Tianjin tune is one of the most representative tunes in Tianjin Quyi, which is mainly spread in Tianjin.
Tianjin tune originated from Ming and Qing Xiaoqu. It was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and spread in the early Republic of China. It was sung in Tianjin dialect. The performance form of Tianjin Dialect is one or two people singing on the festival board. Others are accompanied by big three strings and four hus. The tunes of Tianjin Times are very rich, including many local folk tunes of Tianjin and tunes flowing into Tianjin from other places.
On May 20, 2006, Tianjin Shitiao was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.
Tianjin tune originated from the folk tune popular in Tianjin in Ming and Qing Dynasties. It contains a variety of local folk songs and tunes flowing into Tianjin from other places. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Tianjin's water transport was developed, which brought commercial prosperity. Folk tunes from different places also flowed into Tianjin. As early as in the sixty years of Qianlong (1795), Niyi Xuanpi recorded 30 kinds of popular tunes and 622 popular songs in Tianjin and Beijing at that time.
The earliest record of the performance of the time tune in the juggling hall can be found in the "juggling hall" clause in "Zaji of Jinmen" published in Guangxu ten years ago. This article describes that at the end of each year and the beginning of the new year, various tea shops in Tianjin add juggling programs to attract audiences. There are several kinds of music, such as Xiangzishu, Jingzishu, octagonal drum, cross talk and new ditties. The new songs include "Blue Bridge Club", "Ten Flowers", "New Five Gentlemen", "Prostitutes Sigh to themselves", "Mother's Muddle" and so on. The content of the lyrics is obscene and vulgar. The performance of Shi Xin Xiaoqu is also described: "Two chorus singers, a man and a woman, that is to say, self-righteous, not particularly sexually appealing to the ear, a genius maid, and the corners of their eyes as sentimental as a slut...". In the early stage, male artists were the main tuners in juggling halls.
The early record of the performance of the tune in the Laozi Hall can be seen in the article "Laozi Hall" published in the 24-year edition of "Jinmen Chronicle", which records the situation that Shixin Xiaoqu performed in the Laozi Hall after repeated bans by the government: "The song sung by the people of the Laozi Hall is called"Lotus falls too", and sometimes the new Xiaoqu Erhuangbangzi and so on... It opens day and night. It is full of sexuality and gayety, and it depicts the head and the corners. At that time, when the new Xiaoqu was replayed, there were small Laozi Hall, "Cold, Qingyun Hall, Tianfu Tea Garden, Baole Tea Garden, Haiyao Tea Garden, Dangui Tea Garden, etc. When singing in Laozi Hall, the tunes are all those who are good at singing among prostitutes. They are called "singers". Because most of them are foot-binding, they need to hold the railings in front of the stage with their hands in order to stand steadily. When singing, the invisible acts. The singer was accompanied by a choreographer who sat on the strings in the Laozi Hall, many of whom were blind.
During the reign of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty, a string teacher, Yu Qinghe, was proficient in three strings and was good at singing the tune of "depending on mountains". He gave many apprenticeships, including Liu Baoquan, Wang Baoyin, Zhao Baocui, Li Baoming and Zhu Baohong. Wang Baoyin plays and sings to Wang Qing and learns his tunes. After graduation, he sits in Qingyunkun Library to accompany singers Jinfu, Yinfu and Dayulian. Zhao Baocui, who was in the same division with Wang Baoyin, was good at Beijing rhyme drum and fashion tune. He began to sing in Laozi Hall at the end of the nineteenth century. Liu Baoquan, who later became famous for his Beijing rhyme drum, could also sing in the current tune.
In Guangxu 24 years (1898), the number of rickshaws in Tianjin increased to thousands. Rickshaw drivers account for a considerable proportion of the people who like "mountain tune", "mandarin duck tune" and "Laha tune". When waiting for passengers, they often sit in the dustpan and hum impromptuly, as if they had changed their sign for a while.
Around the twenty-sixth year of Guangxu (1900), tunes such as "leaning on the hill to wither", "Mandarin duck tune" and "sad autumn" appeared in Tianjin, which was well-known for a time, and mostly sang by filling in the lyrics of current events. They were widely spread among the people.
From the beginning of the twentieth century to the end of the twenties, with the emergence of Xinmingdi, Xinlaozi Hall, large and medium-sized high-end juggling halls, record companies and radio stations, fashion tune performances flourished. Many time-tune singers flocked to Mingdi time-tune studio, and a group of highly skilled singers also took time-tune singing as their profession after they became famous in Laozi Hall. Among them, excellent singers entered large and medium-sized high-end juggling halls, made records and were invited to broadcast on the radio.
In the 1930s and 1940s, with the decline of Laozi Hall, singers entered the juggling arena and became actors. Among them, those who are good at time tuning mostly turn to open time tuning shed, while a few excellent people enter formal juggling park. The old generation of tune artists from fading out of the singing arena to leaving the stage one after another. There is a great shortage of excellent artists in the future. With the change of times and circumstances, folk folk time tune performances such as Luozu's Birthday and Yulan Penhui have gradually diminished and disappeared. The tempo of this period tends to decline.
In 1953, the Tianjin Radio Quyi Troupe reformed the "mountain tune" in many aspects. It adapted the lyrics of the folk song "Watermelon Wrestling" into the lyrics "Watermelon Wrestling" in "mountain tune", and carried out experimental reforms on the traditional aria and accompaniment of "mountain tune" in combination with the content and emotion of the lyrics. The accompaniment instruments include the dulcimer, pipa, Sheng and bass mustache, together with the original three strings and four Hu instruments, which set off the stage's singing atmosphere more fervently. In order to purify the stage, the stage table was abandoned. After many reforms and innovations, "Wrestling Watermelon" as the first example of the tune innovation, with a fresh attitude and new title "Tianjin tune" displayed in front of the audience, and received the approval and approval of the public, achieved the initial success of the tune reform.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in addition to "relying on mountain tune", there were also certain reforms and innovations in "Laha tune", such as sorting out the traditional song "Wanting a son-in-law", putting on new tunes such as "Little Sentinel Soldier", "Fat Sister-in-law with his mother's family", "Happy Wangkuang Wife" and "Return of Lottery".
In June 1961, the Tianjin Quyi Troupe and the Tianjin Branch of the Music Association jointly held two "Tianjin Times Internal View Concerts". Many old fashion performers, old ticket friends and fashion actors and students from various professional groups who have long been absent from the stage also participated in the performance. In addition to some new songs, we have mainly explored and sung more than ten kinds of traditional tunes, such as "26-board mandarin duck tune", "slow-board old Mandarin Duck tune", "new mandarin duck tune", "sad autumn", "big number song", "huai tune", "Xiaowugeng", "Anyway to flowers", "timid five more", "10 cups of wine", "beating children", "falling feet counter-tune" ("jail"), "stacking up money", "falling five tunes". The repertoire. Following that, an internal observation seminar was held in Tianjin Times. More than 40 people concerned participated in the seminar. The Chinese Opera Federation and the Beijing Theatre were also invited to attend.
Since the "Cultural Revolution" in 1966, Tianjin tune was designated "kiln tune" by the extreme left trend of thought for historical reasons, and once faced with the crisis of being banned and strangled.
Since the late 1960s, the creation and performance of Tianjin Shitong have gradually recovered, and by the end of 1970s, a number of innovative tracks were produced.
Since the 1980s, the reform and opening-up policy has set off a new wave of upsurge in the innovation and development of Tianjin's fashion. In terms of melody, although it is still dominated by "hillside tune", it pays more attention to the transformation and utilization of other tunes. In terms of Lyric literature, there is a more obvious trend towards the style of new poetry. The more prominent songs are "Spring Comes" and "Dream Back to Shenzhou".
Since the 1990s, the excavation and utilization of traditional tunes have been strengthened. In addition to the excellent traditional tunes that are often sung, the traditional tunes such as "Old Mandarin Duck Tune", "Two-six-board Mandarin Duck Tune" and "Xiao Wugeng" have also been excavated and restored. At the same time, we continue to carry out the reform and innovation of the current tune, and introduce new repertoires such as Dandelion, Longzui Big Bronze Pot, Jinmen Old Brand and Farewell My Concubine. Among them, "Longzui Big Bronze Pot" and "Jinmen Old Brand" are the opening tunes of TV, with a strong flavor of time tunes.
Tianjin tune was originally popular in performances in Nanshi, Hedong Tunnel, Bird City of Hongqiao District, Heping District and other places where the bottom citizens of Tianjin gathered. It was introduced to Liaoning in the 1960s.
Inheritance and Protection
Some old Tianjin tunes artists have died one after another, and most of the tunes and their repertoires have been lost. Many valuable audio or text materials need to be excavated, collected and sorted out urgently.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Tianjin Quyi Troupe and others excavated and arranged many melodies on the extinct stage, and held special performances and symposiums.
In 1999, China Records Corporation and China Quyi Artists Association published CD albums of "Collection Edition of Famous Chinese Quyi Artists" and "Quyi Sunset Project Series", including several works by Wang Yubao.
In response to the call of the state leaders around 2002, in order to rescue the classical songs sung by the old artists, the National Opera audio-visual project was carried out, and a large number of VCD audio-visual products were published. Wang Yubao, his disciples Gao Hui and Liu Boyang participated in the audio-visual work of Tianjin Times. Four VCD albums were published by Tianjin Culture and Art Audio-visual Publishing House, which has become the main audio-visual materials for Tianjin Times enthusiasts and experts and scholars to appreciate, study and study Times.
Tianjin tune has a strong performances, and its paper publications are mostly composed of classical music scores and lyrics, which are included in various selected works of music.
Wang Yubao, female, Han nationality, born in Tianjin in 1926. In February 2008, Wang Yubao was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Tianjin. Wang Yubao is one of the founders of Tianjin Times. Wang Yubao, together with quyi writers and choreographers, carried out an artistic innovation on the "hillside tune", enriched the melody of singing, added accompaniment instruments such as Sheng and Yangqin, and created and adapted new repertoires such as "Wrestling Watermelon". In 1953, Wang Yubao made a hit with his new work "Wrestling Watermelon". Since then, "Tianjin Times" has opened a new page in the history of Chinese folk art, and the name of "Tianjin Times" has been formally determined. Wang Yubao also formed his own simple, bright and sweet style. His masterpieces, Crossing the River and Falling the Sea, Red Rock Song, Military and Civilian Rain Feelings, and Praise in the Heart to the Yangfei, are well-known in the north and south of the Yangtze River. In 2003, Wang Yubao won the Golden Record Award of China; in 2006, he entered the first batch of UN intangible cultural heritage list; in July 2008, Wang Yubao won the highest prize in Chinese traditional opera, the Sixth Peony Award for Lifetime Achievement. In his later years, Wang Yubao devoted himself to cultivating the successor of Tianjin Times and enrolling students.
Selected as a non-survivor
On May 20, 2006, Tianjin Shitiao was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists, numbered V-29.
The Value of Quyi
- Historical value
Tianjin tune with strong local characteristics is the only type of quyiqu named after Tianjin place name. Tianjin, as an important birthplace of northern folk art, the rise and fall of many kinds of music is accompanied by the development of the city. Tianjin tune plays a special and important role in Tianjin Quyi. It is the epitome of the formation, development, maturity, prosperity and even decline of Tianjin Quyi.
Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Tianjin Shitong has been formed and developed on the basis of the folk songs and popular ditties flowing into the local area along with the commercial development and transportation of Tianjin. It has a variety of tunes and rich repertoires, and its contents are closely related to the folk customs and customs at that time. It is a rare "living fossil" for studying the history of Tianjin city.
Tianjin tune, with its rich content, unique singing tune and performance style and its tortuous inheritance history, has typical regional characteristics in the development of Tianjin folk culture. Discovering and rescuing the traditional tunes and repertoires of Tianjin tunes and strengthening academic research are not only beneficial to enriching and perfecting the music of Tianjin Quyi and clarifying the development history of Tianjin Quyi, but also contributing to enriching the traditional folk culture, revitalizing Tianjin Quyi, promoting the influence of Tianjin in the national Quyi circle, and enriching the cultural life of the people.