Wanbang, a local traditional drama in Neixiang County, Henan Province, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Wan Bang is a rare local opera. It grows and distributes in Nanyang in southwestern Henan and its surrounding areas. In the early days, people called it Hao Bang, Lao Bang Zi, Nanyang Bang Zi, etc. Because Nanyang was called Wan in ancient times, Nanyang Bureau officially named it Wan Bang in 1956. Wanbang is a kind of opera that evolved after Qin Opera (Tongzhou Bangzi) was introduced into Nanyang in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty in Shaanxi Province and merged with local folk song minor and folk rap and singing in Nanyang. Wanbang main string is the big string in the early Qin Opera. Its pronunciation is high, just like the bird's song. It is matched with jujube Bangzi and has a unique style. Wanbang singing music belongs to the board cavity, supplemented by the yueqin, three strings, falling hu, jujube bang festival, accompanied by gongs, drums and other percussion instruments, giving people a sense of boldness, aggression, boldness.
On May 20, 2006, Wanbang was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists with the heritage number IV-24.
There are still different opinions about the formation of Wanbang: first, it is a branch of Henan Opera, there is a saying that "two hundred years ago was a family", and there are also records that Henan Opera spread to Nanyang area, called "Nanyang Bangzi", which should be the same clan, clan and root as Henan Opera. In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, it evolved from Shaanxi Eastern Road Qin Opera, that is, after Tongzhou Bangzi was introduced into Nanyang, Henan Province, in combination with local folk slang, folk song minor and folk rap. It was called "western tune" in its early days, probably referring to the tune coming from the west. Zhang Jiamou, a native of the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, commented on Yun when he revised Nanyang Fuzhi. The Southern Diao was initiated in the Ming Dynasty. Zhou Shibai said in the Outline of the Development of Chinese Opera History that Nanyang Bangzi "is Henan Bangzi's Henan Western Dialect. It became a kind of opera after Qianlong in Qing Dynasty and originated in Nanyang in Henan Province". Feng Jihan pointed out in his Preliminary Exploration of the Origin and Development of Henan Opera: "Before Dao (Guang) and Xian (Feng), Bangzi in Nanyang prevailed on both sides of the Shahe River in southern Henan and Northern Huaihe. In the course of its formation, it has been influenced by other operas, such as Kunqu Opera, Yiyang Opera String Su and Luo Opera, and has gradually become a new type of opera.
During the 20 years from Qingdaoguang to the Republic of China (1821-1931), Wanbang Opera was flourishing, and its class clubs spread all over Nanyang.
Since the 1930s, Wanbang has been declining. Most of the classes have been disbanded and artists have been dispersed. By the end of 1940s, only a few theatres had stopped performing. By 1949, it had faced a desperate situation.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Nanyang Bangzi Opera Troupe of Neixiang County was formed.
Since 1957, the troupe has trained a number of young actors, processed and sorted out the repertoires of "River", "Black Strike" and "Luoyang Fire Point". At the same time, it has also produced modern plays such as "Huimen", "Bethune" and "Pursuit".
In the 1960s, on the basis of inheriting the tradition, Wanbang's musicians made some innovations in singing.
Wanbang has more than 600 traditional dramas, and more than 300 are often staged, reflecting stories ranging from Shang, Zhou, Spring and Autumn to Warring States, and down to Ming and Qing Dynasties, mostly "war marches" and "robe-and-tie operas". The masses call it "great opera artists" who have compiled their traditional dramas into mouths: "Heshibi", "Jiulian Lamp", "Fire Warship", "Cosmic Front", "Dajiangdong" and "Xiaojiangdong". "Knife Chopping Yang Pan", "Mixed Garden Mirror", "Dong Jialing", "Thirteen Palaces", "Leyi Vaqi", "Zhanfan City". There are also "Five Signs", "Six Prefectures", "Seven Harvests", "Eight Passes" and "Nine Mountains". As well as "Hundred Flowers Yong", "Pirate File", "Before and After the State of Chu", "Rice Grain Chuan", "Black Dao Chao", "Flower Dao Chao", "Chop Caiyang", "Chop Huangpao", "Chop Capital", "Yellow Crane Tower", "Force Palace", "Pirate Print", "Rich Tu", "Peach Blossom Ancient", "Sell Miaolang", "Luo Huan Kneeling Tower", "Tower to Flower Gun", "Daguan", "Hanging Hill", "Double Delivery". Girls, Top Lights, Driving Cars, Jade Tiger Fall, Sanniang Godfather, Spring and Autumn Matching, etc.
Inheritance and Protection
Wanbang not only has the upsurge and excitement of Shaanxi Bangzi, but also has the smooth norms of Central Plains music, as well as the euphemism and elegance of Chu music. The fake tune used to foil feelings is a high-octave wordless line tune, which is unique and has unique artistic value. Wanbang, nourished by the Central Plains culture, Qin and Jin culture and Chu culture, is a model for studying the early ecology of Henan Bangzi.
Current situation of inheritance
Since the 1930s, due to the rise and rapid spread of Henan Opera and Henan Opera, Wanbang has gradually declined. At present, only a state-owned Wanbang professional theatre troupe in Neixiang County is still struggling to inherit this ancient national art fire, so it is necessary to rescue and maintain it in time.
Cheng Jiankun, male, Han nationality, born in 1942, is a native of Henan Province. In 2008, he was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects and composes at the third level of the state.
Zhou Chengshun, male, Han nationality, born in 1957, died in 2009, a native of Henan Province. In 2008, he was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects, the third-level national actor.
Wanbang Opera in Henan Province, in addition to the provincial determination of the inheritors of Wanbang art, the governments at all levels in Nanyang City and Neixiang County of Henan Province have also given protection and support to Wanbang Opera and its actors. Nanyang City has been considering the implementation of full financial supply for Wanbang Opera Troupe in Neixiang County in order to solve the worries of Wanbang Opera Troupe in Neixiang County. Neixiang County has formulated a detailed five-year development plan for the protection and development of Wanbang, which also mentions in particular that Wanbang art should be effectively inherited, so as to keep the successor talents flowing.
In 1959, Du Linbao was awarded the first prize for performance and Wang Daying was awarded the second prize for performance. In 1992, Zhou Chengshun was awarded the Excellent Performance Award for his traditional play "Striking Golden Branches" which participated in an excellent performance of rare operas organized by the Ministry of Culture.
On November 22, 2018, to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the reform and opening-up, the opera of Tsinghua University entered the campus. The second major drama Wanbang Tongtaiguan made a brilliant appearance in the campus Opera Festival "Henan Opera Art Week and Exhibition of Rare Dramas" at Tsinghua University.