Tibetan medicine is a bright pearl in the treasure house of Chinese medicine. The Tibetan people living in the snow-covered plateau for generations have accumulated experience in the treatment of various diseases in the struggle against nature and various diseases, formed a unique system of Tibetan medicine, emerged many sages of medicine, enriched the theory of Tibetan medicine, at the same time, due to historical and social reasons, there has been a very slow development situation, until the second half of this century again. Great progress has been made.
In 2006, Tibetan medicine was listed in the first national intangible cultural heritage list by the State Council.
According to historical records, more than 200 B.C., Nie Chizanbu, the Tibetan king, raised six doubts. A man named Zilaga Mayuede answered one of them, saying, "Toxicity has medicine, which shows that poison can be used as medicine to attack poison with poison." At this time, a famous doctor, Jepp Chixi, developed the "Tuyuanwang Ri" pill, which also used the theory of "fighting poison with poison". In the Latuori period of the 4th century, the therapeutics of treating cold and fever and cold were adopted. At this time, a famous Tibetan physician, Tong Getuo Juejian, learned Indian medicine from his father Gaqibiqi and enriched the theory and practice of Tibetan medicine. According to historical records, doctors like Tonggetuojuejian were able to operate on the eyes of Molongbo Bazaar at that time; after Dewu suffered from leprosy in the middle of his life, he lived alone in underground ponds in order to avoid infecting his family, which showed that doctors and their medical techniques and means of preventing diseases had reached a high level at that time.
In the 7th century, great progress was made in the combination of medical theory and practice of Tibetan medicine. At this time, the Tibetan king Songzan Ganbu basically unified the Tibetan plateau, married the Tang Dynasty and married Princess Wencheng to Tibet. At that time, the Mahara wa monk of Han Dynasty and the great translator of Tibet, Da Mo Guo, translated the "medical theory" written by Wen Cheng princess into Tibetan and decided it was the first Chinese medical code translated into Tibetan. Unfortunately, this book has long been lost, but its essence has been collected in four medical classics of Tibet. In order to inherit and develop Tibetan medicine, Songzan Ganbu selected some Tibetan children to study medical codes and made great contributions to the development of Tibetan medicine.
At the beginning of the eighth century, Zambchid Zudan married Princess Jincheng and went to Tibet. The Princess brought many medical codes into Tibet. Among them, Mahayana monk of Han Dynasty and Pelujana of Zeshi of Tibet jointly translated Yuewang Pharmaceutical Diagnosis (Yize Yuewang Lun of Medical Law), which is the earliest Tibetan medical work. During the period of King Chisong Dezan of France, famous doctors of four directions and nine far-away Taiyi doctors appeared, which made Tibetan medicine develop unprecedentedly. Among many famous doctors, Yutongma Yundan Gongbu is the most famous and successful. He went to Tibet to collect prescriptions of folk medicine and study them. He also went to Nepal, India and other countries to study medicine. He also invited Chinese medicine and Nepalese and Indian doctors to Tibet to absorb excellent medical culture. On this basis, Yutongma Yundan Gongbu wrote Four Medical Codes, a world-famous Tibetan medical classic, which marks the completion of the unique system of Tibetan medicine. At the beginning of the 13th century, Yutuma Yundan Gongbu, a descendant of Yutongma, studied the Tibetan Medical Code while studying the Yuewang Pharmaceutical Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the eight theories of Indian medicine, and supplemented and defined the Four Medical Codes to make it more perfect and standardized.
By the 14th century, the different climates in the north and South regions, the Qiangba School and the Suka School, which adopted different treatment methods, promoted the development of Tibetan medicine theory. At this time, doctors all over the country wrote books and said that many excellent medical codes and annotations to the Four Medical Codes had emerged.
In the 17th century, the 5th Dalai Lama attached great importance to the development of Tibetan medicine. He established such Tibetan medical schools as Suo Rizhuo Pianlin in Zhepengbang Temple, Daily Pingdui Bailin in Shigatsuo, Lawangkok in Budala Palace, and Sampunimatang. Sang Jiejiatuo, the fifth Dalai Lama's chief minister, has made indelible contributions to the cause of Tibetan medicine.
In 1689, he completed the book "Four Medical Classics: On Blue Liuli". In 1690, he compiled the book "Miliao Successive Supplementary Notes". In 1703, he completed the book "Introduction to Medicine: A Feast of the Fairy", which became the best reference for many doctors to treat and study medicine. He also supplemented and collated the contents of Yuewang Pharmaceutical Diagnosis, Blue Liuli, Introduction to Medicine, Qiangba School Medical Theory and Rending Langjieduoji's Continued Interpretation. He created 79 medical Tangka hangings. In 1696, he founded Yao Wang Shan Ri Qi Zhuo Dianlin Medical College and trained a group of medical talents. They wrote books and wrote books, disseminated medical science, and were well-known. Under the historical conditions at that time, they reached a higher level of development of Tibetan medicine.
During the period of the 13th Dalai Lama, Tibetan medicine also developed to a certain extent. At this time, there appeared many famous Tibetan scholars, such as Kamajimei Gisenger, Lama Jimei Chilie, Taiyi Wujiantan Zengjiatuo, Doji Jianzan, Zakangji Qiaokangbu Qiangba Tuwang, Chabuba Dangqubantan, Master Qinrao Rob and so on. They compiled medical books and taught medical science, which promoted the inheritance and development of Tibetan medicine. Among these physicians, Master Chinrao Rob has the most outstanding merits. He has visited famous teachers extensively, studied Classics and astronomical calendars, and was familiar with the Four Medical Codes as the main medical codes. He has written ten books, such as Fundamental Continuation of Plants, Medical Seafood, Herbal Specimens Collection, Wonderful Golden Spikes, Midwifery Law, Lessons from the Moon Treasure, Follow-up General Meaning, Keys to Open Classics, Follow-up Pulse Checking and Urine Supplementary Notes, General Meaning of Bloodletting Therapy, Tongzi Language Decoration, etc. Several books.
In 1916, under the direction of the 13th Dalai Lama, the Lhasa Hospital of Medical Computing was established, and Master Chin Rao Rob was appointed President. Qinrao Rob recruited a wide range of disciples and disseminated medical science. There are successively students from various temples, military barracks, incantator inheritance, Qinghai, Kang District and other places, as well as students from Bhutan, Sikkim, Ladak and other countries and regions. In 1959, the former Lhasa Medical and Computing Hospital was formally transformed into Tibetan Hospital, and the 77-year-old Master Qinrao Rob was appointed President of Tibetan Hospital.
However, under the rule of the 14th Dalai Lama, several Tibetan medical institutions officially run by the local government in Tibet were very simple and small in scale. At that time, the cause of Tibetan medicine was concentrated in Yawangshan and the computer hospital in Lhasa. Before the peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951, there were only 73 doctors and apprentices in this institution. The total area of this institution was only 367 square meters, a small outpatient clinic. The number of outpatient clinics in one year was only 10,000, and 2,500 kilograms of Tibetan medicine were produced. And this is mainly for the upper rulers, the majority of serfs have no right to enjoy. With private clinics and folk Tibetan medicine in farming and pastoral areas, there are less than 500 medical practitioners in Tibet as a whole. Under the feudal serfdom system, Tibet came from monks in Lhasa, Rigaze, Shannan and other areas, whether it was a Tibetan medical school, such as Zhepeng Temple, Xigaze, Lawangkok of Potala Palace, Samponiantang, or later Yao Wang Shanli House of Representatives and Lhasa Tibetan Hospital. Later, in order to meet the needs of the Tibetan army, in 1939, according to the instructions of the Tibetan local government, students from the Tibetan army barracks were recruited on the basis of the original monk students. Therefore, in the two medical schools, except for a very few students from the community, the rest come from major monasteries and Tibetan military barracks. They specialize in training medical personnel for monasteries and Tibetan army, but fail to face the whole society. Doctors in the two medical schools can only depend on the income and charity of monasteries and manors, and students from military camps can only depend on military pay. At that time, there were hardly any decent medical institutions in Tibet's vast farming and pastoral areas. They wanted to go to cities and towns to treat their illnesses, but they were trapped by heavy burdens and could not receive timely treatment. In the event of a pandemic of infectious diseases, the vast majority of the lower Tibetan people can only resign themselves to fate. According to statistics, smallpox was prevalent four times in Tibet in the 150 years before 1951. A smallpox epidemic in 1925 killed more than 7,000 people in Lhasa. Typhoid fever epidemics in 1934 and 1937 resulted in more than 5,000 deaths in Lhasa. In addition to using some local methods to treat the illness of the people in agricultural and pastoral areas, they have to hold legal acts, divination and pray for disaster relief. And the serfs who suffered from poverty and illness had to resign themselves to their fate.
After the peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951, the cause of Tibetan medicine entered a new era and made great achievements.
In May 1959, the Tibetan People's Government merged the original Yao Wang Shan Medical College with the Tibetan Hospital. In September 1961, the name of the Tibetan Hospital in Lhasa was restored, and Master Chin Rao Rob was appointed President and his Gaotu Qiangbachi was appointed Vice President. The original comprehensive outpatient clinic was expanded into internal medicine, surgery, gynecology and pediatrics, acupuncture and moxibustion department, dispensing room, etc. The original Tibetan hospital, which mainly trained medical talents, was gradually developed into a hospital with both medical and personnel training. The tasks of training trainees, outpatient medical treatment, patrol in farming and pastoral areas, and drug collection and pharmacy were completed. In 1965, the outpatient building of Tibetan medicine and the ward with 32 beds were built, which was the first branch outpatient hospital and the first inpatient ward ward in the history of Tibetan medicine. In 1965, Tibetan medical experts cooperated in compiling the book Preliminary Exploration of Tibetan Medicine. More than 300 kinds of herbs and medicinal materials were also given international generic names.
At this time, some veteran physicians wrote articles on gastropathy, nephropathy, gout, cold, cerebral haemorrhage, renal edema, women's disease and so on, and summarized them both in theory and in medicine.
In 1974, when compiling the National Pharmaceutical Dictionary, Tibet's long-standing and effective pills such as "Jiazidunba (the seventh of the end of iron)", "Akajiua (the fifteenth year of Chen Xiang)" and "Blowing Soup Ribu" were included in the dictionary. In the same year, a Tibetan medicine research group consisting of eight members, mainly veteran Tibetan doctors in Tibetan hospitals, was established. On the basis of collecting and sorting out ancient Tibetan medical books lost and destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, the group began to summarize the clinical experience of Tibetan medicine in treating several diseases, and achieved obvious results through the combination of Tibetan medical methods and Western medicine tests.
In 1975, the Tibetan Hospital Research Group compiled and published a Book "New Tibetan Medical Formula" for barefoot doctors at that time. In 1976 and 1977, the Central Ministry of Health dispatched two Tibetan medical working groups and filming teams to produce two scientific and educational films of Medicine and Pharmacology in Tibet. Two members of the working group and Mr. Qiang Chilie, a Tibetan physician, worked together to make 80 color medical wall maps and more than 4000 appendices from the period of Di Sang Jie Jia Tsuo into four albums of Chinese and Tibetan medicine, a valuable collection of scientific and artistic Tibetan medicine. In order to unify the dosage of Tibetan medicine, a conference was held in Lhasa and Xining in 1977 in Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan and Xinjiang to quantify 174 kinds of single-family drugs and 290 kinds of prescriptions, providing a scientific basis for the production and use of Tibetan medicine in the future.
Since the implementation of the policy of reform and opening up in 1979, Tibetan medicine has entered a new period of development. In April 1979, Tudan Ciren and Qiangba Chilie, famous physicians, served as editors-in-chief and Deputy editors respectively, and began to compile the Chinese Medicine and Tibetan Medicine Branch. At the same time, special personnel were organized to rescue and publish precious medical codes, and four medical codes and their annotations Blue Glass and Tips Supplementary Notes were published successively.
Following the spirit of the Central People's Government that Tibet should vigorously develop Tibetan medicine and astronomical calendar, on September 1, 1980, the main area of the former Lhasa Tibetan Hospital was renamed Tibetan Hospital. Since then, Tibetan Hospital has become the center of medical treatment, teaching, scientific research, pharmacy and calendar. Since then, great progress has been made in the clinical research of hypertensive disease therapy and acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of pediatric diseases.
Since 1981, Tibetan hospitals (departments) have been established in various regions and counties of Tibet. At present, five of the seven cities in the autonomous region have established regional Tibetan hospitals; among 75 counties, five counties have county Tibetan hospitals and 70 counties have Tibetan medicine departments, such as Shannan Tibetan hospitals, Changdu Tibetan hospitals, Xikaze Tibetan hospitals, Naqu Tibetan hospitals and Changchang. Tibetan hospitals in Du area, Tibetan medicine in Gongjue County, Tibetan medicine in Shenzha County, Tibetan medicine in Basu County and Tibetan medicine in Jiangzi County, etc. Tibetan Hospital has also held five refresher courses and trained more than 200 Tibetan medical staff at the grass-roots level.
In September 1981, the founding meeting of Tibetan Society of Chinese Medical Association and the first theoretical experience exchange meeting were held in Lhasa. The conference received dozens of articles on medical history, theory, clinical practice, various prescriptions and scientific research achievements submitted by experts and doctors attending the conference, which played a great role in promoting the inheritance and development of Tibetan medicine.
During the first session of the Sixth National People's Congress held in June 1983, Qiangba Chilie, a famous Tibetan medical scholar, was elected as an intellectual and a representative of Tibetan medicine. In July of the same year, the 2nd Tibetan Medicine and Chinese Medicine Association Experience Exchange Conference was held in Lhasa, and more than 80 papers were submitted.
In August 1983, Tibetan Medicine Secondary Professional School was established in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region. Over the years, many excellent medical workers have been trained.
In 1985, the people's government decided to grant Tibetan medical specialty degree to those who passed the examinations in Yao Wang Shan and Calendar Academy before 1959, and to those who graduated from Jinaga Medical School in Shigaze, as well as from Merzhulin and Pengbonalanta Bible-telling Academy who had studied medical calculation and graduated from it, and consequently improved the treatment of these veteran Tibetan medical workers, reflecting the concern of the people's government for veteran Tibetan medical workers.
In August 1985, the inpatient department of Tibetan Hospital was officially completed. The inpatient department was built with more than 11 million yuan allocated by the people's government of the autonomous region, with a total of 150 beds.
In August 1987, Tibetan People's Publishing House published and published Tangka wallcharts of color Han-Tibetan comparisons with Four Medical Codes, which contributed to the salvation of this treasure of traditional Chinese medicine.
In the summer of 1988, a book entitled "Introduction to Medicine - A Feast of Immortals" was taught to young and middle-aged doctors in Tibetan hospitals, which opened up a way to inherit and develop the literature in the medical history.
Since April 1989, some small and medium-sized operations have been carried out with the combination of Tibetan and Western medicine, which laid a good foundation for the further development of Tibetan surgery.
The identification of crude medicinal materials was held in September 1991. The number of hospitals and people living in different years has increased greatly. The directors of Tibetan hospitals in Shigaze, Shannan and Naqu were invited to visit and study.
At the identification meeting, Naqu Tibetan Hospital introduced more than 100 kinds of medicinal minerals collected in northern Tibet for a long time. So that the identification of medicines (including plants, animals, ores, etc.) up to 600 kinds, very rare in the history of Tibetan medicine, for the continuous enrichment of Tibetan medicine, played a positive role.
In December of the same year, at the National Exhibition of Excellent Medical History Achievements and the selection of Excellent Medical Reference Books, Tangka Wall Tu of Tibetan Medicine Four Medical Codes won gold medals, Plants Ruyi Treasure of Four Medical Codes won silver medals and Biographies of Medical Masters in Snow Areas won excellent prizes.
In June 1992, with the assistance of the Swiss Red Cross, Shannan Qiongsong Zanzhai Medical School was founded. Prior to this, Xigazebian Xiongzang Medical School was founded with the support of the Society. All of the students came from remote areas of Tibet. After six years of study, they returned to their original places and engaged in medical work.
Since the 1990s, Tibetan medical scholars have made many medical exchanges abroad. For example, in March 1990, the famous Tibetan medical scientist, Master Tuo Zelang and Mr. Qiangba Chilie, visited Japan for academic visits. In December 1992, three members of Qiangba Chilie, a famous Tibetan physician, went to the United States for academic exchanges and so on. During the exchange, the two sides discussed some peculiar phenomena in human medicine and medical issues of common concern, as well as many interesting issues such as Tibetan people's living conditions on the plateau, which increased their understanding of medical technology and medical theory, and promoted academic exchanges.
Tibetan medicine is not only for the Tibetan people, but also for the Chinese people of all nationalities, and even for foreign patients. In November 1992, the Tibetan Hospital in Shannan District of Tibet and the Tibetan Research Center of China jointly established the Beijing Tibetan Hospital. At the end of 1994, they opened a Tibetan outpatient clinic in Hedong District Hospital of Tianjin. Tibetan medicine unique recipe, exquisite, good curative effect, won the praise of both Beijing and Tianjin and the vast number of patients at home and abroad. In the past four years, the Beijing Tibetan Hospital and the Tibetan Medical Clinic of Hedong District Hospital in Tianjin have treated 300,000 patients from all over the country and all over the world. Medical workers from more than 30 countries, including Germany, Italy and Israelis, also visited and studied here.
In September 1993, representatives of the Editorial Committee of the National Pharmacopoeia, the Office of Pharmaceutical Standards of the Central Ministry of Health and the Pharmaceutical Inspection Institutions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan and Xinjiang gathered in Lhasa to hold a working conference on the standard of Tibetan medicine in China, summarized the standard-setting work of Tibetan medicine, and demonstrated the modern scientific means of Tibetan medicine with a long history and remarkable curative effect.
In August 1994, the Central Committee convened the Third Tibet Working Conference. After the meeting, Jiangsu Province decided to undertake the expansion project of the Pharmaceutical Factory of Tibetan Hospital in the aid project and allocated 53 million yuan (about 6.6 million US dollars) for the construction cost. All these fully reflect the state's attention and concern for the cause of Tibetan medicine.
Since the reform and opening up, Tibetan medical education in Tibet Autonomous Region has gradually been on the right track, with formal education and on-the-job refresher training as the main supplement and non-governmental teachers and apprentices as the supplement. In 1983, the first Tibetan Medical School in the autonomous region specializing in training Tibetan medicine talents was established in the region. In 1985, the Tibetan Medical Department was established in Tibetan University. In 1989, the Tibetan Medical College and the Department of Tibetan Medicine merged to establish the Tibetan Medical College of Tibet Autonomous Region. The college has two departments, junior college and secondary school. Each year, more than 30 college graduates and 30-70 secondary school graduates are transported to all parts of the region and other brotherly provinces and regions, such as Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan and Xinjiang. It has become the main base for training Tibetan medical talents in this area. From 1990 to 1995, with the assistance of the Swiss Red Cross, the Tibet Development Foundation and foreigners, Xigazebian Xiongzang Medical School, Shannan Songzan Medical School, Arigandis Tibetan Medical School and Changdu Tibetan Medical School were established with 203 students.
In addition to formal education, Tibetan hospitals and health schools in autonomous regions and regions often hold various forms of training courses for Tibetan medicine, and actively undertake the continuing education of Tibetan medical professionals at the grass-roots level.
The scientific research work of Tibetan medicine has also been emphasized and strengthened. In the past ten years, 32 books, periodicals, documents and monographs of Tibetan medicine have been compiled and published; 21 scientific research projects at or above the provincial level have been established, of which 12 have won prizes for scientific and technological progress at or above the provincial and ministerial level; extensive academic exchanges have been carried out, and many times participated in domestic and international academic conferences on Tibetan medicine; 34 academic papers have been published in relevant magazines at home and abroad; diagnosis and treatment of common diseases, frequently-occurring and difficult diseases, and Tibetan medicine standards. New progress has been made in identification, development of new Tibetan medicines and literature mining, collation and research. At present, a special Tibetan Medicine Research Institute in the autonomous region has been set up in the Tibetan hospital.
Tibetan hospitals, County hospitals, and township hospitals are grass-roots units that directly provide Tibetan medical services to the masses of farmers and herdsmen, and their outpatient visits exceed those of Western medicine. Among the basic comprehensive medical and health institutions, the utilization rate of Tibetan medicine accounts for about 30%. In addition to the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases and frequently-occurring diseases, grass-roots Tibetan medical institutions also undertake the tasks of health and epidemic prevention, family planning, maternal and child health care and health education. In addition, people are often organized to visit the countryside.
The Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory of the Tibetan Hospital of the Autonomous Region is the largest Tibetan medicine production base in the region, with an annual output of more than 200,000 kilograms and more than 350 varieties. More than ten kinds of Tibetan medicines, such as 70 flavor pearl pills, Chang Jue and Mang Jue, produced by this factory are deeply loved by the Tibetan people, and are also favored by the people in the mainland, and are well known both at home and abroad. As one of the 30th anniversary celebrations of the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region, the renovation and expansion project of the Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory in the autonomous region funded by Jiangsu Province with an investment of 52 million yuan will surely raise the production of Tibetan medicine in the whole region to a new level after completion. Most of the Tibetan medical departments in regional, county and county hospitals have small Tibetan pharmacies or preparation rooms, which have an annual production capacity of more than 10,000 kilograms. The large-scale production of Tibetan medicine has alleviated to a certain extent the difficulty of the people in agricultural and pastoral areas in the lack of drugs, and has made an important contribution to the protection of labor productivity.
Tibetan medicine in Qinghai Province has also developed rapidly. The Party committees and people's governments at all levels in Qinghai Province attach great importance to the inheritance and development of Tibetan medicine. The leading comrades of the provincial Party committees, provincial governments and provincial people's congresses often go deep into the field work of Tibetan medicine units. The leaders of the provincial government clearly pointed out that Tibetan medicine should adhere to the principle of "special affairs" and require people's governments at all levels to improve their understanding of Tibetan and Mongolian medicine and to do a good job in rescuing the famous Tibetans and Mongolian medical experience. Ten specific rescue measures were formulated, and special funds were allocated to promote the development of Tibetan and Mongolian medicine. The provincial health department has listed Tibetan and Mongolian medicine as a whole; the provincial health work has three strategic priorities. At different stages of the development of Tibetan and Mongolian medicine, it has put forward the guiding ideology of "consolidating, enriching, perfecting, improving existing Tibetan and Mongolian medical institutions", "changing the status of low priority, speeding up the development of Tibetan and Mongolian medicine", "seizing opportunities, relying on scientific and technological progress, and developing Tibetan and Mongolian medicine". Thus, Tibetan and Mongolian medical undertakings in the whole province have been developing healthily in the right direction.
Since 1978, the province has built 20 Tibetan hospitals owned by the whole people at or above the county level and 3 Mongolian-Tibetan hospitals, including 1 provincial Tibetan hospital, 5 prefectural hospitals and 14 County hospitals. By 1995, there were 680 beds and 750 employees. In Hainan, Huangnan, Yushu and Haixi autonomous prefectures, there is basically a Tibetan hospital in counties and counties. Thirty-eight Tibetan outpatient clinics or departments of Tibetan medicine have been set up in general hospitals at all levels and township health centers in pastoral areas. Tibetan medical institutions and personnel of Tibetan medicine are distributed throughout the grassland pastoral areas of the province. The Provincial Department of Health has formulated the Regulations on the Work of Tibetan Hospital, the Standards for the Construction of Tibetan and Mongolian Medical Hospitals, the Format and Requirements for the Writing of Tibetan Medical Records, and the Demonstration of the Standards for the Construction of Tibetan Medical Hospitals and the Methods for Examination and Scoring, which have promoted the institutionalization, standardization and standardization of the construction of Tibet Since 1985, the province has spent 25 million yuan on various special funds and supporting funds for Tibetan and Mongolian medical undertakings, equipped with modern diagnostic and therapeutic instruments such as X-ray machines, microscopes, electrocardiograms, ultrasonic diagnostic instruments, gastroscopes and various Tibetan medicine processing equipment. At the same time, many traditional diagnostic and therapeutic techniques have been developed. According to statistics, the annual outpatient service of Tibetan medical hospitals in the whole province reaches 310,000. With 6500 hospitalizations, Tibetan medicine has become an important force in the health cause in Qinghai pastoral areas.
The research work of Tibetan medicine has been listed as one of the key points of medical research in Qinghai Province. The Qinghai Institute of Tibetan Medicine and the research institutes of Tibetan medicine in prefectures and counties have been established. More than 10 classical works of Tibetan medicine, such as Four Medical Codes, Jingzhu Materia Medica and Selected Tibetan Medicine, have been collated, translated and published successively. "The Collected Works of Tima Danzeng and Peng Tsuo" was awarded the second prize for basic research of traditional Chinese medicine by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1995. Since 1985, the province has won 16 prizes for research achievements of Tibetan medicine at or above the Department level.
Since 1981, secondary professional education of Tibetan medicine has been established, and 390 students of Tibetan medicine secondary vocational school have been trained. The autonomous prefectural health schools have also set up Tibetan medicine classes and trained a large number of Tibetan medicine personnel. Qinghai Tibetan Medical College was established in 1987. The first batch of junior college students graduated in 1995 and began to recruit medical undergraduates. The teaching plan and syllabus of middle and higher Tibetan medicine specialty have been formulated, the "Trial Textbooks of National Secondary Tibetan Medical School" and a series of textbooks of higher Tibetan medicine specialty have been compiled and published, and a systematic and standardized Tibetan medicine education system has been initially formed.
In addition, 300 Tibetan medical personnel were recruited from the non-governmental selection to enrich Tibetan medical institutions at all levels. The professional quality of Tibetan medical personnel is continuously improved by organizing learning courses, training courses and going out for further study. In 1993, the self-taught examination for Tibetan medical specialty was held. By 1995, 1360 people had registered for the examination, of which 797 were qualified in a single subject. There are 1200 Tibetan medical personnel (including 460 non-governmental Tibetan doctors) and 40 senior professional and technical positions in the province.
Similarly, Tibetan medicine has also developed rapidly in Sichuan, Gansu and other provinces. Tibetan medicine resources in Sichuan Province are mainly distributed in Ganzi and Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures. In 1979, Ganzi Prefecture has set up 6 collective County Tibetan hospitals with 96 employees, and a large number of cooperative medical stations with barefoot doctors as the backbone of Tibetan medicine have emerged. In the same year, 10 Tibetan medical personnel, such as Yandeng Pengtuo and Tangka Ongwangjiantuo, were recruited to work in the teaching and medical departments under the ownership of the whole people. Ganzi Tibetan Hospital was established in 1984 and became the Tibetan Medical, Teaching, Scientific Research, Pharmaceutical Center and Talent Training Base of Ganzi Prefecture. In 1991, Tangka Ongwangjian, a famous veteran Tibetan doctor, confirmed one heir. In 1980, the Ministry of Tibetan Medicine was established in Ganzi Health School, which trained 114 Tibetan doctors and pharmacists.
Since the 1984 provincial Conference on the revitalization of traditional Chinese medicine, the Party, government and health administrative departments at all levels in the prefecture have earnestly propagated and implemented the Party's national medicine policy and a series of principles and policies for the revitalization of traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine, attaching great importance to the development of Tibetan medicine. A leading group for the revitalization of Chinese and Tibetan medicine in Ganzi Prefecture was set up. The State Party Committee and the State Government made the Decision on the Revitalization of Chinese and Tibetan Medicine in Ganzi Prefecture, formulated the development plan and specific measures for Chinese and Tibetan medicine, and demanded equal treatment with Western medicine. It approved the establishment of the Chinese-Tibetan Medical Department in the State Health Bureau and allocated special funds to support it under the condition of very limited local finance. Subsequently, leading groups for the revitalization of Chinese and Tibetan medicine were set up successively in all counties, and the County Health Bureau was equipped with full-time and part-time managers of Chinese and Tibetan medicine, focusing on institution building, personnel training, academic development and management system, which created a good external environment for the revitalization and development of Chinese and Tibetan medicine. In 1990, the Provincial Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine organized the "Three Prefectures Working Conference on Chinese and Tibetan Medicine" in this state and achieved a complete success. In order to implement the Party's policy on intellectuals, the state has successively adopted such measures as recruiting and recruiting key Tibetan medicine personnel with genuine talents and practical knowledge in society, providing them with good working and living conditions, and considering and resolving the problems of transferring and recruiting relatives and children as appropriate. A considerable number of Tibetan medical personnel have been elected as people's representatives of prefectures and counties, standing committees and members of the CPPCC of provinces, prefectures and counties. With the continuous improvement of their social and political status, the enthusiasm of Tibetan medical personnel to work actively for the cause of Tibetan medicine has risen unprecedentedly, promoting and accelerating the progress and development of the cause of Tibetan medicine in the whole prefecture.
So far, there are 11 Tibetan medical machines at or above the county level in the prefecture, including one state-level Tibetan hospital owned by the whole people, six county-level Tibetan hospitals, one collectively-owned county-level Tibetan medical literature research institute and three county-level Tibetan hospitals. A total of 192 employees, 164 health technicians, (2 senior < 1 retired), 7 deputy senior, 32 chief physicians, 78 doctors and 38 scholars). There are 7 persons without professional title. At present, 141 beds (excluding family beds) have been approved, mainly for Tibetan medicine, internal and external, women, children, acupuncture and moxibustion, massage, medicinal vapor therapy, self-made processing of Tibetan medicine and postal medical services. In 1994, there were 224,300 outpatients, 830 hospitalizations, 15,400 visits to the countryside, with a total business income of 1,062,400 yuan. In addition, 200 kinds of self-made Tibetan medicines were processed, totaling 3400 kg, worth 1.25 million yuan, which met the needs of clinical medication. The two benefits increased simultaneously and were welcomed and praised by people of all ethnic groups.
In the training of Tibetan medicine talents, it has also received the general attention and support of leaders at all levels from top to bottom in the prefecture. The state has adopted many ways and channels to continuously enrich and strengthen the Tibetan medicine team, such as regular school education, selective education, apprenticeship and recruitment. Ganzi I Tibetan Hospital (Tibetan Medical Department of the State Health School) took on the teaching task of the fourth class of Tibetan physicians in 1992, and now has 28 students in school. In 1995, it was approved by the Provincial Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine as one of the training bases for Tibetan medicine talents in the whole province, recruiting advanced students and interns both inside and outside the state I. The Tibetan hospitals in Baiyu and Dege counties have also received donations from patriotic Tibetan compatriots abroad to run schools, and each has set up a Tibetan medicine training course. In 1994, six students from this state entered the Tibetan Medical College of Chengdu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine after examinations, which opened up a new way for training senior talents of Tibetan medicine in the future.
In terms of scientific research, Tibetan medical institutions at the state and county levels attach great importance to this work under limited conditions. As early as 1978, experts, scholars and technicians began to organize the excavation and collation of more than 21,7,000 books collected by Dege School of Printing. A total of 7,085 books and 57 Monographs on Tibetan medicine were sorted out. During this period, systematic collation of ancient books, summary of clinical experience and Research on drug development were carried out. Among them, the part of Tibetan medicine of "Fuzang Grand Classics", a collection of documents of Dege Tibetan medicine, has high academic and practical value. At present, it has declared the third batch of ethnic medicine projects of the National Research Fund of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and has been approved by the relevant departments. The state Tibetan hospital declared the scientific research project "Observation of the Therapeutic Effect of Renqing Series Tibetan Medicine on Chronic Gastritis"; the State pharmacy inspection office declared "Research on Eight Tibetan Pharmaceuticals, such as Niwa Ogi", which won the third prize of scientific and technological progress awarded by the Provincial Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1992; and the Dege Tibetan Medical Documentation Research Institute studied the Tibetan traditional culture "Chubu School", which had been lost for many years, and filled the Tibetan calendar. Blank space in astronomical calendar.
Tibetan medicine in Aba Prefecture has also developed from scratch, from small to large, and gradually expanded. As of 1994, there were four Tibetan hospitals and one Tibetan outpatient department in Quanzhou County. There are 40 Tibetan Medicine Departments (Departments) in district and township health centers. The whole prefecture has a total of 364 Tibetan medicine troop, of which 149 are distributed in state-owned medical, teaching and scientific research institutions, and 215 are distributed in township and village collective-owned medical institutions. Among them, there are 1 chief physician, 5 deputy chief physicians, 18 chief physicians, 70 doctors and 55 doctors. From 1981 to 1993, the total building area of Tibetan medical institutions reached 12,471.94 square meters, and the total investment in infrastructure reached 4.294 million yuan. Among them:
(1) Zang Hospital of Zoige County: It was built in 1980 and completed in July 1981. The total investment was 550,000 yuan, with a construction area of 7394 square meters, covering an area of 236 mu, with fixed assets of 611,000 yuan and 45 beds. In addition to receiving a large number of patients from inside and outside the province, the Tibetan Hospital undertakes the teaching task of the Tibetan Medical Class of Aba Health School, and is also the Tibetan medicine supply base of the whole state.
(2) Aba County Tibetan Hospital: Prepared in early June 1986 and completed in May 1987. It covers an area of 4 mu, with a building area of 1344.94 square meters, a total investment of 540,000 yuan in capital construction, 545,000 yuan in fixed assets and 20 beds.
(3) Outpatient Department of Tibetan Medicine in Hongyuan County: established in 1986, planned to build a new outpatient department in 1988, requisitioned 6 mu of foundation, and completed in August 1991. The building area is 845 square meters, with a total investment of 380,000 yuan and fixed assets of 390,000 yuan.
(4) Tibetan Hospital and Institute of Tibetan Medicine in Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture: approved in June 1991 and started preparations. The project was completed and opened in December 1993. The land requisition is 13 mu, the building area of outpatient building is 3003 square meters, and the total investment is 2.7 million yuan. Fixed assets 28.224 million yuan.
(5) Zang Hospital of Rangtang County: It was approved in March 1993 and is still under preparation.
(6) Beijing Dongcheng Zongka Tibetan Medical Clinic: approved in October 1999, is now an important non-profit Tibetan Medical Clinic in Beijing.
Since its establishment, Zoige Tibetan Hospital has made an important contribution to inheriting and exploring the treasure house of Tibetan medicine. It is the Tibetan Medical, Teaching and Scientific Research Center of Aba Prefecture. Tibetan medical staff accounted for 95% of the hospital, with an annual outpatient service of 52,640 and hospitalization of 412. The hospital has a large pool of talented people with senior qualifications, profound attainments and unique specialties.
In order to solve the problem of lack of skills in Tibetan medicine and speed up the pace of talent training, the hospital undertook the teaching task of Tibetan medicine class in Aba Medical School. It has trained 142 qualified personnel for the country. In order to improve the theoretical level of Tibetan medical staff in the whole prefecture, 43 courses on improving Tibetan medical theory have been held since 1982. Four Medical Codes, Jingzhu Materia Medica and Selected Tibetan Medicine have been systematically taught by renowned Tibetan doctors Danke, Nimei, Zhimei and Gong Qiurenqing. According to statistics, in the past 11 years, 1500 Tibetan medical personnel have been trained for the adjacent counties of Sichuan, Gansu and Qinghai provinces. At present, the state's deputy director of physicians and above has a high seniority. It is an urgent strategic task to cultivate and cultivate a high-level cross-century discipline leader. For this reason, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine has overcome various difficulties and set up a special "Tibetan Medical College Class". In the autumn of 1994, 24 students were enrolled for the first time in Aba Prefecture. Most of them graduated from the Tibetan Medical Class of Aba Health School for three years.
The state also encourages the writing of books and doctrines, and constantly improves the academic level of Tibetan medicine. The History of Tibetan Medicine, compiled by Gong Qiu Renqing, deputy chief physician, was published by Gansu Ethnic Publishing House in 1992. The Collection of Tibetan Medicine Prescriptions written by Danke, a famous veteran Tibetan doctor, totals more than 200,000 words. It was published by the Central Ethnic Publishing House in 1993. These monographs are well received by experts and scholars concerned. At the same time, 1200 volumes of medical books and books were collected, which provided complete data for clinical, scientific research and teaching.
Tibetan medicine resources in Gansu Province are mainly in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. There are five Tibetan hospitals in the prefecture, one independent clinic of Tibetan medicine and one Institute of Tibetan medicine. There are 332 Tibetan medical personnel. Tibetan medicine was carried out in 19 Township hospitals.
In 1995, more than 100,000 people were treated in the Tibetan Hospital of Quanzhou. At present, the medical service of Tibetan medicine has been carried out in Lanzhou, Shanxi Province, Wutai Mountain, which has been well received by patients.
Gannan Health School is the only secondary health professional school in Gannan, and it is the training base of health technology talents in Gannan. Since its establishment in 1979, 229 Tibetan doctors and 39 Tibetan nurses have graduated. In 1989, Gannan Department of Tibetan Medicine, Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, was established in the State Health School. 77 Tibetan medical college students have graduated.
Since the establishment of Gannan Tibetan Medical Research Institute in 1981, the scientific research institutions in the whole prefecture have become increasingly sound, with relatively concentrated professionals, and achieved fruitful results. In recent years, the whole state has won four provincial awards for scientific and technological achievements and 10 state-level awards for scientific and technological achievements. At present, the Institute also undertakes four scientific research projects issued by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, such as "Clinical Study of Tibetan Medicine in the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer I" and "Observation of the Curative Effect of Tibetan Medicine in the Treatment of Cholelithiasis", and has four self-designed topics, "Research on the Development and Utilization of Tibetan Medicine Jiawei Pazhu Powder in the Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis" and "Observation on the Curative Effect of Tibetan Medicine in the Treatment of Hepatitis B".
Prospects for development
The production of Tibetan medicine is led by the experimental pharmaceutical factory affiliated to the State Tibetan Medical Research Institute and assisted by the self-processing of the county Tibetan hospital. The advantages of self-collection, self-control and self-use of Tibetan medicine are brought into full play and good economic benefits are achieved. The experimental pharmacy affiliated to the State Tibetan Pharmaceutical Research Institute produces 156 varieties of Tibetan patent medicines annually, totaling 7,000 kg, with an output value of 1 million yuan; more than 150 kinds of Tibetan medicines are self-collected, totaling 2,500 kg, with a value of 10,000 yuan. Establish and improve the quality inspection room, and actively strive for licensing. In 1995, the State People's Government approved the renaming of the experimental pharmaceutical factory affiliated to Gannan Tibetan Medical Research Institute as "the Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory of the State Tibetan Research Institute", which has passed the evaluation and examination organized by the Provincial Health Department. This will better promote the development of Tibetan medicine production in this prefecture towards scale, standardization and high quality.
As a discipline with a long history and rich contents, Tibetan medicine has already crossed the boundaries of the region, spread to neighboring countries and regions, and enjoyed a high reputation in the medical circles at home and abroad. With the deepening of reform and opening up, academic exchanges in Tibetan medicine are becoming more and more active.
Since 1979, many scholars in many countries have taken a keen interest in Tibetan medicine and began to study Tibetan medicine. Every year, experts and scholars from abroad go to Tibet, Qinghai and Sichuan to study medicine. Some countries have also set up Tibetan medicine research institutes. For example, in 1983, the Tibetan Medical Association was established in the United States. Its purpose is mainly to study the development of Tibetan medicine in the West. Some Tibetan research institutes in the West also have research departments and professionals in Tibetan medicine, such as the Oriental Institute and the National Institute of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences; the Tibetan Institute in the United Kingdom and the University of London; the Faculty of Literature, the French Academy, the National Research Centre of the University of Paris in France; the University of Hamburg in Germany; the Tibetan Medical Association of George University in Tokyo in Japan
Every time a Tibetan academic conference is held in the world, there is an exchange of academic papers on Tibetan medicine. For example, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences held an academic seminar on "Commemoration of Choma", and academic papers on Tibetan medicine were submitted to the conference for exchange. In 1983, the First International Conference on Tibetan Medicine, sponsored by the Center of Applied Medical Psychology of the Italian Association of Saucheng, was held. In addition to the research papers on clinical disciplines of Tibetan medicine and Tibetan medicine, there were also academic papers on the history of Tibetan medicine.
The development prospects of Tibetan medicine are bright. Here we take Tibetan medicine in Tibet Autonomous Region as an example to illustrate.
As the center of Tibetan medicine in Tibet, Tibetan Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region took the lead in cooperating with the University of Colorado in the 1980s to study Tibetan medicine in the treatment of high altitude diseases and some chronic complications, such as hepatitis, hypertension and cancer.
In 1986, Gama Qupei, the chief pharmacist of Tibetan Medical Research Institute of Tibet Autonomous Region, accompanied the delegation of the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences to Nepal for an academic visit.
In 1988, 10 doctors from Austria-China Friendship Association traveled to Qinghai to study the knowledge of pulse diagnosis of Tibetan medicine.
In 1989, Qiang Bachilie, a Tibetan medicine expert and President of the Tibetan Hospital of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, was invited to accompany a health delegation to Nepal to investigate the development of Tibetan medicine in Nepal.
In 1990, President Qiangba Chili was invited to visit Japan for academic exchanges.
In 1991, the Medical College of the University of Colorado in the United States and the Tibetan Hospital of the Tibetan Autonomous Region jointly conducted an investigation and Study on the health situation of Tibetan medicine and human beings.
In 1991, academic papers on the use of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Qinghai Tibetan Hospital were exchanged at the Beijing International Conference on Traditional Medicine, which attracted the attention of the participants.
In 1992, a delegation of 10 members from Georgia University and Japan Tibetan Medical Friendship Association went to Tibetan Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region for a one-week academic exchange.
In 1992, Tudeng, Director of the Health Department of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, Qiangba Chilie, President of the Tibetan Hospital, and Ci Renbazhu, Vice-President, went to the United States for a one-month medical investigation and academic exchange.
In 1995, Cui Ojiancai, a researcher at the Institute of Astronomical Calendar of Tibetan Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region, was invited to Switzerland to give lectures on Tibetan medical astronomical calendar.
In 1995, Tu Budan, a Tibetan physician, deputy director of Gannan Tibetan Medical Research Institute, participated in the American International Congress of Traditional Medicine and was awarded the title of "Star of Ethnic Medicine" by the Congress. He was awarded the special prize of "Superman Cup".
In 1996, Awang Pingcuo, the chief surgeon of Tibetan Hospital in Tibet Autonomous Region, was invited to give lectures on Tibetan medicine in Switzerland.
Professor Tsuoru Cailang, President of Tibetan Medical College of Tibet Autonomous Region, has been invited to Japan, Nepal, Hungary, the United States, Britain, France, Taiwan, Hong Kong and other countries and regions for Tibetan medical academic exchanges and lectures.
In order to further develop Tibetan medicine, the Tibetan Autonomous Region Government has formulated the Ninth Five-Year Plan for Tibetan Health Career and the Tentative Plan for 2010. "Imagination" pointed out that the overall goal of the development of Tibetan medicine in the Ninth Five-Year Plan to 2010 is to strengthen the connotation construction, rely on scientific and technological progress, speed up personnel training, maintain and develop the characteristics and advantages of Tibetan medicine, develop and build specialized specialties, broaden service areas, improve service functions and strive to improve the academic level of Tibetan medicine. Actively introduce, digest and absorb modern science and technology and management methods, improve the quality of Tibetan medicine, and strive to develop a number of famous and high-quality Tibetan medicine and fist products, so as to promote the coordinated development of Tibetan medical services, personnel training and scientific research, and constantly meet the needs of social health care. By 2010, a relatively complete system of medical care, education and scientific research in Tibetan medicine, which is compatible with economic and social development, will be basically formed.
During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, the bed scale of Tibetan hospitals should be rationally planned, the internal structure should be scientifically adjusted, and the efficiency of bed utilization should be improved. The utilization rate of beds is not less than 85% in Tibetan hospitals in autonomous regions and regions, and not less than 80% in Tibetan hospitals in counties and counties. The average hospitalization days are further shortened by 1-2 days on the basis of the Eighth Five-Year Plan. The outpatient service volume of Tibetan medicine in the whole region accounts for 30% of the total outpatient service volume of hospitals in health departments, reaching 35% by 2010. The Tibetan Medicine Department of county hospitals should set up a certain number of beds to treat patients, and generally set up 3 to 5 beds.
While making full use of existing medical resources, we should vigorously develop family medical services and strengthen the management of out-of-hospital services. At the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, Tibetan hospitals in other regions and most of the county hospitals in Tibet had comprehensive medical, preventive, rehabilitation and health care services in 2010.
On the basis of the existing three-level health care network, Tibetan medicine in agricultural and pastoral areas should adhere to the principle of "one network, multi-use", strengthen the training of grass-roots Tibetan medicine personnel and the promotion of appropriate technology, strengthen the service function of Tibetan medicine, and give full play to the role of Tibetan medicine in health and primary health care in agricultural and pastoral areas. By 2000, 80% of rural doctors were able to use both Tibetan and Western medicine diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. In 2010, all rural doctors were able to use both Tibetan and Western medicine techniques to provide medical and technical services for the masses.
Tibetan hospitals at all levels should focus on improving their ability to treat and prevent diseases, expanding the overall service function, emphasizing on strengthening the construction of specialized medical specialties and the ability to treat critically ill patients, adapting to the reform of social security system and medical insurance system, and vigorously developing community services. Tibetan hospitals at or above the regional level should have strong emergency response capacity, build and enrich a number of specialized specialties, and have their own advantages to adapt to the comprehensive service function of community health care. Tibetan hospitals in autonomous regions have at least 2 to 3 specialties, and Tibetan hospitals in various regions have 1 to 2 specialties. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, 14 Tibetan hospitals were graded and graded according to the graded management evaluation standards formulated by the autonomous region.
We will conscientiously implement the "316" project organized by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. On this basis, the autonomous region screened lO Tibetan medical, teaching or scientific research units for key construction. Tibetan hospitals in autonomous regions and in Shannan region should play a demonstration role for Tibetan hospitals throughout the country, and strive to build them into modern Tibetan hospitals with first-class equipment, complete functions and outstanding characteristics by 2010.
During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, the production of Tibetan medicine should rationally adjust its product structure according to medical services and market demand, strengthen technological transformation of production, speed up clinical research and quality certification of existing Tibetan medicine, and strive to improve the production and quality level of Tibetan medicine. By 2000, the production capacity of Tibetan medicine in the whole region had reached about 500 tons, and the dosage forms of 20 kinds of traditional Tibetan medicine had been reformed. The Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory of the Autonomous Region should speed up the implementation of GMP. The annual output value plan of the factory after its formal commissioning amounts to 74.190 million yuan, with a profit of 124.443 million yuan.
Gradually straighten out the channels of production, supply and marketing of Tibetan medicines, and standardize the production, procurement, processing preparations and sales outlets of Tibetan medicines. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, a batch of Tibetan medicines should be included in the national drug supply plan and be marketed as soon as possible.
Accelerating the pace of research on Tibetan medicine standards, making Tibetan medicine gradually included in the national pharmacopoeia, ministerial standards and local standards, and embarking on the track of standardization, standardization, legalization and scientific management. By 2010, a modern Tibetan medicine production, circulation and management system suitable for economic and social development will be basically established.
The scientific research work of Tibetan medicine should focus on applied research, strengthen basic research, focus on improving the level and ability of science and technology, and focus on improving the ability of disease prevention and treatment and clinical efficacy. We should consolidate and fulfil existing research institutions of Tibetan medicine and astronomical calendar, strengthen construction, and give full play to the role of Tibetan hospitals in the base and center of Tibetan medicine scientific research in the whole region.
Choose some common diseases, frequently-occurring diseases, difficult diseases such as hepatitis, cerebral thrombosis caused by paralysis, hypertension and so on to carry out clinical research of Tibetan medicine, and strive to make greater progress in the diagnosis and treatment effect. In view of the major theoretical and key technical problems in the Tibetan medicine industry, scientific and technological research has been planned to carry out the development, research and application of new Tibetan drugs such as antibiotics, health care drugs and new formulations; the study of quality standards and effective ingredients of Tibetan medicine; the study of pharmaceutical engineering technology of Tibetan medicine; the study of basic theory of Tibetan medicine; the prevention and treatment of major diseases of Tibetan medicine, especially tumors, heart and brain. Research on vascular diseases, etc.
We should stabilize undergraduate education, develop adult education, postgraduate education and foreign student education, and strengthen the construction of Tibetan Medical College. To meet the needs of society, Tibetan Medical College has formulated a training plan for talents in line with the reality of the development of Tibetan medicine, rationally adjusted the professional structure and curriculum, and strived to improve the quality of education. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, 178 undergraduates and 20 secondary school students were newly trained. By the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, the population of 1,000 people in the region had 0.5 Tibetan medical personnel.
By 2010, we will strive to train 100 academic and technological leaders of Tibetan medicine, who are able to stand in the forefront of Tibetan medicine science and technology and have great influence in the national Tibetan medicine circle, as well as professional and technical backbone of clinical and specialized diseases of Tibetan medicine. We will basically form a well-structured talent echelon of academic and technological leaders of Tibetan medicine and a high-quality backbone team of academic and technological leaders of Tibetan medicine.
Strengthening the cultivation of Tibetan medicine talents in agricultural and pastoral areas. Tibetan medical institutions at all levels and municipal health schools should take the training of Tibetan medical talents in agricultural and pastoral areas as an important task. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, 70% of Tibetan medical personnel at county and township levels were rotated, and the rotated training reached 100% in 2010. At the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, 80% of rural doctors in the whole region will be trained in two methods of diagnosis and treatment of Tibetan and Western medicine. In 2010, the number of rural doctors trained in Tibetan and Western medicine will reach 100%, and the education of integrated Tibetan and Western medicine will be gradually improved. Since the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, 50% of township health centers have to be equipped with a Tibetan doctor. By 2010, all township hospitals were staffed with a Tibetan doctor.
We will vigorously develop folk Tibetan medicine and adopt preferential policies to encourage and support private Tibetan medicine practicing individually in agricultural and pastoral areas, so that a number of Tibetan medical personnel can be retained, used and rooted in the grass-roots level to serve the masses directly. We should continue to run four non-governmental Tibetan medical schools in Shigaze, Shannan, Changdu and Ali, and give full play to their important role in training and transporting non-governmental Tibetan medicine to agricultural and pastoral areas. At the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, there will be 600 non-governmental Tibetan doctors in the whole region and 1000 in 2010.
Emphasis should be laid on the cultivation of managerial talents in economic management, administrative management and business management of Tibetan medicine, and a training system for managers at all levels and levels should be gradually established. At the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, at least 50% of Tibetan medicine administrators were trained in management knowledge, reaching 90% in 2010.
We should strengthen the education of Tibetan medicine personnel, with emphasis on the training of shortage professionals in business management, Tibetan medicine pharmacy and Tibetan medicine engineering. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, one third of Tibetan medicine workers received on-the-job training, reaching 1/2 in 2010.
We will further improve the teacher-acceptance system and adopt special policies to encourage and support the leading and Apprenticeship of famous veteran Tibetan doctors. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, at least 100 outstanding young and middle-aged Tibetan doctors were selected to study with famous veteran Tibetan doctors.
We should actively carry out foreign exchanges and cooperation in Tibetan medicine, focus on strengthening academic exchanges, broadening areas of cooperation, and actively and effectively utilize foreign capital and advanced technology to develop the cause of Tibetan medicine. By 2010, we will strive for substantive results in 1 to 2 scientific and technological cooperation projects. We should actively and orderly carry out medical cooperation with Tibetan medicine, exchange information and expand its impact. By 2010, we will strive for 1 to 2 Tibetan medicines to enter the international market, and have certain international influence and foreign exchange earning capacity.
With the advent of the new era, exchanges between the Mainland and Tibet have become increasingly frequent. Among them, the developed tourism industry in Tibet has created an external environment for the spread of Tibetan medicine. The mysterious and original history of Tibetan medicine is well known to more people. The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway has also facilitated the spread of culture. Under this background, the communication between Tibetan medicine and the mainland is becoming more and more perfect.
Tibetan Medicine and International Friends Exchange in Mainland China
In this process, some well-known Tibetan medicine and medicine in Tibet area are gradually known by the people of the mainland, such as Qiangba Chilie (president of Tibetan Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region), Gesangwangdui (researcher of Tibetan Medicine Society of China), Deji Zhuoga (researcher of Tibetan Medicine Society of China), Awangpingtuo (director of Tibetan Medicine Society of China), some Tibetan medicine factories and Tibetan medicine doctors. The hospital has gradually been respected by the people in the mainland, such as Xianlu Tibetan Medicine, Jinhe Tibetan Medicine, Shenshui Tibetan Medicine, Manlu Tibetan Medicine, Jinhada Tibetan Medicine, Zhengyuan Biology, Tianzhi Biology, Tibetan Hospital in Changdu District, Affiliated Hospital of Tibetan Nationalities College, Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region, etc. Tibetan medicine is playing an increasingly important role in disease treatment and prevention. Former Vice Premier Li Lanqing happily inscribed to the Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory in Changdu, Tibet: "Xianlu Tibetan Medicine, Snow Treasure, Save the World and Dedicate to Humanity".
However, because Tibet is located in the high and cold plateau area, people in the mainland still have various inconveniences in understanding Tibetan medicine. At the same time, the brand establishment of Tibetan medicine enterprises is also facing many challenges. In the 1990s, with the development of the Internet, the dissemination of Tibetan culture and medicine has found the most convenient way. From then on, the mainland people can share the classics of Tibetan medicine through the Internet. Among them, Tibetan Medicine and Tibetan Medicine Network is a strong brush in the picture of Tibetan medicine culture inheritance. Some classical Tibetan medicines, such as Pearl 70, Pain-relieving Tie, Tibetan Nodikang Capsule, Jixue Tangkang Granule, Coral 70, Qiwei Tiexian Capsule, Shiwei Longdanhua Granule, Tibetan Buwang, 25-flavor Podophyllo Pill, have emerged.
Tibetan Medicine and Tibetan Medicine Network is the first Tibetan medicine platform co-sponsored by the first official Tibetan hospital in China. Its sponsors include the Tibetan Hospital in Changdu District, the Tibetan Changdu Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory and the Affiliated Hospital of Tibetan Institute for Nationalities. Setting up treatment departments mainly include: cardio-encephalology, gastrointestinal, dermatology, rheumatism, diabetes and so on. Tibetan Medicine Tibetan Medicine Network aims to give full play to the advantages of Tibetan medicine, overcome geographical obstacles, disseminate classics and dispel pain for the majority of patients.
Tibetan Medicine and Tibetan Medicine Network was first established in March 2003. After seven years of development, it has become a platform for medical exchanges between the Mainland and Tibet. Through this platform, Tibetan medicine can be more comprehensive dissemination, the third pole of the earth treasure medicine can be blessed in the mainland, tens of thousands of patients can regain their health. Tibetan medicine network of Tibetan medicine is all-inclusive, and it also provides a convenient way for inland people to understand Tibetan medicine and Tibetan culture. For a long time, the website officially sponsored many activities of far-reaching significance to the development of Tibetan medicine, such as: regular visits to patients and remote consultation with renowned Tibetan physicians of high prestige medical ethics in Tibet; invitation to participate in relevant services of ethnic minority associations, sponsoring related activities; organization of free tours to Tibet for rehabilitation patients, visits to Tibetan medicine production workshops, etc., which were widely received by patients and the outside world. Praise. The Changdu Tibetan Pharmaceutical Factory, as the base of Tibetan Medicine Network, has also won many honors from all walks of life. In 2003, the "Xianlu" trademark was awarded as a well-known trademark of the autonomous region, making the "Xianlu" trademark more well-known and more widely known. State leaders Hu Jintao and the 10th Panchen Master also came to our factory for inspection and guidance. In 2002, Comrade Li Lanqing, then the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Premier of the State Council, readily inscribed: "Xianlu Tibetan Medicine, Snow Treasures, Benefiting the World and Devoting to Humanity".
With the increasing number of followers of Tibetan Medicine Network, the website was further optimized and revised from April to July 2010 to further develop Tibetan medicine culture, serve patients and disseminate classics.
Tibetan medicine is a science with a long history, unique features and remarkable curative effect. It is a national medicine formed by Tibetan people in the complex natural environment and long-term struggle against various diseases. It is an important component of the treasure house of Chinese medicine. Today, it has drawn lessons from and combined with many advanced medical systems, and will better serve the health of the Tibetan people and the people of the world.
The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, Tibetan medicine was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. On June 5, 2007, the Ministry of Culture of the Tibet Autonomous Region confirmed that Qiangba Chi was listed as the representative successor of the cultural heritage project, and was included in the list of 226 representative successors of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects.