Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor

Home Culture 2019-07-25

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor

Distilled liquor brewing is to first make grains, potatoes and other starch-rich or sugar-rich raw materials into grains (no filtered wine) or fermentation into grains (turbid wine), and then distilled into wine. Distilled liquor is white or yellowish transparent, so it is commonly known as "liquor". Its fragrance is pure, the entrance is sweet and refreshing, the alcohol content is high, belongs to strong liquor. According to the use of raw materials and saccharifying starter, distilled liquor will have different brewing techniques of Daqu, Xiaoqu and Bran. The main materials used in distilled liquor are grain, which can be divided into sorghum liquor and corn liquor. Among them, sorghum has high starch content and moderate protein, which is most conducive to the brewing of distilled liquor. According to the aroma type, distilled liquor can be divided into sauce-flavor, fragrant-flavor, strong-flavor, rice-flavor, complex-flavor and other types. Distilled liquor, formerly known as "barbecue" and "alcoholic liquor", originally evolved from rice wine with low alcoholicity. It took shape in the Song Dynasty and has a history of more than 800 years. Distilled liquor in China is mainly produced in Sichuan, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Shenyang, Jilin and Beijing. Its brewing process is closely related to local grain (rich in sorghum), climate (cold or humid), water quality and living customs.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor. Traditional Brewing Techniques of Beijing Erguotou Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Beijing Red Star Co., Ltd., Beijing Shunxin Agricultural Co., Ltd.

Beijing is one of the regions with a long history of liquor-making in China, and there are still three hutongs left over from Ming and Qing Dynasties with the place name of liquor-making. The traditional brewing technique of Erguotou liquor in Beijing is an important representative of Beijing's brewing technique. It sprouted in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties and formed in the nineteenth year of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty (1680). In 1949, the government monopolized liquor. The Experimental Factory of North China Wine Monopoly Company accepted 12 old cooking pots and registered the trademark of "Red Star" Erguotou in 1951. It inherited the brewing techniques of Beijing Erguotou liquor in an all-round way. Niulanshan is an ancient town in the north of Beijing. It is located at the foot of Yanshan Mountain. It faces the confluence of Chao River and Baier River in the east. It has abundant groundwater resources and good water quality. It is suitable for wine making. In the early Qing Dynasty, the liquor-making industry in Niulanshan was very developed. After hundreds of years of development, Niulanshan Erguotou Liquor has gradually formed the most distinctive liquor in the north of China. In 1952, Niulanshan Liquor Factory was established on the basis of "Gongli" and "Fushun Cheng" old pots, and continued to produce Erguotou Liquor with traditional brewing techniques.

The traditional brewing techniques of Erguotou liquor in Beijing are handed down from generation to generation by oral and heart-to-heart instruction, and developed continuously in production practice. It has gradually formed the unique skills of old five steamers fermentation, mixed steaming and burning, watching flowers and connecting liquor, and connecting liquor in the middle section. The traditional brewing technology of Erguotou liquor embodies the wisdom of Beijing brewing technicians, and it still plays an irreplaceable role in the production of Erguotou liquor.

Beijing Erguotou liquor has the characteristics of delicate fragrance, pure elegance and mellow liquor. It has been sold well all over the country for a long time and exported to the United States, Japan and other countries and regions. "Red Star" trademark was awarded "China's well-known trademark", and Beijing Red Star Co., Ltd. was named "China's old brand" and won many honors.

At present, the production of Erguotou liquor in Beijing is facing great challenges. The production base has been relocated frequently. The impact of foreign liquor, shortage of talents, counterfeit infringement and other problems emerge in endlessly, which makes the manufacturers tired to cope with. In view of this situation, reasonable protection measures should be introduced in time to ensure the normal production of Beijing Erguotou liquor and the complete inheritance of its traditional brewing techniques.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Hengshui City, Hebei Province

Hengshui Laobaigan Liquor in Hebei Province is a typical representative of Chinese Laobaigan-flavor liquor and a model of high-quality Daqu liquor in northern China. It has the characteristics of mellow fragrance, elegance, harmonious liquor body, mellow sweetness and long aftertaste.

Hengshui Laobai Dry Wine is made of high-quality northeast sorghum as raw material, local high-quality wheat is naturally inoculated in the starter room, controlled fermentation and cultured to produce medium-temperature Daqu, which is used as saccharifying starter. Traditional stubble ingredients, mixed steaming and firing old five steamers are used in the brewing process. It is fermented in the ground vat, distilled slowly, sifted by stages and graded into the liquor. Warehouse, pottery jar storage, meticulous blending, and ultimately made pure white dry. The traditional brewing technology of Laobaigan is popular with people for its unique craft, and has won many awards at home and abroad.

For thousands of years, the brewing techniques of Hengshui Laobaigan liquor have been passed down from generation to generation by means of oral transmission, mentoring and apprenticeship. In this process, it has been constantly innovated and developed, showing strong local cultural characteristics. It is of great significance for the continuous development and improvement of this precious brewing technology to excavate and protect the traditional brewing techniques of Hengshui Laobaigan and vigorously cultivate a contingent of high-quality and high-skilled successors.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor. Traditional Brewing Techniques of Villa Old Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Pingquan County, Hebei Province

Mountain Villa Old Wine is produced in Pingquan County, Hebei Province. It is located in the northeast of Hebei Province, at the end of Yanshan Mountains. It has beautiful mountains and rivers and pleasant climate. It has been a good place for natural wine making since ancient times. The brewing techniques of old wine in Villas came into being and formed in the early Qing Dynasty. After Kangxi period, they became more and more mature. From the Republic of China to the beginning of the founding of New China, they gradually declined. Since the end of 1990s, the vintage technology of Villa Old Wine has made new progress. In 2005, Villa Old Wine was recognized as "China Geographic Indicator Products". In 2006, "Heights" trademark was recognized as "China's well-known trademark".

The main raw material of Shanzhuang Old Wine is sorghum, which is made of high quality wheat, barley and pea. First, the middle and high temperature koji is produced in the brewing process, then the ingredients are mixed with continuous distiller's grains (or slag), steamed and mixed, then distilled and distilled by fermentation, then the Onew wine is distilled, and the wine is distilled in stages. Finally, the essence is extracted, and the pottery can be sealed and stored at a suitable temperature. At least, it has to be stored for four years. The traditional brewing techniques of Villa Old Liquor are the relics of ancient brewing techniques, which have high academic value in studying the development history of northern liquor.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor. Traditional Five Steam Brewing Techniques of Bancheng Boiler Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Chengde County, Hebei Province

Legend has it that in the thirty-eighth year of Qianlong (1773), Ji Xiaolan, the favorite Minister of Qing Gaozong, visited Qingyuanheng Hotel in Xiabancheng, Chengde. When he was drunk, he skillfully paired "Jinmu Shui Huo Tu" with "Pancheng Boiler Wine". It was a good story for a while, and Pancheng Boiler Wine got its name.

Bancheng Boiler Liquor is made of high quality sorghum and wheat. It combines traditional five steamer technology with modern microbial technology. The old five steamers'brewing process emphasizes that raw materials and fermented grains from cellars are steamed and pasted in the same steamer barrel at the same time. The original four steamers' fermentation raw materials in the cellar are added to the new raw materials after cellar outlet and divided into five steamers'fermentation. The old five steamers brewing technology of Bancheng cooking pot wine allows raw materials to be fermented many times to improve liquor yield, accumulate aroma precursors and increase liquor flavor.

The elaborately brewed Pancheng cooker liquor has the characteristics of clear body, strong liquor fragrance, long aftertaste and not going up after drinking. In 2005, it was recognized as a "well-known trademark of China". In 2006, it was named "old brand of China" by the Ministry of Commerce, and in 2007, it was also named "famous liquor of China" by the Ministry of Commerce.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province

Yingxian Lihua Spring Wine in Shanxi Province is a famous liquor in northern Shanxi Province. Its brewing techniques have embodied the wisdom of local winemakers for thousands of years and have high historical and cultural value. Lihua Spring Wine is brewed from barley, pea and bran as starter materials and sorghum as liquor-making materials under the natural ecological environment. Among them, koji-making, brewing, distillation, blending and many other processes have their own characteristics. The whole brewing technology embodies not only the brewing mode of Fen liquor, represented by the brewing technology of Fen liquor, but also the advanced experience drawn from the brewing technology of minority nationalities.

The traditional brewing techniques of Lihuachun adopt such unique techniques as medium temperature koji-making, accumulation and fragrance-increasing, in-situ fermentation, slow fire distillation, graded storage, exquisite blending, etc. Many links of operation rely on the experience of brewers passed on from generation to generation and accumulated personally. So far, some key processes still need manual operation.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor Laolongkou Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Shenyang City, Liaoning Province

The brewing techniques of Laolongkou Liquor in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, originated in the first year of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty (1662). Mencius Jing, a liquor-making merchant in Taigu County, Shanxi Province, created a "Yilongquan" pot outside Xiaodongmen, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, and later changed it to "Wanlongquan". It is said to be "Laolongkou" because it was passed down as "the mouth of Longcheng" in the Qing Dynasty. Eleven national-level historical relics, such as stone mill, wine sea (wine storage container) and old trademark, which are collected in Laolongkou Liquor Museum, have witnessed the history of Laolongkou Liquor brewing. In 1949, "Wanlongquan" pot was renamed "Laolongkou Winery of Shenyang Special City Monopoly Bureau", in 1960 it was renamed "Shenyang Laolongkou Winery" and in 2000 it was renamed "Shenyang Tianjiang Laolongkou Winery Co., Ltd."

Laolongkou is located in the northeast of Shenyang City, in the transition zone between Changbai Mountain and Liaohe alluvial plain. The company's winery has a hundred-year-old well named "Longtan Water" with clear and sweet water, which provides unique conditions for the development of Laolongkou's liquor-making skills. Laolongkou Liquor was mostly managed by Shanxi people in the history. After more than 300 years of inheritance and evolution, the unique liquor-making technology in the North was formed. The brewing techniques of Laolongkou Liquor include water, good grain concentrate, Dragon Boat Festival trampling, fermentation in old cellar, distillation in steamer barrel, wine sea aging and careful blending. The liquor produced by Laolongkou Liquor has strong head and sauce tail, sweet and clean, mellow and long aftertaste.

The traditional brewing techniques of Laolongkou Liquor are typical representatives of the brewing techniques in the cold areas of Northeast China, which have important reference value for the study of the brewing history and the evolution of brewing techniques in North China. At the same time, many mysteries of biotechnology contained in this technology have high scientific research value.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor Daquanyuan Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Tonghua County, Jilin Province

Daquanyuan Liquor is produced in the southwest mountain area of Tonghua County, Jilin Province, where nearly 10 ethnic minorities live together. The climate is cold and people generally like to drink. Therefore, the wine-making industry has been an important pillar industry in this area.

Daquanyuan liquor brewing technology was created in Guangxu Decade of Qing Dynasty (1884). Based on the traditional brewing technology introduced by Shanxi businessmen, Daquanyuan liquor blended with local brewing technology, gradually formed its own unique style. It has both the advantages of the old five steamers brewing technology and its own regional style. Especially the high-quality mineral water blended with the high-grade original liquor produced by Daquanyuan Liquor is unique, which makes Daquanyuan Liquor have the characteristics of good quality, fresh and mellow, soft and clean, and is deeply loved by the local people, and then sold nationwide and even overseas.

Daquanyuan distillery still has used ancient wells and cellars for more than a hundred years. The original Jiuhai (wine storage container) is listed as a cultural relic protected at the provincial and municipal levels. These cultural relics, together with wine-making techniques, have become an important part of wine culture in Northeast China, which has high historical and cultural research value.

Daquanyuan distillery still has used ancient wells and cellars for more than a hundred years. The original Jiuhai (wine storage container) is listed as a cultural relic protected at the provincial and municipal levels. These cultural relics, together with wine-making techniques, have become an important part of wine culture in Northeast China, which has high historical and cultural research value.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor Traditional Brewing Techniques of Baofeng Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Baofeng County, Henan Province

Baofeng Liquor is a delicate-flavor liquor, named for its production in Baofeng County, Henan Province. Its brewing history can be traced back to the Xiayu era and reached its peak in the Tang and Song Dynasties. For thousands of years, Baofeng Wine has been loved by literati and poets, and many moving stories have been deduced from it. Li Bai, the poet of Tang Dynasty, Wu Daozi and others have left works related to Baofeng Wine.

Baofeng Liquor is made from local high-quality sorghum and mixed starter of barley, wheat and pea. It is brewed by the technology of "steaming twice and clearing" and pot fermentation, pottery storage and aging. The wine is pure, sweet and refreshing, with a long aftertaste. Baofeng Liquor has been awarded national-level high-quality famous liquor for many times, and in 2002 it was certified by the National Origin Mark Protection Registration Certification. The key link of traditional brewing technology of Baofeng Liquor is manual operation, which is complex and costly. Since the end of the 20th century, a large number of low-cost liquors produced by modern technology have been dumped, which has greatly impacted Baofeng liquor. Its brewing techniques need to be protected and fostered urgently.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor. Traditional Brewing Techniques of Wuliangye Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Yibin City, Sichuan Province

Yibin City is located in the south of Sichuan Province. The local brewing industry has a long history, which began in the Song Dynasty. Wuliangye liquor brewing technology originated from Yibin, and has been developing and inheriting until now.

Wuliangye, characterized by the brewing of miscellaneous grains, can be traced back to the Song Dynasty's "Yaozi Xuequ". Around the Ming Dynasty, Chen opened Windford Grains Square in Yibin, where he was a brewer himself. After several explorations, he created the "Chen's Secret Prescription". In the early years of the Republic of China, Deng Zijun inherited "Chen's Secret Prescription" and adjusted the formula many times to make it more scientific and reasonable in proportion. The traditional brewing technology of Wuliangye is based on the "Chen's Secret Formula" of five kinds of grain: sorghum, rice, glutinous rice, wheat and maize. The whole production process consists of more than one hundred processes including koji making, brewing source and blending. In 1915, Wuliangye won a gold medal at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in the United States, and has been well-known in the world ever since. In 2006, Wuliangye was awarded the first batch of "old Chinese brands" issued by the Ministry of Commerce.

The special and complex traditional brewing techniques of Wuliangye liquor have concentrated the essence of many traditional folk brewing techniques. Even today, this traditional process still has its irreplaceable value and is an important part of our wine culture.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor. Traditional Brewing Techniques of Shuijingfang Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Chengdu City, Sichuan Province

The traditional brewing techniques of Shuijingfang liquor originated from Shuijingjiefang in the confluence of Dongmen Fuhe River and Nanhe River in Chengdu in the Ming and Qing Dynasties and have been passed down to this day. Shuijingfang liquor is closely related to the famous Shuzhong liquor "Jinjiangchun" brewed by the Jinjiang River in Chengdu in the Song Dynasty. Over the past thousand years, through generations of inheritance, "Fushengquan" and "Quanxing Cheng" liquor-making workshops have introduced the old and the new, and successively brewed Xue Tao liquor, 800 Spring liquor, Quanxing Daqu liquor, Tianhao Chen liquor, Shuijingfang liquor is one of them.

Shuijingfang's traditional techniques have remarkable characteristics in the brewing techniques of Luzhou-flavor liquor. Its liquor starter is made from wheat and sorghum, which is different from "Peach Blossom Song" in March and "Fuqu" in midsummer. Ingredients, perfect integration of single-grain wine and multi-grain wine characteristics; fermentation distillation using the original cellar layered stacking method; blending seasoning method to make the original wine stored for many years eventually form a "strong but not bright, elegant but not light" flavor elegant style.

Shuijingfang Liquor brewing still uses the ancient cellar group with a history of more than 600 years. This is the storage of liquor-making microorganisms, which can be used to study the characteristics of liquor-making microorganisms and the change of liquor-making technology.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor. Traditional Brewing Techniques of Jiannan Spring Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Mianzhu City, Sichuan Province

Jiannan Spring Wine is produced in Mianzhu City, Sichuan Province. It uses glutinous rice, rice, wheat, sorghum and maize as raw materials. It is first brewed with wheat as medium-high temperature koji, then fermented in mud pit at low temperature and solid state. Then, it is brewed by continuous grains ingredients, mixed steaming and burning, quality wine picking, original degree storage, blending and flavoring. Traditional brewing techniques of Jiannan Spring Wine are complex, including mud pit production and maintenance techniques, Daqu medicine production and identification techniques, original wine brewing and picking techniques, original wine aging techniques, tasting and blending techniques and other related techniques.

The traditional brewing techniques of Jiannan Spring Liquor were basically formed in the prosperous Tang Dynasty. Through the inheritance and development of the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, the traditional brewing techniques of Mianzhu Daqu Liquor represented by Jiannan Spring were continuously improved and matured during the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty. The production of Jiannan Spring Wine has been using the old technology of solid grain fermentation in mud cellar. Eleven pits built in the early years of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty still play a role in the "Tianyilao" winery, which is called "living cultural relics" in the history of wine-making. Jiannanchun liquor is regarded as an important representative of Luzhou-flavor liquor in China because of its rich aroma, pure elegance, mellow and soft, sweet and clean, long aftertaste and full body.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor Traditional Brewing Techniques of Gulinlang Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Gulin County, Sichuan Province

The traditional brewing technique of Gulinlang liquor, which has been handed down by Gulinxian liquor factory for one hundred years, is spread in Gulinxian County, Sichuan Province. During the Northern Song Dynasty, Gulin County began to produce Fengqu liquor. Since 1903, there have been large-scale fermentation grains in Erlang Town, Huichuan grains and Jiyi grains. Their products are named Huishalang wine, which summarizes the characteristics of origin and technology. In 1933, Huishalang liquor was renamed Langjiu. The distillation of Langjiu liquor has the remarkable characteristics of "four high and one long": high temperature koji making, high temperature accumulation saccharification, high temperature fermentation, high temperature distillation liquor and long-term storage. During the production process, two feedings of grain, eight times of starter fermentation, seven distillation and liquor extraction, more than three times of cave storage are needed. Finally, traditional techniques are carefully blended and seasoned.

The traditional brewing techniques of Gu Linlang liquor are handed down from generation to generation by oral and heart-to-heart among local folk brewers. The techniques of hand-made koji-making at Dragon Boat Festival in May, grain-feeding in September, high-temperature production, and aging of new liquor by cave-storage are of great individuality. The wine-making culture in southern Sichuan and Northern Guizhou is developed in China. The exhibition has high historical value. The traditional brewing techniques of Gulinlang Liquor are good at cultivating unique microbial flora, showing superb traditional scientific and technological means, which provides a useful reference for the brewing of Maotai-flavor liquor.

Traditional Brewing Techniques of Distilled Liquor

Declaration area or unit: Shehong County, Sichuan Province

Tuo Paiqu liquor, produced in Shehong County, Sichuan Province, was developed from Spring liquor and Ming metabolic liquor in Tang Dynasty. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, Li Mingfang, owner of Tai'an Oxalis Workshop in Liushu Town, introduced koji production technology while inheriting Ming metabolic liquor technology, which not only maintained the traditional characteristics, but also made some innovations. In the former Qing Dynasty, Ma Tianqu's feeling was intoned as "Tuoquan brews fine wine, brand reputation Qianqiu", which was named "Tuopai Qujiu". In 1951, Tai'an Oufang was renamed "Shehong Experimental Winery", and Li's father and son were employed as consultants to inherit the original technology and resume the production of Tuo brand Qujiu.

From the selection of raw materials and accessories to the brewing and storage, the brewing techniques of Tuobai Qu liquor are judged by the brewing technicians "watching, smelling, touching, kneading and tasting", and the operation is carried out. Its inheritance is mainly handed down orally. The traditional brewing techniques of Tuobai Qu liquor, with a history of more than 1300 years, are typical representatives of the traditional distilled liquor brewing techniques in China. They are of great academic value in the research of the brewing history and the traditional bio-fermentation industry in China. In 2006, "Tuo Pai" was awarded the title of "Chinese Old Brand" by the Ministry of Commerce. Tai'an Oxalis, an important carrier of traditional brewing techniques of Tuo Pai Qujiu, was also recognized as "Chinese Food Cultural Heritage" by the State Administration of Cultural Relics.

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