Uygur Residential Architecture Skills Aiwan Sailai Residential Construction Skills
Declaration area or unit: Hetian area, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Uygur Aiwan Sailai dwellings are mainly distributed in towns and villages along the desert edge of the Tarim Basin, especially in Yutian, Moyu, Minfeng, Pishan, Hetian, Shache and Kashgar along the southern edge of the Tarim Basin desert.
Aiwan Sailai is a typical Uygur residential building form in Hetian. Aiwan refers to a square building with bright and ventilated meanings in the middle of the roof. Sailai refers to the living room or the place where guests are entertained in this kind of building. The whole building is called Aiwan Sailai.
The space in Aiwan is generally divided into two parts: the open courtyard space and the enclosed living room space. Aiwan is a closed, atrium-style layout. The living space consists of living rooms, dining rooms, back rooms, storage rooms, showers and other small rooms. The front rooms facing the courtyard are mostly equipped with external corridors, and the bottom corridors are mostly equipped with solid and non-heating kangs, namely "bundle covers", for sitting outdoors. Aiwangsai has no clear central axis, the layout of the plane is very flexible, the courtyard and building area is not fixed, can be large or small, according to population and economic conditions.
In the aspect of architectural decoration, Hetian Aywang mostly adopts the method of contrast between the real and the virtual, and mainly adorns. Gallery eaves paintings, mostly mosaic tiles, wood carvings and window edge decorations, mostly flowers and plants or geometric figures. Its decoration is mainly in the portico, Aiwang side windows and other parts, mainly wood carving, exquisite carving.
Uygur Aywan Sailai residential building construction techniques are mainly handed down by teachers, all of them are male, there is no written record, and handed down from generation to generation by oral and heart-to-heart teaching methods. With the popularization and popularization of modern residential building forms, the number of experienced folk craftsmen has decreased, and the traditional Aywan Saili residential building technology is in an endangered situation.