were produced, which greatly enriched the theory and practice of white tea production technology.

basic content

1. picking

According to the temperature, white tea picks jade white buds and leaves to develop fresh leaves, so as to achieve early picking, tender picking, diligent picking and net picking. Buds and leaves become blossoms, uniform in size, with short stalks. Light mining and light handling. Bamboo baskets for loading, storage and transportation.

2. withering

The bamboo tablets for picking fresh leaves should be laid out in time with uniform thickness and can not be turned over. After spreading green, according to climatic conditions and fresh leaf grades, indoor natural withering, compound withering or warming withering can be selected flexibly. When tea reaches 70% or 80% dry, indoor natural withering and multiple withering need to be screened.

3. drying

Initial drying: dryer temperature 100 - 120 C, time: 10 minutes; cooling: 15 minutes. Re-baking: temperature 80-90 C; low temperature long-baking about 70 C.

4. preservation

The moisture content of dried tea should be controlled within 5% and put into ice storage at 1 - 5 C. Tea was taken out of the ice store and opened three hours later for packaging.

basic feature

Fuding White Tea is a general term for the white tea products originated from Fuding Taimu Mountain and Fuding Dahao Tea. According to the different picking standards and processing technology of tea, there are mainly four kinds of tea: Baihao Silver Needle, White Peony, Gongmei Shoumei and New Technology White Tea. 1. Baihao Silver Needle: Baihao Silver Needle is also called Baihao Silver Needle. It is the best product of white tea. The raw material is the bud head of white tea. It is named for its strong bud head, white hair, straight needle and white silver. When brewing, it has bright brown apricot yellow, strong fragrance, long sweet tea, sweet and refreshing entrance, refreshing heart and spleen. In the cup, the buds stand up delicately, plump and pleasant. 2. White peony: White peony refers to the white tea made from the first and second leaves of a bud. Because of its silvery white leaves, buds like flowers, after brewing, green leaves drag buds, just like the beginning of buds and get its name. Quality characteristics: The finished product is grey green or dark green in color, with white silverback and green and white background, so it is called "blue sky and white ground". And because of the long withering, the leaf color gradually changed into "green leaves and red ribs", so it has the reputation of "red-coated vegetable wrapped". It has a strong heart, tender and rippled leaves, slightly curled leaf margins, buds and leaves with twigs, and leaves with heart-shaped flowers. The endoplasm is slightly fragrant, delicious and mellow, with no green and bitter taste. The soup is orange yellow, clear and bright, with light grey bottom and reddish veins. 3. Gongmei Shoumei: The traditional Gongmei refers to white tea made from two or three leaves of a bud and small tea (vegetable tea). It is named for its thin shape and eyebrow-like appearance. Gongmei for export includes first-class Gongmei, second-class Gongmei, third-class Gongmei and fourth-class Gongmei (also known as Shoumei). Product characteristics: slightly obvious and many, soup orange or deep yellow, the bottom of the leaves is even, soft, bright, red when the main vein of the leaf is exposed to light, mellow, fragrant and pure. 4. New technology white tea: raw material tenderness requirements are relatively low, the general picking standard is two or three leaves of a bud, two or three leaves of a bud, single leaf, etc. The raw material requirements are similar to those of low-grade Gongmei and Shoumei. Because the new white tea is different from traditional white tea, although its endoplasm is similar to the flavor of low-grade Gongmei and Shoumei of traditional white tea, its shape is curled, slightly folded, fragrant, soup orange-red, sweet and slightly thick; when the bottom of leaves unfolds, it can be seen that its color is gray yellow, veins are red; the tea soup tastes like green tea but not fragrant, but like black tea without fermentation; its basic characteristics are strong mellow, sweet and Fujian. "Fuyu" of Beiwu.

Main value

Fuding white tea production technology is natural, scientific, high quality, and has a long history of inheritance, but also in the process of innovation and creation, with unique scientific and artistic charm. Fuding white tea production technology highlights its scientific value, which is a crucial element. We can see from the process of making white tea that its scientific characteristics are very distinct. Its important value can be grasped from several aspects: Firstly, along with the process of "withering" of natural air-cured tea in ancient times, the production technology of white tea has found and inherited the traditional culture of Chinese medicine to a certain extent, followed the ancient white tea culture, and developed in the new era. White tea is a unique kind of tea in China. Since ancient times, there have been many records about white tea with cool detoxification and measles treatment. For example, the famous person Zhou Lianggong in Qing Dynasty wrote in Min Xiaoji: "Baihao Silver Needle, which produces Hongxue Cave in Taimu Mountain, is the holy medicine for measles because of its cold nature and rhinoceros horn." Therefore, it is an important prescription for health care, has been loved by tea people. With the development of science and technology, the research of Western medical circles has once again proved that white tea has good assistant effects of detoxification, cancer prevention and anti-cancer. White tea is one of the most harmonious beverages and health-care teas in China's traditional export tea. This also shows that as intangible cultural heritage, its practical value provides a basis for its scientific nature, otherwise, cultural heritage without use will not become heritage. As one of the six traditional types of tea in China, Fuding White Tea has the most unique competitiveness and influence, and has become one of the important pillar industries of Fuding. Fuding people uphold the exquisite scenery and superb production skills of Fuding White Tea, cultivate and create a unique local characteristics and flavor of tea culture, tea garden tea industry, tea town, and effectively promote economic development and social progress. Its cultural and artistic charm also lies in its rich aesthetic connotation, which integrates the long history culture, ecological culture, female culture, fashion culture and health culture. It conforms to the popular fashion psychology of "returning to nature and advocating green", and the processing method is natural and suitable for people's needs. Fujian White Tea has its unique fragrance and fashionable female tea art performances, giving people a beautiful enjoyment.

Endangered situation

For a long time, people only see the excellence of white tea, lack of awareness of cultural resources in the whole process of Fuding white tea production technology, and lack of awareness of forming a cultural brand. Planting technology is a related part of Fuding white tea production technology, which is to a certain extent the decisive factor to form the excellent quality of white tea. In the process of discovering, inheriting and creating white tea, due to the influence of historical factors, the ancient transplantation technology lacks more detailed records, so as to influence the further research on the production of white tea. Taimu Mountain Hongxuedong "Green Snow Bud" tea plant is the original "mother plant" of Fuding white tea variety and an important female parent for the development of white tea. Fuding Dabai, Fuding Damu and vegetable tea are all bred from it. No other original "Green Snow Bud" has yet been found in Fuding area. Therefore, the "green snow bud" is the source, which is very important and precious. But there is only one natural and high-quality tea plant, which has been cut down before. Now it grows after the germination of the "mother plant". There is only one plant and it grows in the tourist area. Its living environment is facing new problems.

The inheritance of Fuding white tea production technology is lack or fault phenomenon. Since its creation, Fuding white tea has been a local pillar industry. It is widely planted in rural areas and can produce tea. However, the main inheritance of human veins is divided along with the habit. It is difficult for the descendants of those who inherit white tea to fully grasp the ancestral inheritance. Over the next hundred years, the rise and fall of Fuding white tea, white tea production technology inheritance is also intermittent. At that time, Fuding rural folk had a wide range of tea-making workshops, white tea production popular. With the development of the society, in the new historical period, tea-making technology is moving towards scientific research, focusing on factories and enterprises. The traditional folk tea-making techniques coexist in inheritance and loss. How to master the ancient folk tea-making techniques and combine them with modern science and technology will be a new problem. With the change of times, industrial development and social progress, the natural ecological environment of white tea has changed, which has affected the development of tea to a certain extent and posed challenges to the production of white tea. It is a new problem to prevent harmful substances from entering tea areas and to cultivate pollution-free production bases. It is also a related problem to be solved in the development of technology inheritance.

protective measures

Fuding white tea production technology in the protection and inheritance of development, but also rely on the protection of the soft environment, but also rely on the continuous supplement of the hard environment. In recent years, we have implemented measures to strengthen protection. Because it is the most natural and primitive tea-making technology in tea civilization, it also has strong technological innovation. Its technological process also depends on local natural and human factors. It is typical. It is necessary to strengthen the confidentiality of Fuding white tea production technology, which is conducive to maintaining the independence of Fuding white tea production technology. In order to protect the production technology of Fuding White Tea, the important value of the production technology of Fuding White Tea was confirmed through the declaration of intangible cultural heritage projects, which was displayed in the Chinese White Tea Culture Festival over the years. The production technology of Fuding White Tea was published by Fuding Municipal People's Government in August 2008 and listed in the first batch of items of intangible cultural heritage list of Fuding City, forming an important cultural brand. At the same time, special personnel will be organized to go deep into the origin of white tea, conduct further investigations, collect original procedural data, so as to obtain better static protection. Convening the China White Tea Summit and formulating the feasible protection plan according to the experts'suggestions. In order to produce high-quality white tea products, we should strengthen the research on the production technology of Fuding White Tea, strengthen the research on the production technology, promote the further development of white tea, and constantly improve the level of technological innovation in the production of white tea. Active measures should be taken to guide tea enterprises and tea farmers to further strengthen the inheritance and research of the traditional production techniques of white tea. Vigorously build white tea planting base, create a good environment, for the development of white tea production technology to provide better conditions. Establishment of archives management, establishment of archives management system, from the technical innovation, security measures and the provision of places to strengthen protection. We should improve the cultural knowledge of the inheritors through various channels and protect the existing inheritors. Through enterprise planning and propaganda, the establishment of web pages, television media to disseminate. Establish a tea industry association, strengthen research, in-depth discussion, write theoretical articles on white tea production, and constantly improve the theoretical system for the development of Fuding white tea production technology.

Material Science

fuding white tea

Manufacturing techniques, methods, or processes

White tea fresh leaves are only processed by withering and drying processes. Its unique appearance, color, leaf shape and aroma are mainly formed in the process of withering. Due to the complex changes of biochemical components caused by long withering, together with the original characteristics of fresh leaves, it forms a silver-white luster covered with white gloss and has a fresh and sweet taste. Wilting is the key process to form the quality of white tea. The drying of white tea can be carried out in a baking cage or a dryer. Different varieties of white tea have different withering and drying techniques.

Silver needle: The withered place must be clean, bright and ventilated. Spread the fertilizer buds evenly and quickly over the withered bamboo curtain and place them on the airing rack outside the ventilation for natural withering or light sunshine. When the water content of tea bud is about 20%, it is transferred to the drying process. The drying room must be clean, sanitary, odorless, well ventilated and bright. The withered tea buds were spread thin on the drying cage and roasted at 30-40 C until fully dried. When baking, the baking core is padded with a layer of white paper to prevent fire and burn tea buds. When drying, we should carefully and earnestly control the fire temperature, and turn it lightly in time, so that the fire on the baking cage and tea buds are warmed and dried evenly. When the feet are dry, remove burnt red, reddish, dark red, black silver needles, leaves and other non-tea impurities. Guarantee the uniformity of the silver needle. The product must be re-baked before packaging, requiring moisture content of 5%~6% to ensure stable quality. 2. White peony. The best quality of white peony withering is natural withering indoors. The fresh leaves picked should be spread evenly and thinly on the rice sieve without overlapping. When 70% of the dried leaves withered and lost water, the "two sieves" were combined into one, and then the "two sieves" were combined into one when 80% and 90% of the dried leaves were lost water. When the fresh leaves were lost about 90%, they were dried in a fire cage with 1-1.5 kg for each baking cage. The temperature of the fire was controlled at 70-80 C and the baking time was about 15-20 minutes. Using machine roasting, master the air temperature of the dryer 70-80 C, the spreading thickness of leaves is about 4 cm, lasts 20 minutes to fully dry. In the process of baking, attention should be paid to turning, the action should be light, the number of times should not be too much, in order to avoid broken buds and leaves, villus falling off. After manual picking of easy stiff stalks, yellow flakes, wax leaves, red sheets and dark sheets, then baking and drying at low temperature, then assembling boxes while hot.

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