Tie dyeing skills
Tie-dyeing, known as Zha Val, Ge Val, Jia Val and Dye Val in ancient times, is a traditional and unique dyeing process of Chinese folk. A dyeing method in which fabrics are partially tied up so that they cannot be dyed is one of the traditional handmade dyeing techniques in China.
Tie-dyeing process is divided into two parts, tie-dyeing and dyeing. It is dyed by knitting, sewing, binding, affixing and clipping of fabrics through yarn, thread, rope and other tools. Its technological feature is a printing and dyeing technology in which the twisted yarn is twisted into knots, then dyed, and then the twisted yarn is dismantled. It has more than one hundred techniques of change, each with its own characteristics. For example, "winding up" is rich in halo, changing naturally and interesting. What's more amazing is to tie every flower, even if there are thousands of flowers, they will not appear the same after dyeing. This unique artistic effect is difficult to achieve in mechanical printing and dyeing process.
In 2006 and 2008, the Bai nationality tie-dyeing techniques in Dali, Yunnan, and Zigong tie-dyeing techniques in Sichuan have been listed as national intangible cultural heritage by the Ministry of Culture. In 2007, Zhang Shishen of Zhoucheng, Dali, Yunnan, was identified as the national successor of tie-dyeing. In 2011, Nantong tie-dyeing technology applied by Haian County was included in the list of intangible cultural heritage at Jiangsu Province level. In 2014, Jiao Baolin was named the provincial inheritor of tie-dyeing technology in Nantong. Puzhen Variety Dyeing Workshop in Zhoucheng, Dali City, has been listed by the Ministry of Culture as a national demonstration base for the productive protection of intangible cultural heritage.
Tie-dyeing has a long history. It originated in the Yellow River Basin. When did it originate? The earliest existing tie-dyeing products are from Xinjiang. According to records, as early as the Eastern Jin Dynasty, tied anti-dyeing valerian has been produced in large quantities. In 408 AD, tie-dyeing was mature as early as the Eastern Jin Dynasty. At that time, there were simple clusters of patterns of valerian products, such as butterflies, chimonanthes, crabapples, etc. There were also whole patterns, such as white dots of "fish valerian", "agate valerian" with slightly larger dots, and purple ground white spots resembling "deer fetal valerial" of Sika deer. In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, tie-dyeing products were widely used in women's clothing. The Tang Dynasty was the flourishing period of Chinese ancient culture. The textiles of valerian were very popular and more common. The "green valerian dress" became the basic fashion style of the Tang Dynasty. In the Northern Song Dynasty, valerian products were very popular in the Central Plains and Northern areas.
Cloth is the carrier of tie-dyeing. Without textile, there would be no cloth, silk and silk brocade. Without such carriers, there would be no painting art on the carrier.
The textile history of our country can be traced back to Shang Dynasty or Western Zhou Dynasty at least from the existing historical materials. In the tombs of the Shang Dynasty and the Western Zhou Dynasty, many jade silkworms were found, which shows that people paid attention to sericulture at that time. By the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the silk weaving technology had made rapid progress. From the physical objects and documents excavated at that time, there were many kinds of silk fabrics with exquisite patterns. By the Han Dynasty, silk fabrics and dyeing and weaving techniques had made considerable progress. They could be classified into ten categories: cotton, silk, silk, silk, satin and so on. At the same time, silk production centers in Central Plains, mainly in Linzi and Xiangyi, were formed.
After the formation of the basic economic form of men's farming and women's weaving in the traditional society of China, the worship of "weaver girls" appeared in the social trend of thought. There is a beautiful image of Zhinu in the stone star portraits of the Han Dynasty. The stone statue of Zhinu was also found in Kunming Pond of Chang'an in the Western Han Dynasty. The "Weaver Girl" in these cultural relics is the deified image of countless women engaged in textile, embroidery, sewing and other handicraft production.
There are also many descriptions and descriptions of textile production labor in ancient documents. For example, "Mozi Ciguo", "Literary Grace of Women's Work" means that in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, the work of Zhinu was not only textile silk, but also "composition grace" in silk and cloth weaving. Meng Jiao's Zhifu Ci says, "The strength of the weavers is getting tired and the windows are running down." It vividly depicts the hard work of the weavers. Wang Jian's Brocade Song writes, "The red strands are covered with purple velvet, and the butterflies are flying in a whirlwind. One shuttle is loud, one shuttle is loud, and the jade wrist keeps rolling its sleeves. Describes the weaver's ingenious textile work. It is their night and day work that creates the world-famous fine textile and dyeing products of China.
What was the original loom used by ancient weavers to weave? I think that is roughly what the literature says about the "brake loom". Copper shellfish of the Han Dynasty was unearthed in Shizhaishan, Jinning, Yunnan Province. Its cover contains sculptured figures engaged in textiles. From the picture, this original loom is hand-foot. From the unearthed Jinqi objects of the Han Dynasty, it can be seen that the loom at that time could be skewed weaved and spent. In Wang Yi's Woven Fu of the Eastern Han Dynasty, "Silent Woman with Silent Fibers and Meridian Meridians", "Swaying and Capacious, Pitching and Posture" is a brilliant description of the work of Zhinu. It is their hard work that weaves the fine textiles of "square and round errors, wonderful and poor, insects, poultry and animals, and things are suitable for them".
Jinning, where copper shellfish came out of the land in Han Dynasty, belongs to Dianchi Lake area. At that time, there were Heman tribes in Dianchi Lake area (a powerful tribe in Southwest Yi). He Man was later divided into two tribes, Bai Man and Wu Man. They were the ancestors of Bai and Yi. We have reason to infer that in the Han Dynasty, Yunnan textile technology, which was located in the border area, was quite developed, and there must be Heman textiles, that is to say, there must be Bai and Yi ancestors'textiles.
In the Neolithic sites of Dadunzi, Erhai and Jinshajiang River valleys in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, a large number of primitive stone, ceramic spindles and spindles were excavated four or five thousand years ago, proving that there was textile production in Yunnan during the Neolithic Period, which further illustrates that there were not only cotton, wool and linen fabrics, but also other fabrics. It can use natural dyes to print and dye white laminated fabric. It can be seen that the textile technology of Nanzhao and Dali is comparable to that of the Central Plains.
According to Dian Zhi, silkworm production in Yunnan is also well developed. Zhaozhou (now Fengyi Town of Dali City and its surrounding areas) silk is well-known. In Han Dynasty, Zhaozhou silk was exported to Shan State (ancient name of Myanmar) and had a history of personal poisoning. During the Nanzhao period, the famous "red cloth" was produced in Erhai area, and the export of "well-head cloth" was recorded in Heqing.
"Pre-Han Shu, Southwest Yi, Guangdong and Korea Biography" said: "In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty, Bowang Hou Zhang Ji's words made Shubu Qiongzhu stick appear in the Great Summer. What's the question? Say: From the southeastern poisonous country, get thousands of miles Shujia people city. Or Wen Qiong Xike has poisoned his country for 2,000 miles..." The "Jia" mentioned by the Daxia people is likely to have Southwest Yi, i.e. the indigenous people, businessmen and horse gangs in the southwestern border of China. Because, as early as several hundred years before the opening of the Northern Silk Road, Southwest Yi opened up a secret southern land Silk Road through hundreds of years of hardship, starting with Yeyu (now the ancient city of Dali). Through this secret passage, Southwest Yi has had frequent economic and cultural exchanges with Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia and the Middle East for a long time. I suspect that Zhang Ji was wrong in hearing about "Shu Jia" and "Shu Bu". 1. Maybe Daxia people are not able to recognize the origin and accent of Chinese businessmen, and they are casually referred to as Shu cloth. Zhang Qian had not been to Yunnan at that time (after returning to Chang'an from Daxia along the northern Silk Road, he reported his experience to Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty and was dispatched by Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty to Yunnan to explore the secret passage of Southwest Yi). At that time, even if he saw the goods transported from Southwest Yi to Daxia, he might not be able to recognize those from Yunnan Province. 。 However, in any case, there is no doubt that the goods shipped by Chinese merchants and businessmen must be silk and cloth of Bai nationality in Yunnan.
In summary, we can draw the conclusion that the folk textile industry of Yeyu and Yongchang, which were the center of the southern land Silk Road at that time, had a fairly high technological level and output. This laid a stable material foundation for the tie-dyeing, dyeing and weaving of the Bai ancestors in Dali.
Qin and Han Dynasties
Tie-dyeing "Qin and Han Dynasties began" (Gongyi Records), has a history of thousands of years, this ancient dyeing valerian wonderful flower, has been deeply rooted in the people with its unique and wonderful beauty, embellishing and beautifying people's lives. Simple, natural and interesting tie-dyeing of this ancient dyed valerian flower, will surely re-shine in the Central Plains, more brilliant.
Prosperous Tang Dynasty
In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, tie-dyeing products were widely used in women's clothing. In the Afterword of Sou Shen, there were records of "purple valerian gown", "blue skirt", and "purple valerian gown" refers to the gown with "deer fetus valerian" pattern. The Tang Dynasty was the flourishing period of Chinese ancient culture. The textiles of valerian were very popular and more common. In Tang poems, we can see that the popular dress of women at that time was to wear "green valerian" and "small flowers and grass with flat heads". In the palace, it is widely popular with fine-grained twisted valerian, "green valerian dress" has become the basic fashion style of the Tang Dynasty. In the flourishing Tang Dynasty, tie-dyeing technology was introduced into Japan and other countries. Japan regards our tie-dyeing technology as a national treasure. Today, in Japan's Dongda Temple, the colorful twisted valves of the Tang Dynasty are still preserved. Later, it spread to Yunnan through Japan. Because of the abundant water resources and mild climate in Yunnan and Guizhou, the ancient tie-dyeing technology settled down there. In the sixteenth year of Tang Zhenyuan, Nanzhao Dance Team came to Chang'an to perform. Its dress was tie-dyed with "skirts of birds, animals, plants and trees, and eight colors of miscellaneous leather".
In the Song Dynasty's "Dali Traditional Chinese Painting Scroll", two warriors wore cloth crowns on their heads following the King's ritual Buddha, which are very similar to the traditional blue ground small group of white flowers tie-dyeing. It may be the direct record of Dali tie-dyeing used in clothing nearly a thousand years ago. With the continuous development of Nanzhao and Dali, tie-dyeing has become a handicraft printing and dyeing art with Bai ethnicity. The use of tie-dyeing techniques. Make the fabrics rich in changes, both simple and solid primitive class, and the modern beauty of changing and flowing, with the charm of Chinese painting ink and magical hazy beauty, tie-dyed clothing is based on national culture, both traditional and modern clothing art creation. There are various patterns in pinch dyeing, scratch dyeing, string dyeing and superimposed dyeing. The traditional tie-dyeing process can be developed from monochrome to multi-color effect by using multiple tie-dyeing and multi-dyeing processes on the same fabric. In ancient times, dyes were usually dyed with vegetable dyes, also known as vegetation dyes. Commonly used dyes are safflower, lithospermum, indigo, etc. Tie-dyeing techniques at that time included rice dyeing, face dyeing and bean dyeing. That is to say, bean noodles and lime are mixed into anti-dyeing paddles, which are coated on the cloth by the flower board, and then boiled and dyed. The effect of blue and white flowers can appear. According to the effect of the design pattern, a printing method is to bind cloth or clothing pieces with thread or rope in various ways and put them into dyeing solution. The binding site can not be penetrated by dyes to form a natural special pattern. It can also tie-dye the formed garments directly. There are two ways: String Tie and pin tie. The former is like dew dots, quiet and elegant, while the latter is vivid and fresh. Generally, it can be used to make loose clothes, scarves, etc. More choice of silk fabrics.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the dyeing and weaving skills of the Bai nationality area in Erhai reached a high level, and the dyeing and weaving guild came out. Erhai Weihong cloth in Ming Dynasty, Xizhou cloth and Dali cloth in Qing Dynasty were all popular products. By the time of the Republic of China, tie-dyeing at home had become very common. Towns such as Zhoucheng and Xizhou, which were famous for their one-family tie-dyeing workshops, had become famous tie-dyeing centers.
Tie-dyeing shows a strong folk art style. More than 1000 patterns epitomize the history and culture of thousands of years, reflect the people's customs and aesthetic taste, and form a charming weaving and dyeing culture with various technological means. Dali dyeing and weaving industry continues to develop, and Zhoucheng has become a well-known handicraft dyeing village far and near. In 1984, a tie-dyeing factory was built in Zhoucheng. Nearly 5,000 women participated in tie-dyeing. More than 80% of them were sold to more than 10 countries and regions, such as Japan, Britain, the United States and Canada. The supply was in short supply. Here, women are tied flowers, households are dyeing, has become an important tie-dyed fabric origin. Only by seriously solving the above problems can we promote the inheritance and development of weaving and dyeing techniques. In 2006, tie-dyeing technology was approved by the State Council and selected as the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. The declared areas are Dali City in Yunnan Province and Zigong City in Sichuan Province.