Tibetan costume

Home Culture 2019-04-05

Tibetan costume

Tibetan costumes Tibetan men's clothes are divided into three categories: labor dress, superfluous dress and warrior dress. Women's clothes change greatly in festivals, major events in life and etiquette. Festival costumes are richer and more magnificent than usual.

Nowadays, many Tibetan families have added modern clothes such as suits and jackets to their wardrobes, reflecting the new taste of Tibetan people's clothing. However, many people still wear traditional clothes on festivals.

historical origin

At present, the oldest and extant material information about Tibetan costumes is a small amount of decorations unearthed from the site of Changdu Karuo, including pieces of decorative hairpins, jewels, beads, necklaces, brand decorations and shells. It reflects that the indigenous people of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have a high aesthetic interest four or five thousand years ago. They not only have bone needles for sewing clothes, but also have a certain aesthetic consciousness to create them. Zhu et al.

Tubo Era

Tibetan costume culture has made great progress. During the period of "Zhongerding King" (equivalent to the mid-Western Han Dynasty in the Central Plains), Tubo in the Yalong Valley in the South began to smelt iron, copper, silver and other minerals, creating conditions for the emergence of metal jewelry. Tibetan history records that in the 3rd century AD, when Latuoyi Nianzan was celebrated, Tubo Zanpu's clothes were different, and there were differences in dress grades. During the Songzan Ganbu period, the history of Tubo opened a new page, the Tubo culture developed rapidly, and its costume culture developed day by day. The Tubo slavery Dynasty had strict hierarchy, and its performance in clothing was becoming more and more complete. From the Dunhuang murals reflecting the prosperity of Tubo, we can see that the rank difference of the clothes of the monarchs and ministers is that only Zanpu can use the three-petal crown with grooved decorative rimless cap, which is red, usually higher than that of ordinary people; and the ministers and servants of the Tibetan King often wear flat-topped rimless caps. The styles of gowns are also different. Officials'decorations stipulate that there are first-class serge, second-class gold, third-class gold and silver, fourth-class silver, fifth-class copper and sixth-class iron. They are twelve-grade in size. They are hung in boxes of three cubic inches in order to distinguish the height of their posts. With the development of the Tubo smelting industry, the armor of the army has become more and more sophisticated. Some of them have only two holes in their bodies, and their sharp bows and blades are often unbreakable. Their majesty and bravery are still visible in the Tubo warriors'statues in the murals of Dazhao Temple today. Tubo aristocrats not only wear luxurious clothes themselves, but also decorate their servants at parties and banquets. Songzangganbu, as Zanpu, wears a red belt, a long gown and tiptoe-up boots. According to Red History, this kind of Royal dress is influenced by Persian dynasty, reflecting that cultural exchanges have affected the cultural level of clothing. The close contacts between Tubo and Central Plains from the beginning of Songzangganbu, and the long-term contacts between the two ethnic cultures are more important to the development of Tibetan clothing. It's fresh blood. When Princess Wencheng entered Tibet, she brought in 20,000 pieces of various satins, brocades, silks and colorful clothes, as well as a large number of gold and jade articles. Songzan Ganbu and the Tubo ministers removed their felt furs and changed them into silk ones. In modern Tibet, senior officials wore gold wings and white yarn hats with their hair in a bun, which was the dress of the Jinshi in the Tang Dynasty. In addition, Princess Wencheng's suggestion was adopted to prohibit "ocher noodles" (oil-coated noodles). Princess Wencheng's entrance into Tibet also brought silkworm planting and textile technology. The "mulberry planting and silk weaving" greatly promoted the development of Tubo's clothing technology. A large number of Tubo costumes and cultural relics unearthed in Dulan, Haixi Prefecture, Qinghai Province, truly and vividly reflected the technological level of Tubo's clothing. The fabric pattern of clothing is mostly Beaded animal pattern. The gold jewelry and ornaments of decorations are amazing. Today, the mosaic of Tibetan women's jewelry can be found in these cultural relics. Stein's "Ancient Central Asian Cultural Relics" also mentioned: "Among the relics found in Tubo, there are many silk fabrics with patterns, some of which are printed, some of which are woven, and many changes in patterns and images, which can very well indicate the commercial status of Tubo,... Probably the trade focus between China and West Asia. "Frequent exchanges have promoted the development of Tubo economy and clothing culture.

Tubo is a military empire. In the course of its development, it conquered and merged many other nationalities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its marginal areas, which is an important reason for the cultural differences among Tibetans in different regions today. The same is true in the performance of clothing. In the Tubo era, the differences were mainly manifested in the different costumes of Dongnu, Fuguo and Dangxiang tribes. Dongnu tribes lived in Kangyanchuan (now Changdu) and were in the development stage of matriarchal clan society. Their queens wore green fur skirts, green robes, sleeves long to the ground, and lamb furs decorated with brocade in winter. Seizure girl bun, two earlobes (earrings). Foot wear leather (leather boots). Generally, men's hair is shawled and women's hair is differentiated. Both men and women are painted in colour. Wang died and died for three years, not easy to wear, not to wash. Fuguo is a Tibetan-Qiang fusion of Jiarong Tibetans in the area of Aba, Sichuan. They wear round leather caps or have a good curtain separation (i.e. masks and other ornaments for women). Wear fur, fur and leather shoes. The neck is tied with a cord and the hand is tied with a hairpin. The king and the chieftain wore gold as their jewelry, with three inches of golden flowers hanging on their chest. Dangxiang is a pure nomadic tribe, "wearing felts to wear brown, felts to wear as upper decoration", as early as the Northern Zhou Dynasty, silk can produce exquisite rhinoceros armor, iron armor. In the northwest of Sichuan, Deng Zhi, Wu Xingguo and Duchang, who belong to the Dangxiang Tribal Alliance, wear black soap-protruding riding caps, long gowns, small trousers and leather boots. They are similar to Tibetan costumes in pastoral areas of Sichuan today. In addition, there are Tuguhun in Qinghai area, and noble women wear golden robes and corollas. If a woman's hairstyle is to distinguish her hair and wear pearl shellfish after it, and the variety is noble, this dress is roughly the same as that of Tibetan women in Qinghai today. The costume characteristics of these areas are the mother type of different Tibetan costumes in different places today. After the collapse of the Tubo Dynasty, Tibetan society has been in a state of chaos of separatist regimes for more than 200 years from the middle of the ninth century to the Eleventh century. During this period, the war was in turmoil, and the development of costume art was inevitably doomed and stagnated, while the warrior costumes related to war developed in a timely manner. A large number of ancient warriors'armor and weapons have been excavated at the site of the Arigoug Kingdom. Its armor is mostly made of steel sheet armor, which is made of thin leather strips. The method of bonding is quite complicated. The shield in the weapon is woven with rattan strips into a circle with a diameter of 80 cm. The front is inlaid with copper reinforcement pieces. The copper pieces are carved with fine decorations. Therefore, it can also be called copper ornaments. There are four copper rings on the back. The rings can be connected with leather strips for holding the handle, regardless of the clothing and soldiers. Whether the warriors were produced locally or imported from other parts of Tibet showed that the warriors'clothing in Tibet had distinct local characteristics and individuality at that time.

Another characteristic of clothing development in this period is the rise of Buddhist monk clothing. In the eighth century, the first group of monks appeared in Tibet. The clothes were supplied by the Zampu treasury, and then by the people and the government. Buddhist costumes also form a hierarchical distinction, and have different costumes for festivals and peacetime, forming a system of their own. Many upper-class monks live in luxury and wear gorgeous clothes. "Sit down and wear heavy clothes, put on an umbrella cover, body clothes brocade..." ". Early Tibetan monk clothing was greatly influenced by India. According to legend, the Beixia hat was first handed down by the Indian King to the lotus peanut of King Ningma, and became one of Tibetan monk hats. But later, Tibetan monk's clothes developed rapidly and had local color. More than two hundred years after the extinction of Buddha by Langdama, Buddhism rose again and formed many factions, which differed not only in the interpretation of Buddhist scriptures, but also in dress and clothing. The ancient Ningma monks wear red robes, so they are also called the Red Religion. The Kagyu faction wears red hat or black hat to show the difference between the different factions. This phenomenon of representing identity and belief by clothing is one of the important functions of Tibetan clothing culture, and it is also a distinctive feature in the history of Tibetan clothing.

Yuan Dynasty

In the Yuan Dynasty, Tibet belonged to the Central Dynasty, so it had close contact with the Yuan Dynasty in all aspects of culture, and the influence on clothing was greater than that of the previous dynasty. In Tibet, the Yuan Dynasty divided the feudal envoys, conscripts envoys, and ten thousand households, wearing different kinds of Tibetan robes with different decorations and crowns. Even before the Democratic reform, the name of the four-grade officials of the Gaxia government retained the Yuan Dynasty's name "Cunza Huaerbaima" (Mongolian robe with Tibetan meaning of lotus pattern). The main symbols of official products are also the differences of the top decorations on the Mongolian style "Jiangda" (that is, the crown). Officials and nobles'housekeepers, followers and servants' hats also have certain forms. Big housekeepers should wear "Soxia" (i.e. flat-topped Mongolian hat) when holding ceremonies, and so on. There is also a kind of cake-shaped cap that aristocrats usually wear, such as "Xiamubaodoo", housekeepers or root cloth (village officials). In this period, the clothes of Sakya's upper officials and aristocrats were either imitated by Mongolian aristocrats or given directly to the Yuan Dynasty. It was very common to wear it. The pastoral areas in northern Tibet have a lot of contacts with the Mongolian people, and there are still some Mongolian costume customs.

Another characteristic of Tibetan costumes in Yuan Dynasty is that religious beliefs have more influence on costumes. With the revival of Buddhism, strict hierarchy of monks tends to form, which makes religious culture permeate clothing, shoes and hats in various forms and means, and express a specific meaning with specific patterns or symbols. This phenomenon also affects folk attire, such as the appearance of robe-like color of Tibetan robes and decorations printed with religious symbols and Buddhist magic weapons, etc.

The Ming Dynasty

During the Ming Dynasty, the central government further strengthened its ties with Tibetan localities. In the Ming Dynasty, the commanding envoys of Shiwusi Tibetan Travel Capital and Dogan Travel Capital were in charge of Tibetan areas in Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai and Western Sichuan, and they were often rewarded with large quantities of brocade silk and silk mattresses to the upper nobles in Tibetan areas. From the tribute items in Tibet, the majority of tribute items are made up of such textile items as Shu Shu, Mao Mu, Fuli Ma, Tili Ma and so on. It shows that the textile industry in Tibet also developed greatly at that time. Textile industry is the foundation of clothing development. Another good condition for the development of Tibetan costume industry in the Ming Dynasty was the large amount of tea-horse trade between the Central Plains and the Tibetan government and the people, and the importation of a large number of silk, satin and textile products for Tibet, which was beyond the reach of any previous era.

In addition, Tibetan opera art in the Ming Dynasty has made great progress, and clothing art closely related to Tibetan opera art has naturally sprung up rapidly. Tibetan opera costumes developed another kind of highly exaggerated costumes and a large number of masks besides the daily costumes of the nobles in history. And these costumes and masks are strictly arranged according to the status and identity of the drama characters, and serve for their personality characteristics. This kind of costume is gorgeous and exaggerated. It focuses on expressive force and strong decorative effect. It successfully put Tibetan costume on the stage of drama after being artistically treated, which adds new blood to Tibetan costume culture. At the same time, it has greatly promoted the development of Tibetan drama, dance, art and other arts.

Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty was an unprecedented unified multi-ethnic country in Chinese history. During this period, Chinese culture of all nationalities has been greatly developed and gradually finalized. It has the closest connection with today. Tibetan costume culture is no exception, so we will mainly focus on the Tibetan costume culture in the Qing Dynasty. We will further explore the structure, artistic characteristics, aesthetic characteristics and production technology of Tibetan costume culture in order to deepen the characteristics of Tibetan costume culture.

Clothing type

Roughly speaking, due to the differences in natural conditions, production methods and history, Tibetan costumes are extremely rich and colorful. There are many differences and numerous enumerations. In some areas, there are great differences between counties and counties, townships and townships. More than 200 types of clothing have been found, ranking first among ethnic minorities in China.

Men's clothing category

There are three kinds of Tibetan men's clothes, i.e. labor dress, formal dress and warrior dress.

Le gauge

With the change of climate all the year round, the rules also change. In spring and summer, the upper body is generally wearing short shirts with cotton cloth or cocoon silk and brocade waist. The left side is big and the right side is small. Then it is wearing a round-necked and wide-sleeved robe sewn with cotton and wool. In Tibetan, it is called Chuba. It is usually decorated with seven-color stripes, such as red, green, blue and purple. The length is about 2 meters and the width is about 20 centimeters. The waist is tied to the Chuba circumference. The sleeves are crossed and tied to the waist behind the fore-abdomen circumference. The sagging part of the long-distance running is edged on the knee. A belt is formed at the waist for carrying things. The waist, gear and legs of the trousers are very wide, wearing short Tibetan shoes and felt hat. In autumn and winter, clothes and trousers are made of cattle and sheep leather or made of artificial wool. Chuba is also made of wool or sheepskin. It wears ear-protecting leather caps and long leather shoes or self-made Tibetan shoes with leather soles and velvet uppers.

Superfluous rules

The redundant rules are Festival Dress and etiquette dress. The material selection is expensive and the workmanship is exquisite. It is a fine Tibetan dress. Men's jackets and jackets. Underwear, Tibetan called bag gauge or pair of enamel, mostly choose silk and fluorescent fabric, the color is generally white, purple, light yellow, high collar, flange and collar are inlaid with gold edge or silver edge, there are also a variety of color patterns of silk satin as fabric, underwear are Wrist-Length sleeves; coat, Tibetan called crossing rules or collapse winter, choose brocade printed with round longevity, lotus and other flower patterns as material. The style is the same as underwear, but sleeveless. Chuba collars, cuffs, hems or otter skins, leopard skins or tiger skins are used as decorative edges. The width of the edges is about five inches. Some of them are made of white fur and fur on the edges. The patterns (Tibetan for Yong Zhongrenmu, the symbol of durability and eternity) are lined with brocade and satin traditional colors narrower than the edges. Some are lined with gold and silver flat lines. The bottom layer is otter skin, the top is mink skin, and the top is tiger skin. Almost all the hems of Chuba are covered with edges. The trousers are made of white fluorescent silk and the feet wear long Tibetan shoes with leather soles and velvet uppers. Men's jewelry mainly includes Gawu, oblique waist knife, Chuba back pendulum with beautiful wavy tail fold, wearing Dragon Silver knife, foot pedal Tibetan boots, a Kangba man's handsome image and brave temperament will be fascinating.

Tie gauge

Wearing a fox cap, mink trimmed cloth or woolen cloth, a long knife at the waist, amulet and a long rifle, the warrior's heroic and masculine beauty is displayed.

Women's clothing

Tibetan costumes are also mainly manifested in the changes of women's costumes in festivals, major events in life and rituals. Festival dresses are richer and more magnificent than usual. As we all know, the difference between adult etiquette and women's dress before and after marriage is a major feature of Tibetan dress system. When Tibetan girls in Qinghai rural areas reach the age of 15 or 17, they should change their childhood braids into adult braids. And we should choose auspicious days, called "wearing the head of heaven" (that is, the girl's adult ceremony), and ask monks to hold religious ceremonies first, and then adult women to renew their clothes for girls, worship Buddha, ancestors and parents, when the female relatives sing "kneeling to worship heaven and ancestors song". At the age of fifteen, Haizang girls wear "Malton" (haircase), which is made of cloth or satin and decorated with many silver shields and corals. Guoluo Tibetan newlyweds wear big sleeve coats and gorgeous vest. The sleeves of the coats are set with a circle of rainbow-like edges. Similarly, the hairdresses of unmarried Tibetan women in Tianzhu are much shorter than those of married women, while the braided hairdresses of Tibetan women in Aba Prefecture begin to grow after they are 16 years old. Gansu Zhuoni unmarried girl combed three braids together, married women in the middle, not on both sides, but from below the waist and all braided together.

Some adult clothing still retains the ancient style. For example, when Tibetan women in Songfan farming area of Aba Prefecture get married, they need to have amber tubular bags on their heads. Such headwear is said to be the headdress of ancient women in Ali area of Tibet, which is rare in the whole Tibetan area today.

Folk custom differences

Increasingly perfect Tibetan costume culture is rich in connotations and diverse in levels. It has certain structural characteristics, many hierarchical and regional differences, and some specific costume systems. Tibetans are the indigenous inhabitants of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and a part of the ancient Qiang people, which is almost the consensus of the historians. Whether they are the Haiqiang of the ancient Qiang people or the creators of Karo and Qugong cultures, they all live on the roof of the world with high terrain, cold climate and harsh natural conditions. They mainly live in animal husbandry and agriculture, which determines the basic clothing of the Tibetan ancestors. It is characterized by thick heat preservation, wide and warm waist and long sleeve skirt. In order to adapt to the fluidity of animal husbandry production living by water and grass, it has gradually formed a big breast and waist, leaving a prominent gap in the chest (like a bag), so that when going out, butter, bamboo, tea, rice bowl can be stored, even young children can be put in, when the weather is hot or working, according to the need, the right arm or both arms can be exposed, the sleeve is tied to the waist, adjust body temperature, and wear it again when needed, No. Must all take off, very convenient, sleep at night, unlock the belt, take off the sleeves, lay half of the cover, become a warm big sleeping bag, can be said to be a multi-purpose, of course, these dressing methods and use functions can not be ready day by day, nor need to be detailed. However, it is not difficult to imagine that the Tibetan tone has been formed for a long time. Some people have studied the bronze images and ancient murals before and after the Western Han Dynasty, and found that the ancient Qiang people are very similar to today's Tibetan clothing. They are fat waists, long sleeves, big breasts, right jackets, long skirts, waists, bare arms, fur garments, etc. They are strikingly similar, which shows that Tibetan clothing has a strong stability, which is the best explanation for the shape of clothing determined by the ecological environment and lifestyle.

Class differences

noble

In terms of hierarchical differences, there is no fundamental difference between the structure of noble Tibetan robes and that of folk Tibetan embraces. The differences are mainly manifested in texture and pattern. Aristocratic clothes have fine texture and exquisite patterns. Generally, there are Python Satin gowns, with yellow, red, blue, green, white, purple and other colors as the tone, above which there are "Gongxi" Wenxiang (dragon, water, fish, cloud, etc.). This gown is often worn by officials with more than four articles when they meet the Dalai Lama or when ceremonies are held on major festivals. "Cunza Baimajia" gown (Lianfeng brocade Satin gown) is a kind of satin gown with lotus flowers and Phoenix patterns. It and "Cunza Huaerbaima" (lotus Satin Mongolian gown) are ordinary Tibetan gowns for celebrating New Year's Festival for officials with more than four grades. In addition, there are tuanhua brocade Satin robes, "scarves" robes and so on, which are precious collection robes of senior urban nobles such as Lhasa Zhigaze. The historical records of Garonpolo's costumes in the eighteenth century provide us with precious materials for the costumes of the upper nobles and local government officials at that time. From the situation reflected in the book, the noble's jacket at that time, usually wearing five-color brocade Satin texture collar sleeveless, with leather as the inside. heavy

On big festivals, they wear Python robes, sable shawls, jackets, girdles of gold and satin, knives and purses on top, cowhide boots on their feet, hair on their heads, beads on their left ears. Apart from the flat cap, the other clothes are roughly the same as the polo. In addition, they also carry bony finger, Rosary beads, and a knife-sheath-like iron slip inserted into the waist of the literate, which contains stationery such as bamboo stick pens, Tibetan ink bottles and so on. During the festival, these subordinate officials put their hair in a bun or two buns, wore a wingless white gauze cap (Tang Dynasty scholar cap), golden Turquoise Earrings in the left ear, coral pendants in the right ear, wearing a large narrow-sleeved brocade with razor-trimmed edges, with five colors of brocade Satin the cuffs, and wore a hundred-fold black swath skirt and a large red satin belt at the waist. These aristocratic clothing, in addition to the wingless white yarn hat and stationery cylinder, other clothing is still popular today.

According to the records in Tibet Chronicle, the civilian men's clothing at that time was a large collar without robes. Texture has Shuttlecock, silk and satin and other irrelevant colors, all wear flat caps, hands with bone plate, waist belt or hair belt, holding Rosary beads, also wearing knives and other accessories. In the way of dressing, there are some differences between aristocrats and civilians. The men's robes of aristocrats fall to the instep of their feet and are tight. The robes of ordinary people are generally lifted to the knees, and their upper body is loose, which is convenient for holding things and activities. When working, they take off the sleeves of their robes and tie them to their waists.

During this period, noble women's costumes were more gorgeous. The book The Biography of the Pyrrhus, written in 1733, recorded that the wedding dresses of the wife of the Pyrrhus were as follows: wearing a smooth and soft black-blue skirt close to her body, covering with God's blue robe, and blue corrugated folds with peacock collar flowers. Wear silk brocade boots on your feet, jewel-inlaid belts with silk spikes around your waist, and gold bracelets and conch bracelets on your arms. The middle finger and ring finger sets are set with Gemstone rings. Red amber necklaces are worn on the neck. Short necklaces of coral, gemstone, amber and pearl are hung on the chest to form long necklaces. Hair is half-separated, combed on both sides, in which are beaded top buns, scattered behind a small braid, covered with gold and silver, pearls and jade, coral, gems. In addition, it also wears a triangular headdress with a huge pine earstone on the top bun. It is really full of jewelry, brilliant and dazzling. This kind of clothing is representative in the noble women's Festival Dress in Wei Zang.

Civilian

In addition, at that time, women usually wore pointed caps with red and green velvet tops, black and red cross-patterned skirts and bonded cushions. The jacket is a waist-length short sleeve jacket with wool, satin, cloth, etc. Square velvet shawl, Silver Coral Ring in hand, silver bronze in left hand and two-inch wide inkstone ring in right hand are said to have to be brought from childhood so as not to lose one's soul after death. Earrings are mostly made of gold and Silver Inlaid Turquoise with hooks on them. The above pearl coral string hangs on the hair and the next pearl coral string hangs on both shoulders, which is basically similar to the headdress of women in Wei-Tibet today. In addition, no matter rich or poor, we should wear two Rosary beads. The rich wear big honey wax beads. Besides silver-inlaid pearl-stone chest ornaments, they must wear Buddhist boxes. The rich also wear "Bazhu" on their heads, which is worth thousands of gold.

From the above dress situation, the performance of class dress difference in Weizang area has gradually changed from hierarchical difference to rich-poor difference. This trend was further developed in the middle of the eighteenth century, when the Biography of Poroe recorded the clothes of nobles and civilians in the Shigaze area at the end of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century, it said, "At that time, the Tibetan people lived and worked in peace and contentment and maintained the ancient fashion... Following the rules, the officials in Shigaze wear Kashgar scarves and hats, and their eardrops are beautiful like echoes in lotus ponds... The civilians wear buns, or loose braids, with wrinkles at the bottom of their clothes, "and then the author says," This is not the case today. They compete for brilliance in their clothes and follow suit. Just as clean water loses its original luster once it is polluted. The author's concern about these so-called "ritual collapse and music destruction" shows that the dress differences among different classes at that time were shrinking. Therefore, the gorgeous clothes of the above-mentioned Porona brides are common in today's Tibetan women's clothes, and they are all bowed down. Especially the luxurious headdress such as "Bazhu" has become one of the common clothes of modern Tibetan women. This trend has continued, and the growing commercialization of modern and contemporary clothing has strengthened this trend. Before the liberation of Tibet, Heindrich, a German, recorded the prosperity of the clothing business on Lhasa Street. "There are many kinds of goods in Lhasa, from needles and thread to glue thread... The felted hat is very similar to the wide-brimmed hat worn by Europeans. The duck-tongue caps in national form are naturally harmonious with their national costumes. "The commercialization of this kind of dress is undoubtedly due to the narrowing of the difference between dress grades.

Regional differences

In addition to the differences of stratum, regularity and seasonality, there are great regional differences in modern Tibetan costumes, especially in women's costumes. Like many other nationalities in the world, Tibetan women's clothes are much more complicated than men's. Perhaps people of all nationalities embody their preferences for beauty, even the wealth and pride of their families in women's clothes. Make women's dress one of the main characteristics and differences of national dress.

Tibetan women's clothing in Weizang area includes mainly the types of Gongbu area and Ali area, besides the clothing in Xigaze and Lhasa mentioned above. The most typical feature of clothing in Gongbu area is that both men and women wear "Guxiu", i.e. sleeveless gowns with wide shoulders. Guxiu, a man's dress, is tied up from the waist, but not knee-length, while Guxiu, a woman's dress, does not hang down to her feet. In addition, women's headwear has multiple buns.

Tibetan women's headdresses in Aba, Gannan Xiahe and Qinghai provinces are mostly "broken braids". They braid their hair into dozens of fine braids, then connect black or coffee silk threads to their ankles. A wide inch piece of hard cloth with true or false amber, agate or silver bowl-shaped ornaments fell from the head. From the arm there is a foot of hard cloth, hanging down to the ankle, decorated with bowl-shaped silver ornaments or silver, copper lines, up to dozens. Unmarried women, comb two braids, braided with red cloth blocks, Red Coral lines on the top. Some women were decorated with larger Turquoise otoliths at the parieto-forehead. A silver or iron or copper hook on the waistband, called "Xueji", was originally used to hang a milk bucket when milking, and then became an ornament. There is also a round or peach-shaped silver ornament called "Longguo" on both sides of the belt. There is a long hole in the lower part, which binds a red silk and green belt. It is quite elegant. In Gannan, men's clothes are made according to winter and summer festivals. They are made of lambskin, old sheepskin, felt, cotton cloth, etc. They are divided into single, clip, cotton and leather buttonless gowns with large collars. Summer barrel boards are thick and short wool, which is the main material for sewing summer clothes. Autumn barrel boards are slightly thin, and the wool length is moderate. It is suitable to sew clothes for four seasons. Winter barrel boards are thin and long-haired and used for winter clothes. More exquisite men's leather jacket, with leopard skin collar, black corduroy edge, leather curling; some with bat or brown to make, looks both beautiful and generous. The coat made of lambskin is light and beautiful. It is a dress for festivals and visiting relatives and friends. The lamb's fur has short curly winter lamb's fur, moderate spike-like double fur, and thin long double fur. Tibetan gowns sewn with lambskin are usually made of cords of various colors, velvet, satin or woolen noodles, laced with brocade or flower bats, otter skins and collared with Fox skins.

The neck of a hat is usually longer. Flowers are usually embroidered with thread and covered with red reels at the top, hanging around. There are also round felt hats, more often Fox and lamb hats. Their own rice bowls are for their own use. Even when they go out, they should carry their own rice bowls in their arms. Others'clothes and rice bowls will not be used customarily. Tibetan men usually wear boots, no socks, and barefoot in summer. When men go out, they love to ride horseback guns and knives. They seem to be very handsome. Men usually have a string of Rosary beads, which can be used not only as decoration for hanging, but also as counting for chanting sutras. They like to wear ivory bracelets, gold and silver rings and silver Amulet boxes. In the past, men wore braids and braided their hair on top of their heads. In some places, men have "Liu Hai" in their hair braids, but most of them have fluffy hair without braids. They like to wear sickles, silver boxes, Amulet boxes, sewing bags, waist knives, bullet bags, etc. The scabbard and handle of waist knives are mostly inlaid with gold and silver corals. The knife is suspended at the waist, and a short sword is obliquely inserted at the waist. Large earrings are also worn on their ears.

Regional differences

Different natural environments, folk customs, production and lifestyles determine the various regional costumes, seasonal costumes and folk costumes coordinated with them. The development and transformation of history, politics, religion and economy determine the vertical development of Tibetan costume culture and the great differences of various levels of costumes and professional costumes. Therefore, Tibetan costume culture has rich connotation, complex structure, diverse levels and distinct characteristics. Tibetan costumes, farming and pastoral areas are different because of the differences in labor characteristics:

crop growing areas

Men wear a long gown with a large collar and open right breast. When you wear clothes on your head, tie a belt around your waist and let the hanging part slip over your knees. When you stretch out your head, your waist will naturally form a bag, which can be put into your carry-on items. Leather boots or "pine shoes" are also worn barefoot. In the past, lay men wore braids. Sometimes they put braids on their heads for ease of operation. Usually they wear two ears with a big earring in their left ear. The Tibetan language is called "Nalong".

Lamas wear purple and red skirts with their feet aligned; they wear a vest and a purple-red sheet with a body length of two and a half times, which is called a "gown"; they wear special Lama boots with their feet, and many ordinary lamas barefoot; they wear hats according to regulations, mostly when chanting sutras, and they usually don't wear hats when going out of temples; monks and living Buddhas have prescribed hats, but when going out, they need to wear them. Put it on. Lama and nun's clothes have hierarchical boundaries, regardless of style, color or quality, all depend on their status. Their shoulders are set with satin, their long skirts and shawls are made of wool, and their shoes are set with a satin to indicate their status.

Women in rural areas and towns wear long-sleeved gowns in winter and sleeveless gowns in summer. They wear shirts of various colors and patterns. They wear a "pad" (apron) with colored stripes at their waists, but girls are not allowed to wear them. Because of the different natural conditions and climates in different parts of Tibet, the styles of clothing are also different, such as cloth, Changdu, Shannan, Xigaze and Lhasa, which have obvious regional characteristics. In terms of decoration, the regional characteristics are more obvious. Generally speaking, when a girl combs her hair in a braid, she divides it into two braids as an adult, and divides a small braid over her head for hanging "Bazhu". "Bazhu" is a kind of triangular headdress, which is usually tied into a triangular shelf with coral and pine earstones, and a "Gawu" (Buddha box) is worn on the chest as usual. A pair of fish-shaped ornaments (earrings) hang in front of both ears.

Pasturing area

Tibetan herdsmen mostly live in the vast grassland of northern Tibet, where the elevation is high, the wind and sand are big, and the climate is very cold. Their clothes first aim to keep out the wind and cold. Of course, they also pay attention to practicality and beauty. The sheepskin abounds in the grassland of northern Tibet is the main material for making clothes. The herdsmen in northern Tibet usually wear large, thick sheepskin robes, reveal their right arm, and shine bronze chest. Most of the robes are bare leather, and some are trimmed with black velvet about 15 centimeters at the cuffs, skirts and hems. Wear it during the day and cover it at night. They like to grow long hair, mixed with red silk thread into hair braids on the head, quite spectacular, so called "heroic hair". Red felt hats are worn in summer. These hats are very old. Many mountain gods in murals wear them. Wear a plush or fox cap in winter. In the Tubo period, even in later years, the fox skin was a symbol of cowardice, and the cowards who fled the battle were forced to wear fox tails to show humiliation. There were provisions of "cowardly fox law" in Tubo and Pazhu laws. However, in modern pastoral areas, even in towns and rural areas, fox hats were prevalent, with full head and feet and silk lining. Shepherds often wear lambskin gowns on festivals or grand celebrations, using wool or satin as fabrics, with otter skins or leopard skins on collars, cuffs and hems. Their waists are made of exquisite sickle boxes, bullet boxes, snuff boxes, bell-shaped amulets with chest or right seat. Men in pastoral areas can not do without waist knives, knives and guns. These used to be magic weapons for self-defense, and have gradually become a display of decoration or wealth. Women in pastoral areas also wear sheepskin gowns on weekdays. Necks, cuffs and hems are first trimmed with black velvet, and then trimmed with red, blue and green velvet.

In some areas, clothing has obvious historical relics, such as the Jiarong Tibetans in Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, because they have lived and interacted with the Qiang people for a long time, today's women's clothing also retains some characteristics of the Qiang people's clothing. For example, it is common to wear long gowns, mainly blue and black, with a waist around the lower body, silk ribbon around the waist, and a collarless jacket made of sheepskin or wool in winter.

In addition, there are some special systems for funerals. For example, the widow of Aba Prefecture in Sichuan Province should take all the ornaments off her body to keep filial piety, and hide them in the box for one to two years. And during this period, avoid wearing bright and gorgeous clothes to express the memory of the deceased.

Clothing everywhere

The most basic characteristics of Tibetan costumes are fat waist, long sleeves, big breast, right jacket, long skirt, boots, hair knitting, gold, silver, pearl and jade jewelry, etc. As a result of long-term closed survival, in general, the vertical difference of Tibetan costume development is not big, and its tone change is also small. The form and texture of Tibetan costumes depend to a great extent on the ecological environment of the Tibetan people and the production and lifestyle formed on this basis. Therefore, the regional characteristics of Tibetan costumes are obvious. Due to the different natural conditions and production modes, Tibetan costumes are rich and varied, and there are many differences, too many to enumerate. In some areas, there are great differences between counties and counties, townships and townships. At present, more than 200 types of clothing have been found, ranking first among the ethnic minorities in China.

Lhasa as the Central Region

Farmers usually wear white round-collared right bathroom gowns with red, yellow and blue lace with cross pattern on the collar, cuffs and hem. They wear long gowns slightly longer than their height. When they wear them, they use a rope to fold and tie the gowns short at the waist, so that the gowns are just over their knees, forming a pocket at the waist for daily necessities. When they go out, the night gowns can be used as quilts.

There are some differences between Tibetan costumes in towns and farmers in Lhasa, especially for women. In summer, Lhasa women wear sleeveless skirts. The choice of color and fabric is totally different from that of herdsmen and farmers. Lhasa people like to use silk, satin, Serge and other fabrics with better texture to make Tibetan clothing. They prefer plain and elegant colors, contrary to the strong contrast of red and green that farmers and herdsmen like. In recent years, more and more urban residents wear suits and leather shoes. Even the peasants in the suburbs of Lhasa wear less and less traditional Tibetan clothes. The phenomenon of Han, Tibetan and suit mixing is widespread.

Herdsmen in pastoral areas of northern Tibet

Leather robes are worn almost all year round. The leather gown is smooth and facing outwards. The front, back and cuffs of the gown are sewn with coloured thread to produce large patterns. Generally, men's leather gowns are easy to handle and women's Tibetan gowns are complex. They need to be trimmed with many broad ribbons and decorated side by side in the back. There are black, red, green, purple and other colors. The number is mostly five to seven, and some of them are full of leather. Women in northern Tibet are also accustomed to braiding their hair into innumerable small braids. Because of the cold weather in northern Tibet, it is difficult for people to wash and comb their hair several times a year and a half. Moreover, they also wear pine-ear stones, agate, coral and amber in braids, which are hard to see in rural areas and towns. Women's Tibetan gowns in northern Tibet are trimmed with many broad ribbons and lined up behind them. Usually black, red, green, purple and so on, the number is mostly five to seven, and some of them are covered with leather. Most Tibetan women in southern Huangnan wear round-necked robes. The gown hangs down to the foot, and the waist is tied with a silk or cloth colored belt. Women along Zhuoni and Taohe rivers in Gannan often wear pomegranate hats (a dome with a pomegranate-shaped head at the back) and "chimney caps" (the top resembles a chimney with two-lobed brim, which can shelter the wind and rain). Dressed like a Manchu cheongsam, wearing a horse clip, belts with a self-woven geometric pattern of blue and white waistband. And the most prominent is the coral zebra, which is capped with coral and worn on its head, which is quite distinctive. Because of the warmer climate in Zhouqu, Gansu Province, women often wear thin and broad black gowns with short jackets, black or blue waistbands and long waistbands. The gowns are tied down in the waistbands. The trousers are very wide, the trousers are tied up at the mouth, and some of them are wrapped in leggings. Most of them are wrapped up and folded into two-inch-wide handkerchiefs. The whole coral in front of the chest and upper waist is decorated with a series of corals, and a large round silver plate is worn in front of the chest. Painting national patterns.

Aliplan Costume

Ali region is located in the Western Alpine Region of Tibet Autonomous Region. Because of its inconvenient transportation and relatively closed, its clothing still retains the characteristics of the Tubo period. Lambskin gowns are popular in Ali area, and they are made fine. Among them, women's clothing in Pulan is the most unique. The "peacock" clothing imitated peacocks is: wearing "Dima" (brown-blue colored line Dima cylindrical cap), earrings of coral, pearls and other long earrings of about 10 centimeters long, with caps and Earrings symbolizing the peacock's crown: white goat skin on the back of the peacock "changed into a cloak" (sheet), with a round pattern of rough bedding, symbolizing the peacock's back. The brown-blue color bathroom with circular pattern around the "Changba" is for the two wings of the peacock, and the bottom of the "Changba" is trident, which is the tail feather of the peacock. The "fresh dance" costumes popular in the counties of Arizada, Pulan and Gar also have their own characteristics. Women's horn-shaped headdress in front of a long bead curtain drooping cover, conveying a simple and dignified atmosphere. Lambskin gowns are popular. They are exquisitely made and elegantly decorated. The lambskin gown is mainly made of wool, with otter skin on collar, sleeve and bottom, and silk and satin coat, which are quite distinctive in the whole Tibetan area. And the most exquisite and unique of the Pulan costume is the women's "peacock" costume, which is closely linked with the beautiful name of the Ali Peacock River. Peacock River is a symbol of beauty and auspiciousness. In order to make peacock-like beauty and auspiciousness permanently exist in this land, women's decorations imitate peacocks and become popular today. Women wear a cap called "Dima", which is made of brown and blue colored thread. The bottom of the cap is cut off for braids. Women's eardrops are made of coral and pearls, which are about 15 centimeters long.

Southeast Tibet

The most typical feature of workcloth clothing is that both men and women wear "Guxiu", that is, wide sleeveless gowns. Guxiu, a man's dress, is tied up at the waist, but not at the knee, while Guxiu, a woman's dress, hangs down to her feet. Guxiu is mostly made of bathroom and fur. Men wear hats, especially mulberry hats decorated with satin, which are passed from Sang'angqulin in the south of Shanxi Province. The boots of cloth workers are also exquisite. They are "Nadao" and "Japanese Bureau". Both men and women wear them. "That knife" can be divided into upper, middle and lower grades. The boots of the Japanese Bureau are only worn at festivals.

Gannan area

Most Tibetan women's clothes in Gannan Tibetan area are round-necked gowns. The long gown is full of feet, without hem, with colorful belts such as silk and cloth tied around the waist. Wear a hat and a fox fur hat in winter. They wear many small braids on their heads, and then they are braided into one or two large braids. They use red cloth to make braids. They are decorated with various ornaments, such as clam shells, silver dollars, coral, etc., hanging from their backs to their hips. In some places, Tibetan women's hair is braided into many small braids. The middle braids of 3, 5, 7 and 7 are called "Zeli" from the middle braids to the left and right. According to the family property, each group of hair braids ends slightly, with a braided "tassels", the length of which is equal to the braids themselves. They are gradually shortened from left to right, called "Zetong". They wear "tassels" at the lower end of the braids, embeded with gold, silver, amber and green flowers. Jade, coral, silver shield and a row of square Carved Silver medals, with small coral string in the middle. Gold and silver, cat's eyes, turquoise, coral, Jasper and so on are the top items in the jewelry. In addition, we also use pine stones and corals to wear collaterals and drape them over our shoulders. There are collaterals of pine stones and corals on the back of our shoulders, which are cumbersome and drooping. The necklaces worn by women are very sophisticated. They are usually made of coral, turquoise, crystal, agate and so on. They are hung around the neck in 1-4 strings. Rich and wealthy people also have gold-and-gem necklaces, ranging in value from thousands of yuan to tens of thousands of yuan.

Kangba District, Sichuan Province

Tibetan Ersu costumes in Ganluo County, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province are the most representative. The Ersu people advocate white, with white as the beauty, the basic color is mainly white, blue and green, and then with various colors of decoration, clothing is often bright and bright, with great visual impact. Older people's clothes are elegant, solemn and restrained. Its clothing texture, style, ornaments, patterns, workmanship and other aspects have their unique national and regional characteristics.

Ali region is located in the Western Alpine Region of Tibet Autonomous Region. Because of its inconvenient transportation and relatively closed, its clothing still retains the characteristics of the Tubo period. Lambskin gowns are popular in Ali area, and they are made fine. Among them, women's clothing in Pulan is the most unique. The "peacock" clothing imitated peacocks is: wearing "Dima" (brown-blue colored line Dima cylindrical cap), earrings of coral, pearls and other long earrings of about 10 centimeters long, with caps and Earrings symbolizing the peacock's crown: white goat skin on the back of the peacock "changed into a cloak" (sheet), with a round pattern of rough bedding, symbolizing the peacock's back. The brown-blue color bathroom with circular pattern around the "Changba" is for the two wings of the peacock, and the bottom of the "Changba" is trident, which is the tail feather of the peacock. The "fresh dance" costumes popular in the counties of Arizada, Pulan and Gar also have their own characteristics. Women's horn-shaped headdress in front of a long bead curtain drooping cover, conveying a simple and dignified atmosphere. Lambskin gowns are popular. They are exquisitely made and elegantly decorated. The lambskin gown is mainly made of wool, with otter skin on collar, sleeve and bottom, and silk and satin coat, which are quite distinctive in the whole Tibetan area. And the most exquisite and unique of the Pulan costume is the women's "peacock" costume, which is closely linked with the beautiful name of the Ali Peacock River. Peacock River is a symbol of beauty and auspiciousness. In order to make peacock-like beauty and auspiciousness permanently exist in this land, women's decorations imitate peacocks and become popular today. Women wear a cap called "Dima", which is made of brown and blue colored thread. The bottom of the cap is cut off for braids. Women's eardrops are made of coral and pearls, which are about 15 centimeters long.

Southeast Tibet

The most typical feature of workcloth clothing is that both men and women wear "Guxiu", that is, wide sleeveless gowns. Guxiu, a man's dress, is tied up at the waist, but not at the knee, while Guxiu, a woman's dress, hangs down to her feet. Guxiu is mostly made of bathroom and fur. Men wear hats, especially mulberry hats decorated with satin, which are passed from Sang'angqulin in the south of Shanxi Province. The boots of cloth workers are also exquisite. They are "Nadao" and "Japanese Bureau". Both men and women wear them. "That knife" can be divided into upper, middle and lower grades. The boots of the Japanese Bureau are only worn at festivals.

Gannan area

Most Tibetan women's clothes in Gannan Tibetan area are round-necked gowns. The long gown is full of feet, without hem, with colorful belts such as silk and cloth tied around the waist. Wear a hat and a fox fur hat in winter. They wear many small braids on their heads, and then they are braided into one or two large braids. They use red cloth to make braids. They are decorated with various ornaments, such as clam shells, silver dollars, coral, etc., hanging from their backs to their hips. In some places, Tibetan women's hair is braided into many small braids. The middle braids of 3, 5, 7 and 7 are called "Zeli" from the middle braids to the left and right. According to the family property, each group of hair braids ends slightly, with a braided "tassels", the length of which is equal to the braids themselves. They are gradually shortened from left to right, called "Zetong". They wear "tassels" at the lower end of the braids, embeded with gold, silver, amber and green flowers. Jade, coral, silver shield and a row of square Carved Silver medals, with small coral string in the middle. Gold and silver, cat's eyes, turquoise, coral, Jasper and so on are the top items in the jewelry. In addition, we also use pine stones and corals to wear collaterals and drape them over our shoulders. There are collaterals of pine stones and corals on the back of our shoulders, which are cumbersome and drooping. The necklaces worn by women are very sophisticated. They are usually made of coral, turquoise, crystal, agate and so on. They are hung around the neck in 1-4 strings. Rich and wealthy people also have gold-and-gem necklaces, ranging in value from thousands of yuan to tens of thousands of yuan.

Kangba District, Sichuan Province

Tibetan Ersu costumes in Ganluo County, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province are the most representative. The Ersu people advocate white, with white as the beauty, the basic color is mainly white, blue and green, and then with various colors of decoration, clothing is often bright and bright, with great visual impact. Older people's clothes are elegant, solemn and restrained. Its clothing texture, style, ornaments, patterns, workmanship and other aspects have their unique national and regional characteristics.

The daily and celebratory costumes of the monks and secular servants. The two Zasa wore a gown of yellow satin in their usual days and a gown of winter clothes trimmed with otter skin. They wore a gown of yellow satin in their respective celebrations and a gown of satin or satin of Mongolian cloudy dragons and Russian satin. Winter clothes are trimmed with otter skin at the collar of the jacket, as mentioned earlier. Dark red boots are worn in winter and summer. Wear a gauze hat in summer and a big hat with a gold top and a ruby tip in winter.

Dakangbu wears Serge skirt and shoulder (the top grade mentioned above) regardless of identity. Wear wool in summer and ordinary shawls in winter. On weekdays wear single clothes and celebrations wear silk-satin technical sheets, not used to wear Satin coats. T-shirts and underclothes, belts are equal to the front. The gargle pot with old satin and Russian satin and other silver bottles is the same decoration as the front. Wear cloth boots in summer and cinnabar boots in winter. The hat worn by L on horseback is used to wearing the same Sel sticker hat worn by the big lama. Big secretary and small Kangbu also wear a Serge skirt and shoulder. The winter and summer shawls are the same as those on the top, wearing wool Serge and Durma, sweaters, body-fitting underwear and belts. Ordinary uniforms are dressed in a so-called "dressing suit", with yellow and red six-phase chapters and gold-print Satin jackets printed on the sleeves, and gargled with old satin and Russian satin and silver bottles. Wear cloth boots in summer and vermilion boots in winter. Every big celebration wears Yangton, jacket made of ancient Mongolian satin and Russian satin and gargle pot with the same material. The Secretary wears a pen and ink cartridge, which symbolizes the pen cartridge and ink bottle. The pencil barrel is made of gold-plated jellyfish from Dege area and silk thread on the brocade wrapped in ink bottle. The silk thread is woven with golden heroic six-character pattern and blue silk ribbon in the middle. Wear cloth boots in summer and vermilion boots in winter. Winter and summer wear coral crowns on horseback the same as those in front.

Servants in the lower court usually wear yellow or red satin gowns and black-and-yellow underwear with silk belts and knives and bowl sets on their belts. Pouch. The big celebrations were dressed in blue satin gowns sewn equally. Wear a hoop hat in summer and a fox fur hat in winter. Wear a pair of purple-red boots in winter and summer.

In Mongolian uniform, in red and yellow gown, in a pottery jacket, in dark brown underwear, with a silk belt, in summer wearing a gauze cap, in winter wearing a blue and white horse bundled Pearl's hat. Wearing a pair of purple-red boots in winter and summer is the same as above.

Full-time officials of the court wore skirts with Serge or Tibetan Serge in the summer, wool Serge in the summer, technical sheets with Serge in the winter, yellow silk sweaters and underclothes, belts, Satin jackets with decorative clothes, and satin gargle cans with silver bottles. Every big celebration wears old satin or Russian Satin sailing jackets, brocade-laced cloth boots in winter and summer, a Sell hat in summer, and a blue and white Ma jar cap in winter.

In the ordinary uniforms of the officials of the lower court, they wear a yellow satin or red-yellow gown and dark brown underclothes. They wear knives, bowl sets and purses on their scarlet belts. Every big celebration wears blue satin or blue satin robes. Wear an iron ring cap in summer and a fox skin cap with a blue jadeite top for Pearl in winter. Wear a stone pendant with pine earstones and a pebble (an ear ornament) and a pair of purple boots in winter and summer.

Ordinary Zaizhong (official name) wears a Tibetan Serge skirt and wool Serge or Tibetan Serge technical sheet, yellow silk sweater and body-fitting underwear, regardless of official size, Satin gown, and sail jacket sewn with old satin or Russian Satin for major celebrations. Wear a pair of colored boots with cinnabar wool trim in winter and summer, and wear colored boots of Brad or Jetten when traveling. In summer, wear a Seltzer hat, in winter, wear a coral or fake coral Pearl cap.

Ordinary officials wear black or purple, blue and blue gowns and dark brown underclothes such as Xiema or Mao, Mao Jiao, etc. in their ordinary uniforms. They wear knives, bowl jackets, wallets, pewters and ear jewels on their scarlet belts. Every big celebration wears a red-yellow or earthen-yellow and yellow-green robe, a woolen coat, a Buchu hat in winter and summer, and a pair of purple woolen boots.

Wear Mongolian bureaucratic hourly uniforms and vermilion robes, such as Serge and wool, with a terra-cotta or brown-red jacket. The celebrations were dressed in purple satin or blue-black jacket with a terra-cotta or red-yellow jacket. Wear a dark brown tunic, a silk belt, a crystal-topped Pearl's gauze cap, and purple woolen boots.

The top, middle and lower ranks of monks and secular officials mentioned above can wear gold or gold-plated crowns according to their financial resources and interests, except for their official ranks.

Chief County Officer and Kangbu level, Kanqiong (deputy Kangbu) daily uniform, monk's clothes wear Zedang serge skirt, in summer wear hairy technical list, in winter wear Ladak Durma technical list. Summer boots, wearing gold satin or pattern decoration and blue-black silk laced purple-red cloth boots, with red Jidan as bootsleeves. Wear scarlet boots in winter. The gargle jar with old satin and purple-yellow Satin hung around the waist. The silver vase relief worn was embossed in gold plated by fire, and was decorated with gems and tied with vermilion silk thread. The left and right sleeves of satin jackets made of wool or Zedang Serge are satin with red and yellow six-phase, gold medallion, Sanskrit and dragon and Phoenix patterns. The collar and sleeves are photographed in red, and yellow or red-yellow underclothes made of large silk are worn inside. Four grade officers'winter and summer clothes, winter wear yellow satin gown with otter skin trim, inside wear white big silk collar close-fitting underwear, wear knife, bowl cover, purse on scarlet silk belt. In summer, wear a scarlet silk ribbon decorative iron ring cap. The ribbon woven by silk thread at the back of the cap is inlaid with gold or gold-plated six-character heroes. A coral crown decorated with gold or gold plating on the tip of a cap and decorated with identity symbols. In winter, wear a round full fox-skin cap with black leather, and the top is the same as above. The right ear is adorned with Amari or pine-eared stones, and the left ear with gold, elegant jade or pearls. Hair is tied with vermilion silk and inlaid blonde boxes. Boots, regardless of winter and summer wear a pair of red color boots.

If the housekeeper is a monk, he will wear brown wool or wool murmur and dark red coma or fine felted robes in summer. Wear felt hat in summer and Daqing hat in winter. Wear Indian soft leather or yellow bra boots.

If the treasurer is a layman, he wears a purple wool murmur or wool, Xiema's face robe and white silk underclothes. Indian leather or bra, black velvet boots. Wear a Bodo hat (yellow bowl hat) and a long eardrop.

Deacons and housekeepers, postmen clatter in wool or purple. Xiema's robe, wearing Indian leather or Bra. Black velvet boots, Debordo hats, long eardrops. The above are the main people's regular clothes.

Zong Kanqiong wore a monk's clothes like clothes covered with colorful clouds, dragon satin or satin, Russian gold satin, purple printing and other brand-new ancient satins for the celebration of the Spring Festival of Zong (county) and Zashrumburazhang, as well as the dress for the third year horse race in junior high school. He wore the same face gargle jar and winter and summer hat as above. On weekdays, when driving a horse, he wears a Seltier hat in summer, a Seltier hat with a yellow wool padded ring and a fine leather rim in winter, and a chivalrous hat with a coral crown emblematic of identity on a gold or gold-plated bottle seat. On weekdays, when riding a horse, the master's saddle and saddle are equipped with vermilion wool and satin-trimmed saddle cover with silk ribbons on the left and right sides. The saddle mattress is equipped with Han mattress or velvet and other fabrics. Three sets of brass mattress and Le S chieftain are decorated with two layers of horse cots. The saddle cover of the two servants is equipped with blue-black cloth on the boots of the back cushions, without the routine of saddle mattress. Wearing a red cap, the owner's saddle mattress is yellow and the rest of the servants are the same.

The monk housekeeper in the eastern zone (city) was wearing a pottery robe with a scarlet belt, knife, bowl jacket, purse, red cap, and other boots were the same as above.

Xizong (city) secular treasurer, wearing earthen Satin robes, scarlet belts, knives, bowl jackets, purple woolen boots, and purple caps.

During the Spring Festival celebrations, the deacons wore four-faced satin or coloured clouds and dragon Satin gowns with a scarlet wool coat. During the Spring Festival celebrations in other monasteries and in the third year of junior high school, they wore pottery robes and silk belts, knives, bowls, purses, pen and ink bags, Bordeaux hats and purple wool boots. The housekeeper and the postman also wore yellow clay robes. Wear knives, bowl jackets, purple wool boots, and a Debordo hat.

On the third day of the Tibetan New Year, when going to watch the horse-racing activities, the suzerain officials dressed up and rode horses in order to drive. Zong Kanqiu's dress is not special except for the monk's dress mentioned above, but in terms of hat, he wears a hat like a rap artist, with four ears, leather trim, and a cloth cap with a Japanese Satin back ribbon. The top is the same as above.

Folk costume

For the clothes of the upper class, the rich and the ordinary people, the ancient Tibetan people only wore the clothes made in their own country. Afterwards, under the influence of the gradual development of goods exchanges between Han and India, the clothes of the Tibetan people were enriched, such as the winter and summer clothes of the upper nobles and businessmen, the clothes of the wealthy men and women, such as Shu Xiema and Xiema of Tibet. Slender trim, wool, and Chinese clatter. Clothing made of velvet, satin, silk, silk, cocoon and lynx skin, fox skin and lamb skin. The men's boots are made of Indian leather and black velvet, brass boots, short boots, sandwich boots and tubular boots. Women's sandwich boots, tubular boots and boots are not only embroidered with various colored silk thread, but also the custom of Pearl lining on the top-grade boots called "lady" and "miss". The waistband of the rainbow-shaped apron made of Tibetan Xiema and woolen fabrics and velvet yarn is wrought and inlaid with various kinds of gold silk. Some are also made of silk ribbons. Some are shoelaces made of silk thread, noble gentlemen. In winter, they wear silk Interlinings on satin fabrics and large jacket caps with seadragons and otter skins on the bottom of Russian satin. Others wear a hat and felt cap called longevity gold satin. Hats made of high-quality fabrics, a small number of men and women from middle-class families also wear Xiema and inferior Xiema, fine cloth, wool and Chinese serge, embroidery, silk and other fabrics. Next time most people will wear clothing and men's shoes made of fine and open wool, rough wool, thin wool squirm, silk squirm, false silk, silk silk, brocade thick silk, substituted silk, thin yarn, wool brocade, Kara and other fabrics and men's shoes; a few will wear Indian and Bra, velvet boots and leather shoes; the female surname wears Tibetan boots, tubing boots, pipe boots, serilinlins and velvet and inlay, thick silk and inlay boots and men's shoes and men's shoes; a few will wear Indian leather leather boots and leather boots and leather boots and leather boots and leather shoes; the female surname wears, Tibetan boots, A belt made of cloth, The woman's surname is also an apron of Xiema and Xidian with gold silk and satin on the fabric.

As for the clothing of ordinary people, a few people wear fine clothes and woolen clothes, while the majority of other people wear fine clothes and open clothes, thin clothes, felt, cotton substitutes and ordinary cotton cloth. Some people wear leather shoes or boots made of Indian leather, while the majority wear boots made of their own leather and wool, clothes made of cotton, brass boots, tube boots and stickers. Straw boots, leather boots, socks, belts and shoelaces of cloth, embroidered aprons on thin and ordinary bathrooms, and skirt belts made of silk and wool. Wear a hat made of rough face in winter and summer.

The shape of the pearl crown worn by women in Houzang is that two bamboos are wrapped with vermilion silk threads at the left and right ends like bows. The ornaments called "Balong" wrapped with vermilion silk in the middle are knitted together with their hair, so they were worn on their heads day and night in ancient times. For this purpose, something called "wooden pillows" was repaired. The women's headdresses in La'erzhuo near the city of Shigatse are somewhat different from others. They have a single Balon called Jueshiri, which is made of jade and coral, wrapped around their left and right ears, like a cage on the head of a sheep. After that, Tibetan women's head floated and Balong's two ornaments were inlaid on the Pearl crown, and on the vermilion face they were inlaid with Huyu, coral and pearls. Some of the grand aristocratic ladies in the back of Baron have the habit of decorating their heads with double hindsight.

There is a decoration called "pearl sac" in the head of the wealthy people in the upper stratum. It is decorated in front of Baron with four coral pearls in the middle. The gap between them is set with two sides of jade. The left and right sides are decorated with two coral pearls and the gap is decorated with one side to dig jade. The other pearls on the left and right sides of Baron's front are a kind of cover. Woven in front, left and right sides with gem edge and back of the upper excavator and coral inlaid with gold four-ring decoration. The decoration called "transverse extension" is a pearl plaid with three gold lattices inlaid with jade on the left and right sides of the Pearl crown. In celebration and dressing, the headdress of the pearl crown is said to be "Scorpion waist chain". It is an ornament called "private sack dormitory" with a silver chain ribbon and a back ribbon. It is a small sack sewn with brocade satin, with silver edge and silk thread. Ornaments, hooks set with copper or gold hooks.

The aftermath of middle-class families and Baron, there are also mixed ornaments of pine-ear stones and corals, Baron's front, left and right sides of each generation of pearls ornaments and the back and forth of the float around, with gold and silver mixed with the ornament of pine-ear stones. The "transverse extension" of mussel shell is embedded with a brass lattice of pine otolith. Some people have gold-plated brass lattices and gold-silver mixed Necklace boxes on the back of their drift, with several pairs of coral and nine-eyed, blue-and-white Martens on the necklace. Wear earrings made of coral and pine otoliths, jadeite and jade handpots, and a few wear gold rings inlaid with pine otoliths. There are beads such as coral temples and ivory ink.

In terms of decoration, if the girl is unmarried, float and Baron's back ring is decorated with a blue and white marten, which symbolizes the unmarried girl. Some girls'braids are decorated with an ornament called "necklace", which is a mixture of turquoise and coral with a blue and white margin embedded in the decoration. So people who need to greet their relatives will choose their spouse when they see this sign.

According to their own conditions, women wear cocoon, velvet, safflower cocoon, brocade, velvet and other cloth pants, and most women in the countryside use safflower as underwear. The style is like today's skirt, called "cylinder" trousers. Some wear a sleeveless jacket that can be tripped on the shoulders matching the "cylinder" trousers. Women wear a brocade or wool Serge on their breasts with square gold satin or embroidered "belly-wrapping" scarf around the collar of the breast protector. The upper monks usually wear a cashmere-like garment with left and right sides folded to the waist. It is a kind of accessory for the marsh of their coat to be more beautiful and non-deformable.

Dress culture

Tibet has a vast territory. Because of the different geographical environment and climate, the natural conditions vary greatly. In order to adapt to the natural environment and different climatic conditions, all regions have distinctive ethnic costumes.

Tibetan clothing is the most common. Town dwellers like to make Tibetan robes from high-grade wool, bats in farming areas and furs in pastoral areas. The belt is an indispensable part of Tibetan clothing. In addition to the belt, Tibetan women's national code is also very distinctive. In addition, Tibetans also like to wear hats, mostly felt caps, leather caps and golden caps, while Tibetan shoes are called Tibetan boots. Tibetan jewelry mainly includes hair ornaments, ear ornaments, chest ornaments, waist ornaments and hand ornaments.

Nowadays, many Tibetan families have added modern clothes such as suits and jackets to their wardrobes, reflecting the new taste of Tibetan people's clothing. However, many people still wear traditional clothes on festivals.

Hada is one of the most important decorations in Tibetan costumes. It is also the most common etiquette in Tibet. Its main function is to express blessings, respect, friendship and sincerity. Hada's texture, specifications, color and length are different. In the past, raw silk or hemp were used to weave Hada. In recent years, more and more man-made fibers were used to weave Hada. Hada's folding methods have different meanings because of different grades and uses. Tibetan white, white symbolizes holiness, sincerity, frankness, so the common Hadado is white. In addition, there are also five-color Hadas weaved in blue, white, yellow, green and red. They have different meanings and different interpretations. They are generally considered to represent blue sky, white clouds, rivers, gods and earth.

There are numerous styles and varieties of clothing accessories in Tibetan area. Tibetan gowns are the most representative style of Tibetan clothing. This kind of gown is worn by men, women and children. It has a long body and a leather drum with a wrapped edge. It has neither pockets nor buttons. On weekdays, men's gowns are mostly plain colored, with broad black edges, while Festival dresses need to wear colored edges; women's gowns have more gorgeous edges. The most representative edge material is a wool fabric. The color and pattern are very exquisite. Especially the edge of the Tibetan gown of the herdsmen, the vertical stripes of blue, green, purple, blue, orange, yellow and rice are often used to form the five-color stripes. The shoulders, hems and cuffs of women's fur gowns are often striped with yellow, red, green and purple stripes nearly 10 centimeters wide, and complementary colors such as red with green, white with black, red with blue, yellow with purple are often used boldly. Sometimes gold and silver lines are used in strong contrast. The bright and harmonious artistic effect gives people a strong artistic appeal.

Tibetan women's jewelry is very rich, they use jewelry, gold and silver, ivory, jade as jewelry, the more distinctive is the "Bazhu" on the top of the head, silver coins decorated on the braid, the body-protecting Buddha box "Gawu" hanging in front of the chest, as well as the long string of metal coins, waist knives, sickle box on the waist. Young women comb two braids and mix bright wool with braided dishes; women in pastoral areas wear many small braids on their backs, some braided tips interweave into braided nets, and some braided with 10 cm wide ribbons decorated with agate, jewelry and jade. Women's dresses in different areas are also different. Tibetan women in some areas wear long gowns of various colors, black shoulders with edges of coats and pants; women in some areas wear long shoulders without buttons; women's gowns in some areas are decorated with wide strips of cloth, leopard skins, bathrooms and other gowns, with wide and narrow edges and different colors; women in some areas wear short clothes and long skirts. Tibetan women usually surround the front with a contrasting color of the Shuttle apron, known as the "pad".

Tibetan costumes are colorful, and their characteristics are also highlighted in the collocation and composition of colors. Every literary and artistic performance and festival activities, all kinds of brightly colored Tibetan clothing will become the focus; while the daily clothing of Tibetan people is mainly blue and white, with gorgeous belt or lace. In pastoral areas, the lace of Tibetan clothes is usually made up of blue, green, purple, blue, yellow, rice and other color blocks, which in turn form five color belts. Women's fur gowns often use cross-shaped collar gowns, giving people the association of "charity" and "caress". In addition, Tibetan costumes also boldly use red and green, white and black, red and blue, yellow and purple contrasting strong colors, bold and delicate color matching.

Tibetan men and women pay special attention to ornaments, which are made of silver, gold, pearls, agate, jade, jadeite, coral, amber and so on. They are widely used in headwear, hair ornaments, earrings, necklaces, waist ornaments and rings. Beautiful shape, mostly natural shape, can be said to be the highlight of Tibetan costumes.

There is a skirt cultural belt in the "Tibetan-Yi Corridor". From Baima Tibetan people in Minjiang River valley, Jiarong Tibetan people in Dadu River, Zaba people in Xianshui River tributary of Yalong River, Naxi people in Jinsha River valley, Lisu, Nu and Pumi people in Nujiang River, and Liangshan Yi women living in Dadu River and lower reaches of Yalong River, all like to wear skirts, and they are flexible and changeable. Neon skirt shadows are not lacking all the year round. With ingenious matching methods, the beauty of skirts, people, women and life are all displayed. With the development and popularization of modern textile products, skirts in the "Tibetan-Yi Corridor" are becoming more and more gorgeous and rich in style.

Tibetan costume culture also has a long history, colorful and unique charm. Women wear a kind of luxurious headdress. Tibetans call it "Bazhu". Representatively, it is a decoration similar to the character "human", which fixes the bifurcated side forward on the top of the head. Among them are pearl buns, scattered behind a small braid, covered with gold, silver, jewels, coral and gems. In ancient times, only nobles could wear headwear. All Tibetan women have to decorate their heads to make themselves more beautiful, graceful and blessed. This is a common feature in many places, Wei and Kang. Because of the complexity of the headdress, it extends from the head to the woman's forechest or back.

Modern Development and Improvement

Improved Tibetan storage

Lhasa Tibetan style, regardless of men's and women's clothes, has always had a belt, tied at the waist back to make beautiful folds, but this takes a lot of effort, generally not skilled to a certain extent, how can not play well. In the early 1990s, there was a wave of "improved Tibetan clothes" in Lhasa, which set up "T-shaped platform" to show all the Tibetan skirts redesigned. The design has a modern sense of rhythm, such as men's Tibetan gowns. The designers cut the gowns into two halves and put on clothes, then put on the top and bottom half. The overall effect is still the shape of a long gown. This design saves a lot of trouble, but somehow, it still failed to spread. Guess the reason, I'm afraid that people who wear clothes do not feel the original taste, some stingy, lost some of the qualities of a father, such as a sense of old-fashioned self-importance. And women's wear is also painstaking cosmetic, the original simple and smooth collar, suddenly more like fashion lapels, vertical collars, fur collars... Among the aesthetics of Tibetan costumes, the word "elegance" is probably the most important one. The reason why women's clothes have not become popular is that I think it may have violated this taboo. But anyway, this "T-shaped platform" wind is still fresh in the hearts of Lhasa people. Whether it succeeds or not, it is an unprecedented initiative, and the new things it brings continue to appear in children's clothing. It is very lively, lovely and very energetic.

No extra belt

Really speaking of the successful improvement of women's Tibetan clothes, when Tibetans living in India returned to visit their relatives in the early 1980s, a new style came into being - no longer need to spare a belt, the skirt was originally sewn with a belt, and the skirt came into being naturally as soon as it was looped. It was beautiful and convenient to wear. Following this is the change of the fabric: all kinds of lightweight fine materials and the same variety of colors. This is not only due to the changes brought about by the historical environment, but also due in part to the frequent travel of the Indonesian Tibetans between China and Indonesia. The women among them usually bring some new fashions to Lhasa.

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