Traditional Manufacturing Techniques of Tofu
The traditional craft of tofu production is a traditional handicraft with a long history. Refers to the various methods of making tofu, tofu can be fried and stewed at will, lasting, but more and more fragrant, more and more tendons. Boiled in water, cut into strips at any time, dipped in small sesame oil, sesame sauce, chili oil, garlic juice and other condiments hot, unique flavor, is the local famous snack "hot white tofu", famous in all directions.
On November 11, 2014, the traditional production techniques of tofu were approved by the State Council and listed in the fourth batch of national representative projects of intangible cultural heritage.
Declaration area or unit: Chizhou, Anhui
When it comes to intangible cultural heritage, people usually think of Huangmei Opera, Hui Opera, Fengyang Flower Drum and so on, but intangible cultural heritage is not only the art of these spring and snow. Chizhou City recently included the technology of making stinky tofu dried tofu in the municipal intangible cultural heritage, along with dragon net fishing. This has been highly praised by experts from the Ministry of Culture.
A few days ago, Chizhou City announced the first batch of city-level intangible cultural heritage list, covering folk music, folk opera, folk art, traditional handicraft and other aspects. In addition to the well-known Nuo opera, Qingyang Opera and other cultural arts, the production techniques of stinky tofu dried, dragon net fishing and pot production are also among them.
"Fishing and making stinky tofu dries are also intangible cultural heritage, which is surprising." When Mr. Li of Chizhou saw the list, he said, "I don't know what the criteria for selection are. It's weird."
"We have been declared and scrutinized at various levels." Li Dacheng, curator of the Chizhou Museum of Culture, who is in charge of the work, said that the list of intangible cultural heritage was first submitted by the county level, and then they invited experts from inside and outside the province to review it. The whole procedure is very strict.
He said that, like the technology of making stinky tofu, there are many places, but the prescription, production process and other places in Qidu Town of Shitai County are different, and the taste is unique. The dragon net fishing technique in Zhangxi County, east to county, uses nets up to several hundred meters long, so it is called "dragon net". When fishing, many fishing boats need to cooperate. These folk skills have strong uniqueness and have been circulating for a long time in the local area.
"Chizhou's practice is worth affirming." Professor Fan Jialu, member of the Committee of Experts on the Protection of China's Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Ministry of Culture, said in an interview with our reporter yesterday.
Professor Fan Jialu said that the scope of intangible cultural heritage defined by UNESCO includes oral tradition, traditional performance art, folk activities, etiquette, festivals, traditional handicraft skills and so on.
"In fact, the core connotation of"non-legacy"is that"non-materiality"is what people often call"human carrier".
It is impossible to exist independently of human beings. The second is "cultural heritage", in which "culture" is relative to "nature", and "heritage" as its name implies should be handed down from the ancestors, different from some kind of creation. Professor Fan said that from this point of view, it would be beneficial to include the techniques of making stinky tofu dried and dragon net fishing in the list of "non-legacy".
Li Dacheng, curator of the Chizhou Museum of Culture, said that the government had issued a document to the whole city, asking everyone to protect these "non-relics".
Declaration area or unit: Yuyang District Sports Bureau of Yulin City
Yulin tofu, which is well-known both at home and abroad, is the first local dish in Yulin because of its delicate white, delicious flavor, rich nutrition and low price. Visitors from far away all enjoy Yulin tofu.
Yulin tofu has a long history. As far back as the Ming Dynasty, the ancient city of Yulin was one of the nine important towns along the Great Wall. With the expansion of the city, the number of soldiers and civilians is increasing. However, due to the lack of non-staple food, residents use peach blossom water from Pratt-Whitney Spring to make tofu. The food is tender, delicate and delicious, which is different from tofu in the field. It has gradually become one of the indispensable foods in the daily life of the military and civilians.
Yulin tofu is made of high-quality soybeans and "peach blossom water" grinded and processed. When ordering tofu with sour syrup, the tofu is white, tender, tough and delicious. When Emperor Kangxi visited Yulin, the local famous chef served this dish, delicious and tender. The emperor praised the famous "Qingxiang Baiyuban, Red-billed Green Parrot Brother". From then on, the name has been passed down from ancient to modern times.
Speaking of Fengchuan tofu, it is well known to women and children in the local area. It has a history of more than 2000 years. There is also an interesting legend about the tofu made by the people of Yushi County. After the unification of Liu Bang, the ancestor of the Han Dynasty, the people lived and worked in peace and contentment. His grandson Liu An settled in the ancient town of Yuchuan. He was clever and clever, and was deeply loved by Liu Bang. Once Liu An did a great thing for Liu Bang, and was named King of Huainan by Gaozu. In order to thank him for the award, he recruited the world's prescriptions and gathered in Niupishan to make alchemy. He sought the elixir of immortality for Gaozu. Once, a party used soybean curd and added brine to make the red. Who knows that the panacea has not been refined, but miraculously refined the delicate white tofu.
Xiangchuan tofu is different, its surface is amber, knife edge is pure white, and its texture is hard. The tofu can be hooked with scales, can be lifted with hemp rope, stewed in a pot, can not be deformed, boiled, and stewed over tendons.
There are many ways to eat Xiangchuan tofu. The spicy tofu made with spicy oil, pepper and chili pepper is spicy and spicy in the mouth, and has a very strong fragrance. It will soak your heart before you chew it carefully. A small piece of tofu (about 2 cm square) is boiled in boiling water, and then dipped in chili oil to eat tofu has a different flavor. It gives you a very soft and tender feeling, you will think of soft yarn, floss. Of course, the tofu here is good, only when you are in a different place, pick up the waterlogged, loose tofu from other places, and eat it tasteless, you will understand it more deeply.
To say that tofu can strengthen the body and cure diseases, there are certain historical records and modern people's experience. "Tofu can clear the lung and nourish the stomach, moisten dryness and dissipate phlegm," Wang Shixiong's "Drinking spectrum at rest" said. In addition, Zhao Xuemin's "Grass and Tree Compendium Collection" also said: "Tofu can clear the throat, move greasy, detoxify salt and halogen." And pointed out that "tofu cooked porridge can make up deficiency". To prove the efficacy of tofu, Ji Yun, the general usurper of the Four Treasuries Quanshu in the Qing Dynasty, described a tofu rescue story in Yuewei Caotang Notes If I Hear it: one person eats bittern by mistake, blood coagulation is dangerous, and there is no cure. Fortunately, a woman bursts in and declares that "it can be irrigated with the soybean milk made by the tofu sellers next door, and the bittern soybean milk will coagulate into tofu without coagulation..." In the meantime, the dangerous recovered. There are many kinds of tofu products, such as tofu brain, dried tofu, oily tofu, tofu and so on. They are rich in nutrition and have a pleasant taste. They are all good for tonifying the body. They are the favorite delicacies of modern people.
Legends of tofu
There is such an epilogue -- "hemp rope pierces tofu" - - can not be lifted up! But in the ancient town of Fengchuan in Kaifeng, you can buy tofu with hemp rope in the market. This is a unique product of Fengchuan. There is also a moving legend among them.
It was in the early years of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty. In a small village in the south of Fengchuan Town, there lived two brothers surnamed Jia, whose parents died early. Brother Jia Zhao was born to be a lazy eater and a cunning person. My brother Jia Liang, on the contrary, is an honest, kind and hard-working young man. However, Jia Liang earned more and spent less than Jia Zhao. In less than a year, Jia Zhao spoiled a little of the family business his parents left behind. Jia Liang helplessly listened to an old man's advice, borrowed some money from his neighbors, opened a tofu workshop, and began to sell tofu business.
Jia Liang sells tofu without deception and has good quality, so his business is very prosperous. At first Jia Zhao disagreed. Later, when he saw his brother's business getting better and better, he began to think. He said to his brother, "Brother, I can't see you busy, I can't work hard, can calculate the accounts, let me take charge of the accounts!" From then on, Jia Zhao became the head of the family.
Three years later, Jia Liang built a new house and bought fields, mules and horses by making tofu. Someone mentions Jia Liang's relatives. Jia Liang says that I'm younger than my elder brother. Let's talk to my elder brother first. Soon, brother Jia Zhao married his wife, but as soon as the sister-in-law arrived, he calculated with his brother that he would not marry his brother a daughter-in-law. Three years later, Jia Liang broke his leg when he went out to sell tofu. At that time, Jia Zhao was making a scene of separation. He proposed that if Jia Liang could grind tofu that could be carried by hemp rope, all his family business would return to Jia Liang, otherwise he would leave naked. Jia Liang blushed with anger, so he wrote with Jia Zhao as a proof. Back at the tofu workshop, he was determined to thwart his brother's conspiracy to dominate his property and try to grind tofu day and night. However, half a month later, no tofu can be worn with hemp rope. One day, he was angry and anxious. He was still in a trance. He mistook the old pulp for brine, vinegar and wine and ordered tofu. Unexpectedly, the tofu made is tender, white and fragrant. When the cool wind blows, the skin becomes ginger yellow and the tendons are tender. When it is worn with hemp rope, it is really lifted up. Jia Liang made tofu that hemp rope could raise, and Jia Zhao fell into poverty again. Jia Liang passed this method of making tofu to his neighbours, which has been spreading all the time and has become a famous local specialty in this area.