Wudalianchi Scenic Spot: National AAAAA Scenic Spot, World Geological Park, World Human and Biosphere Reserve, International Green List, National Key Scenic Spots, National Nature Reserve, National Forest Park, National Natural Heritage, Hometown of Mineral Water, Hometown of China's Famous Volcanoes, Hometown of Holy Water Festival (Yaoquan Club) Home intangible cultural heritage.
Wudalianchi Scenic Area is located in Wudalianchi City, Heihe City, Heilongjiang Province, 18 kilometers away from Wudalianchi City. It is located in the transition zone from Xiaoxing'an Mountains to Songnen Plain. Its total area is 1,060 square kilometers, including 321,000 mu of woodland, 573,000 mu of grassland and 150,000 mu of wetland. From 1719 to 1721, volcanoes erupted and lava blocked the Baihe River, forming five interconnected lakes, hence the name Wudalianchi.
Wudalianchi Scenic Area consists of five major lake areas: Lotus Lake, Yanshan Lake, Bailong Lake, Heming Lake, Ruyi Lake, as well as surrounding volcanic geological landscape, related human landscape, vegetation, waterscape and so on. There are 618 species of plants and 397 species of wildlife. Compared with the same latitude areas, there are abundant species of animals and plants, which become the main witness of the ecological evolution process and show the tenacious vitality of nature. They are the best areas in the world to study species adaptation and the evolution of biological communities.
The first batch of national practical education bases for primary and secondary school students.
From 1719 to 1721, volcanoes erupted and lava blocked the Baihe River, forming five interconnected lakes, hence the name Wudalianchi.
Before 1974, Wudalianchi Scenic Area had no special management organization. At that time, the scenic spot was under the jurisdiction of Shuangquan Commune in Dedu County, where the Qingquan Brigade of Shuangquan Commune was located. In order to protect and make good use of the natural resources in Wudalianchi area, Dedu County separated the Qingquan Brigade of Shuangquan Commune from the commune and established the "Wudalianchi Management Zone". With the development of tourism and recuperation in Wudalianchi, Wudalianchi Town was established on March 10, 1976, with the approval of Heilongjiang Revolutionary Committee, in order to solve many problems such as staple food, non-staple food and transportation. Only three years after the founding of the town, the number of sanatoriums established here has grown to 29.
In February 1979, the Heilongjiang Reform Committee approved the establishment of the "Leading Group for the Conservation and Utilization of Volcanic Resources and the Construction and Management of Sanatorium Areas in Wudalianchi, Heilongjiang Province", under which the Five Lianchi Branches of the Provincial Reform Committee (at the departmental level) were set up.
In March 1980, with the approval of Heilongjiang Provincial Government, Wudalianchi was classified as a "provincial nature reserve". In June of the same year, the Heilongjiang Provincial People's Government decided to change the "Leading Group for the Protection and Utilization of Volcanic Resources and the Construction and Management of Sanatorium Areas in Wudalianchi, Heilongjiang Province" into a management committee, and the "Wudalianchi Administration Office of the Heilongjiang Revolutionary Committee" into "Wudalianchi Administration Bureau of the Heilongjiang Provincial People's Government", with the staffing of The system has increased from 7 to 15. After the establishment of the Authority, volcano management stations and mineral spring management stations have been established. Anti-pollution renovation projects have been carried out for drinking and washing springs. From spoon ladle to semi-automatic well water supply, and then to automatic electrical water supply.
In order to solve the problem of unified leadership of the Bureau of Administration and the five major towns of Lianchi, the provincial government decided in 1981 that the bureau should work together. After the merger, there are 49 administrative bureaus of five major Lianchi of the provincial government. The three powers of human, financial and property belong to the provincial government office. The Administrative Bureau has established the Party Committee (at the county level) under the leadership of the Heihe Prefectural Committee. The relevant enterprises and institutions in the town are under the leadership of the administrative bureau. The main posts are volcano management station, mineral spring management station, landscape protection station, public security sub-bureau and forestry management station .
On November 8, 1982, the State Council issued document No. 136, which approved Wudalianchi as one of the 44 national key scenic spots.
In December 1991, Wudalianchi Scenic Spot Nature Reserve was selected as "Forty Best Tourist Resorts in China" by the National Tourism Administration.
On April 21, 1996, the Heilongjiang Provincial Institutional Establishment Committee issued a circular entitled "Management Function Configuration, Institutional Institutions and Staffing Plan of Wudalianchi Scenic Spot in Heilongjiang Province", and decided to establish "Wudalianchi Scenic Spot Administration Bureau of Heilongjiang Province" (Branch Level) in the former Wudalianchi City to be managed by the new Wudalianchi City Ã£â‚¬â€š
In 2000, the meeting minutes of Heilongjiang provincial government office and document No. 89 of "2000" of Heilongjiang Heilongjiang Heilongjiang Heilongjiang Heilongjiang Province's Wudalianchi Scenic Area Nature Reserve Administration Bureau were revoked, and the Management Committee of Wudalianchi Scenic Area Nature Reserve was established from Wudalianchi City, which belongs to Heihe City. It has 105 personnel, including nine ministries and bureaus and one five major Lianchi towns.
In 2001, Wudalianchi Scenic Area Nature Reserve was approved by the Ministry of Land and Resources as one of the first batch of national geoparks.
On July 17, 2003, the Wudalianchi Scenic Spot Nature Reserve was approved by UNESCO as the World Human and Biosphere Reserve.
On February 3, 2004, Wudalianchi Scenic Area Nature Reserve was approved by UNESCO as one of the first world geoparks in the world.
On January 1, 2007, in order to strengthen the protection of Wudalianchi World Geopark, rationally utilize natural resources and ensure the sustainable development of Wudalianchi World Geopark, the 23rd Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Heilongjiang Provincial People's Congress promulgated and implemented Wudalianchi World Geopark in Heilongjiang Province, in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of the state. Protection Ordinance.
Wudalianchi Scenic Area is located in the northwest of Heilongjiang Province and southwest of Heihe City. It is located in the transition zone from Xiaoxing'an Mountains to Songnen Plain, 380 kilometers away from Harbin and 230 kilometers away from Heihe River. Geographical coordinates are 48 30 ~48 51, 126 00 ~126 25. The total area is 1060_.
The rocks of Heilongshan and Huoshan in Wudalianchi are very special. They are potassium-rich basic-intermediate basic volcanic lava. Because its color ratio (40-55%) is higher than that of trachyte and phonolite (35-20%) and does not contain basic plagioclase that basalt should have, it is neither trachyte or phonolite nor alkaline basalt. Therefore, according to the morphological characteristics of the lavas in Heilongshan and Huoshan, Japanese geologist Xiaocang Mian named them "Shilongyan" in the form of "dragon".
In addition, the magma that forms potassic volcanic rocks generally comes from the mantle. The upwelling and eruption of this magma are related to certain geological tectonic environment. The Wudalianchi volcanic area is located in the axis of the East Asian continental rift system. Its formation is likely to be caused by the upwelling of the mantle plume under the action of rift.
Fourteen volcanoes in the Wudalianchi area are located at the intersection of NE and NW lines, forming a checkerboard grid layout. Geologists have studied that 14 volcanic cones are regularly arranged and controlled by faults deep in the crust. The NE and NW trending faults are well developed in the Wudalianchi area, and the NE trending faults are the main faults. Magma in the earth's interior erupts along the intersection of the NE and NW trending faults, forming orderly volcanic cones.
The Volcanic Group in Wudalianchi area is 400-600 meters above sea level. It is famous for the special structure of volcanic cone, various flow traces of volcanic lava, frozen lava tunnels and cold carbonate mineral springs.
Wudalianchi Volcanic Group is located at the northern end of Songnen fault basin, and its northeast is the Xiaoxing'anling fault uplift area. The Wudalianchi Volcanic Group is also located in the NW-trending Wudalianchi-Keluo volcanic belt. The strata in this area are mainly Carboniferous phyllite, schist, Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone, Quaternary volcanic rock, and Variscan and Yanshanian granite.
Wudalianchi Volcanic Group has 14 independent cones and a series of shield volcanoes. Volcanic cones and shield volcanoes were formed in the Quaternary Period, while the most recent eruptions occurred in 1719 - 1721 A.D. in Laoheishan and Huoshan. The lava from the eruption blocked the Shilongjiang River in four places, forming five volcanic barrier lakes and finally forming the "five contiguous pools".
Laoheishan and Huoshan volcanic activities produce lava, volcanic bombs, slag, lava agglomeration, agglomeration and volcanic breccia. The rocks are characterized by potassium-rich and partly leucite-bearing rocks. From the petrochemical point of view, the high chroma and the contents of total iron, MgO and CaO are different from those of Xiangyan and trachyte, and from those of alkaline basalt without plagioclase.
Wudalianchi Scenic Spot is located in northern Xinjiang, China. The local climate is long winter and short summer, low temperature, cold and wet. However, due to volcanic activity, Wudalianchi area shows different climatic characteristics from its neighborhood.
In addition to the surface water with five volcanic barrier lakes as the main body, the park also contains abundant groundwater and mineral water, forming a complete and unique hydrogeological system. Carbonate mineral water, a bicarbonate comparable to Vichy water in the central highlands of France, has the highest degree of research and embodies the complex principles of hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of mineral water in its formation and evolution.
Myths and legends
In the northwest corner of Sanchi, not too far from Wudalianchi, there is a volcano called Huoshan. According to historical records, it erupted in July of the lunar calendar in the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty (1720 A.D.). The outbreak was spectacular: landslides, cracks, thunder and thunder; flames, smoke, rolling and never extinguishing; flying rocks, such as rainstorms; heat waves, killing birds and animals. After that, there was a magical legend handed down. It is said that the moment the fire broke out at that time, it was like a skyscraper, rushing out into the clouds. From the bottom of the burning sea to the connection of the rolling smoke, a fireball-like monster took off, like lightning, and disappeared. Many years later, the lava flowing from the eruption of the burning mountain cooled down and became a vast area of Shilong and Shihai, with weeds and woods growing on the porous ground. Many years passed, and on the ground where weeds and woods grew, there was gradually human smoke.
More than 200 years ago, Wudalianchi was a vast ocean called Beihai. There are many kinds of animals and plants in the sea, which grow vigorously. The fish dominate the sea, and carp dominate the sea. The leader is a carp essence, and he has some good ways, called Liang. In order to consolidate its dominant position, it was good at uniting all kinds of animals and plants, and sent a heart-bellied silver carp to do this work. Following Confucius in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, it traveled around the whole North Sea to preach the benefits of building a homeland by alliance (truth), but silver carp was mercilessly hit and almost lost its life.