Western Fujian drama
Western Fujian Han Opera, formerly known as "Waijiang Opera", also known as "Ran Tan", is one of the local operas in Fujian. He was born out of foreign operas, absorbed Hakka dialect and folk music in Western Fujian and gradually formed a unique style of local operas, mainly popular in Western Fujian, Eastern Guangdong, southern Jiangxi and southern Fujian, and broadcast in Taiwan and Southeast Asia.
Western Fujian Han Opera originated from Qiyang Opera in Qiyang, Hunan Province. It has been introduced into western Fujian since the Qianlong Period of Qing Dynasty. It has a history of more than 200 years. During the period of Jiaqing, it continuously absorbed local dialects and folk music. It gradually evolved into a local opera in Western Fujian. It was named Han Opera in the early 1930s and formally changed to Western Fujian Han Opera in the late 1950s, which is different from Hubei Han Opera.
Western Fujian Han Opera music is mainly composed of Xipi and Erhuang, and has Kun Opera, Bangzi Opera, Yiyang Opera, Buddhist Opera, folk minor tune and many other tunes; the role line should be Xiaosheng, Laosheng, Ugly, Wujing, Zhengdan, Qingyi, Pojiao and so on; the other strings are called "hanging rules" in Western Fujian, accompanied by Yueqin, Sanxian, Yuehu, flute, Suona, Guzheng, Pipa and bronze Datong, Yuantong. Big drum and other musical instruments, the stage atmosphere is lively and tense. The representative repertoires are Kaifeng House, Bailixi, Lanjizi, Erjin Palace, Kaifeng House, Guifei Drunk, etc. The outstanding performing artists are Cai Maisan (1898-1972), Zhangquan Town (1886-1948), Zhong Xiwang, Lin Nanhui (1898-1952), Chen Kunfu (1906-1986), Deng Yuxuan and so on.
On May 20, 2006, Western Fujian Han Opera was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Origin of Plays
There are many opinions about the origin of Western Fujian Han Opera: one is from Hubei Han Opera; the other is from northern Guangdong to Western Fujian; the other is that it has a deeper origin with Hunan Qi Opera and Jiangxi Donghe Opera.
From the rise of "Ran Tan" in Western Fujian to the development of Han opera in Western Fujian, as well as the characteristics of repertoire, singing and performance program, there are many differences and only a small part of similarities with Hubei Han opera. As for the Guangdong Han Opera, although it is also called "Ran Tan" and "Waijiang Opera" as well as the Western Fujian Han Opera, it has gradually formed from the development of Hui Ban. Therefore, the first two theories have obvious doubts. From the perspective of the route of the ancestors'migration to Fujian in Western Fujian and the trade, singing and musical instruments of the Western Fujian Han Opera, the origin of Qi Opera in Hunan and Donghe Opera in Jiangxi is relatively close . Therefore, the third statement seems to be more credible. Here try to make a brief analysis from several aspects:
(1) The ancestors of the Hakkas in Western Fujian migrated southward from the Central Plains, first gathered in Jiangxi, then went to Fujian through Ninghua, and then settled in Western Fujian and Eastern Guangdong. This route of southward migration is one of the main channels of communication between the people of the Central Plains and the South in ancient times. Of course, cultural exchanges follow this route. Therefore, it is reasonable to say that the emergence of early drama in Western Fujian is closely related to the types of drama popular in Jiangxi. The Qi Opera of Hunan has long been spread in Jiangxi, and has a far-reaching impact on Gan Opera.
(2) According to local historical records, in 1736 (the first year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty), the Hunan Qiju Opera "New Comedy Hall" theatre troupe performed in the Chishi ancestral hall of Fangtian Township from Jiangxi to Ninghua. Subsequently, Hunan Opera Troupe and Jiangxi Opera Troupe entered western Fujian. As far as the influence is concerned, the ballistic cavity with the main tune of Xipi and Erhuang quickly became popular in Western Fujian. By the time of Jiaqing (1796-1820), ballistic artists in Western Fujian began to appear. According to the relevant records, Luo Changyin of Luofang Township, Liancheng County, learned from Hunan artist Chen Chunsheng during the Jiaqing year. After Daoguang, artists such as Han Zhian, Han Shichang, Luo Zhongxiu and Luo Jifan appeared successively in Wanan, Longyan. In Xianfeng, there were some local troupes in Western Fujian, such as the "Plum Blossom Troupe" with Wu Ruru in Yongding County as the head of the troupe.
(3) Hunan Qiju Opera, Jiangxi Donghe Opera's main ballistic cavity is divided into South Road (Erhuang) and North Road (Xipi). The "random bomb" in West Fujian is also known as South Road and North Road. As for the pihuang tune of Hubei Han Opera and Hui Opera, there is no name for "North-South Road". In terms of musical instruments, Hunan Qiju Opera has Qihu, Yueqin, Sanxian and Banhu, which are known as "the four major pieces". Later, the Western Fujian Han Opera also has the head string, Yueqin, Sanxian and Pipa, which are called "the four major pieces". Moreover, the main musical instrument of the Western Fujian Han Opera, commonly known as the "hanging rules", also known as the "outer River string", is very similar to Qihu, the main leading instrument of Qi Opera, and the two instruments have the same characteristics of sharp and clear pronunciation. In addition, both plays share the main percussion instrument: the big brass gong.
(4) In terms of action, Qi Opera is divided into "Four Elements" and "Nine Mentou"; Donghe Opera is divided into "Four Elements" and "Jiujiaotou"; while the Western Fujian Han Opera is said to be "Four Men" and "Nine Xingtou". There are also three interrelated veins implied here.
In summary, it can be seen that the Western Fujian Han Opera has a far-reaching relationship with Hunan Qi Opera and Jiangxi Donghe Opera.
Western Fujian Han Opera, commonly known as "Chaotian Bomb", was changed to "Waijiang Opera" because of the influence of Guangdong Han Opera in the Guangxu Period, and was popular in the counties and cities of Western Fujian and the counties and cities of central and southern Fujian with Longyan as the center. Its name is often misunderstood as "Wuhan opera popular in Western Fujian". In fact, it originated from the Chunan opera in Qiyang, Hunan, in the middle of Qing Dynasty, namely Qi opera. In the 1930s, Qian Rechuan of Shantou Daily in Guangdong initiated that "Waijiang Opera" in Guangdong be called "Guangdong Han Opera". After the founding of the People's Republic of China, it was named "Western Fujian Han Opera" to distinguish "Guangdong Han Opera".
According to the investigation, during the reign of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1736-1795), Chunan Opera had been introduced into western Fujian. On the back wall of the Chi ancestral hall of Daluo Village, Fangtian Township, Ninghua County, there was a record of "Qianlong Binchen (1736) Cold Food Festival, where Hunan Xinxitang Ban performed". After the mid-Qing Dynasty, "Xiguang Ban", "Rongsheng Ban", "Shoufutai Ban", "Futaixing Ban", "New Fuxiang Ban", "Rongduban", "Shuanggui Ban" and "Hengxing Ban" came to Longyan, Liancheng, Yongan, Changting, Ninghua and other places in Western Fujian to perform and receive apprenticeship, and began to take root in Western Fujian. After Chunan Opera was introduced into western Fujian, it absorbed the artistic nutrients of puppets, Western Qin Opera, Raoping Opera and folk music minor in the process of spreading. The Western Fujian Han Opera became a local opera with the characteristics of both Chunan Opera and Western Fujian Opera.
From the end of the Qing Dynasty to the beginning of the Republic of China, Western Fujian's Han Opera flourished. There were such groups as "Rongde Shun", "New Tiancai", "New Lotian", "New Luotian", "Happy Home", "New Fushun", "Daxiangshan", "New Jinhua", "New Peach Garden", "Saitouyuan", "New Plum Blossom", "Rongtian Cai", "Tongle Chun", "Daluo Tian" and so on. In remote mountain villages, there are saltwater classes, ridge classes and Tutou classes scattered all over the country. During this period, a number of influential artists emerged, such as Xiaosheng Cai Maisan and musician Guo Lianshou, who went to Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand with the "New Stage" class in 1927 to perform Jiuyan Mountain and Xue Jiaotongtongzhu for half a year. Longyan artist Lin Nanhui also traveled to Malaysia, Singapore and other places to teach drama, and finally died in Thailand. In the 13 years of the Republic of China, Zhang Quanzhen (1886-1948), Zhang Qiaolan (1905-1975) and his wife came to Taiwan with the "Rong Tiancai" class to perform such dramas as "Drunken Princess", "Picking up Jade Bracelets", "Meng Lijun", "Xingyuan and Fan".
After the 1940s, Western Fujian Han Opera began to decline, theatre troupes were greatly reduced, and artists were scattered all over the country. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Western Fujian Han Opera began to recover.
In 1950, old artists Chen Kunfu and Deng Xingtang reorganized the Longtinghan Opera Troupe. In 1952, the Shenghan Opera Troupe of Longyan Group was established; in 1954, it was renamed the Han Opera Troupe of Longyan Special Area. At the same time, county-level opera troupes of professional nature have been established successively in various counties, such as Daxi Han Opera Troupe in Yongding County, Shanghang Han Opera Troupe and Wuping County Han Opera Troupe. Amateur theatre troupes are spread all over the country, only in Liancheng County. From 1959 to 1966, there were 18. There were 9 small pottery towns in Yongan County. There are also footprints of amateur Han theatre troupes in Yunxiao, Zhao'an and Nanjing of southern Fujian Province.
During the "Cultural Revolution", the Western Fujian Han Opera was severely devastated, and it was only after the Jiangqing Anti-Revolutionary Group was smashed that it was restored. In the 1980s, creative activities were very active. The Han Opera Troupe in Longyan District won prizes in "Ghost Love", "Tang Monk Bribery", "Spring Niang Opera", "People, Mother", "Moon to Mid-Autumn Festival" of Shanghang County Hanju Opera Troupe, and "Gambling to Marriage" and "Shibei Case" of Wuhing County Hanju Opera Troupe.
In 1994, the Western Fujian Han Opera created six modern plays, such as "Qiqi Pizi", "Wine Storm", "Three Generations of Wind", "Turtle Margin" and "Wind Rising Courtyard". Among them, The Seventy-Seven Ramping Pi was awarded the second prize of Essential Essay of Modern Drama in 1995 and the second prize of the 10th Tianhan Drama Award in 1995. In August, Longyan Cultural Bureau and Wenlian held a celebration of the 40th anniversary of Congyi for Deng Yuxuan, a famous performing artist, in Longyan. In September, at the 20th Provincial Theatre Fair, the Han Opera Troupe of Longyan District performed "Beautiful Sisters-in-law" and won awards for drama, music and dancing beauty. It also went to Beijing in December 1997 to participate in the Fujian Opera Fair.
In November 1996, Longyan Han Opera Troupe, together with Longyanshan Opera Troupe and Longyan Art School, formed the Hakka Art Troupe in Western Fujian, and for the first time went to Singapore to perform the newly edited modern drama "Hakka Sister-in-law", which reflects the life of Hakka women.
On May 20, 2006, Western Fujian Han Opera was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
On May 14, 2014, Longyan Hanju Interpretation Center was officially unveiled and established. A series of innovative and inheritance activities made this once weak "Southern Peony" shine again.
The earliest Han opera troupes in Western Fujian include "Rong Tiancai", "New Tiancai", "Old Sanduo", "Old Fushun", "Four Classes". Western Fujian is located in the upper reaches of Jiulong River and Hanjiang River, and the waterway can connect Zhangzhou, Xiamen, Chaozhou and Shantou in southern Fujian and Eastern Guangdong. Therefore, the local dramatic exchanges between the regions concerned are very extensive and have a long history. Suo Wei's "Waijiang Ban" is a folk opera troupe spread in Huaan, Zhangzhou, Longxi (now Longhai), Pinghe, Zhangpu, Zhao'an and Chaoshan, Guangdong. They not only often communicate with each other, teach each other, learn from each other, or perform together on the same stage, but also have similar names of theatre troupes, so they are called "Fuban", "Chaoban", "Going to Class Four" (referring to Western Fujian) and "Going to Class Four" (referring to Eastern Guangdong).
In western Fujian, the more famous theatre troupes in the Qing Dynasty were Xianfeng, the "new plum blossom", "auspicious flower", "Zhusanduo", "Xinkaihua": from Guangxu to the end of the Qing Dynasty, "Daluotian", "Xinfushun", "Rongdeshun", "Yue Tongyuan", "Yue Tiancai", "Yiyangchun", "Huaxiang" and so on.
At present, the professional Hanju troupes in Longyan area include the regional Hanju troupe and the Yongding, Shanghang and Wuhan troupes. The regional Han Opera Troupe not only performed in and outside the province, but also went abroad to perform in Singapore.
Longyan, Changting, Liancheng and other counties also have amateur Han opera troupes and folk professional troupes.
Fujian Art School has a class of Chinese Opera in Longyan to train new comedians of Chinese Opera.
In the long-term artistic practice of the Western Fujian Han Opera, there emerged some excellent performing artists with profound artistic attainments, who were well received in the performances of Southwest Fujian, Eastern Guangdong, Taiwan, India and the Southern Ocean. Cai Maisan (1898-1972) of "New Stage" performed in India, Singapore and other countries for one year in 1922.
Zhang Quanzhen (1886-1948), a Yongding native, once worked in the east of Guangdong Province for a class called "Glorious Skylight", and later married Zhang Qiaolan, an artist from Jieyang, Guangdong. In 1924, the couple accompanied the troupe to Taiwan to perform plays such as "Drunken Princess". Zhang Quanzhen has taught opera in Chaozhou orthographic theatre troupe and is known as the "whole town school".
Zhong Xiwang, also known as Zhong Mei, once performed and taught in the "Four Classes" in Eastern Guangdong and the Guangdong Han Theatre.
Lin Nanhui (1898-1952), a Longyan, performed in Chaozhou for many years, and later taught Chinese opera and Chaozhou opera in Singapore, Thailand and other places.
Chen Kunfu (1906-1986) became a famous clown after more than ten years of art in Xinle Tian, western Fujian, and then he joined Tang Guanxian, the "four classes" in eastern Guangdong.
Deng Yuxuan, a famous actress who was the head of the Han Opera Troupe in Longyan and the president of the Western Fujian Han Opera Research Association, has won many excellent performance awards in Fujian Provincial Drama Festival. She has performed in Singapore and has been invited to record singing tapes.
Western Fujian Han Opera, known as "Peony of Southern Country", is favored by many people at home and abroad for its unique artistic performance and unique language characteristics. The footprints of the Western Fujian Han Opera are left in every corner of West Fujian. Every New Year, temple fair and Hakka custom day, the performers of the Han Opera Troupe will perform in the local area, performing splendid performances for the local people and enriching people's cultural life. On May 20, 2006, the Western Fujian Han Opera was listed as the first national intangible cultural heritage list.
In the social and economic structure of Western Fujian, he not only acted as a sacrificial ceremony of the local society, became an important part of folk religion and maintained the local society, but also became the main way for the villagers to entertain and receive education. In addition, it also plays an important role in cultural exchanges with foreign countries. In Taiwan, the saying "eat meat and eat three layers, watch drama and watch random bullets" refers to the prevalence of "random bullets". With the close contacts between the opera workers in the two places, the Western Fujian Han Opera has become another important bridge for the cross-strait exchange of folk customs. In November 2012, the Wuhan Opera Troupe was invited to attend the Second Dingguang Buddhist Cultural Tourism Festival on both sides of the Taiwan Straits. The large-scale Chinese opera Dingguang Buddhist Margin, created by the troupe, premiered. More than 200 guests from Taiwan watched the performance. In the performance, applause and applause continued.