The Miao costumes

Home Culture 2019-06-05

The Miao costumes

Miao is an international ethnic group originating from China. In the 2010 census, Miao is mainly distributed in Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Hubei, Sichuan, Hainan, Guangxi and other provinces (regions). There are many styles of Miao costumes. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 200 styles, which span a long period of time.

Miao costume, Miao language is called "yao yao", mainly composed of children's clothes, casual clothes, dress, "yao GA Yi xi" Miao language, "yao Yao tao" Miao language is called "silver clothes", wearing a pleated skirt, front and back waist. Miao costume is the most gorgeous costume of all ethnic costumes in China. It is not only a wonderful flower in Chinese culture, but also a treasure of history and culture. The Miao area in Western Hunan dialect and Eastern Guizhou dialect preferred silver ornaments, while some areas in southern Guizhou preferred shellfish ornaments, while the Miao dress in Western dialect area was less silver ornaments. Silver ornaments, Miao embroidery and batik are the main features of Miao costumes.

In 2006, the Miao costumes declared by Baoshan City of Yunnan Province were listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list (category: folklore; number: _-65) with the approval of the State Council.

Introduction to Clothing

Leishan Miao ethnic costumes are colorful and one of the most beautiful and beautiful costumes in the world today. These colorful costumes embody the nation's historical changes after suffering, the longing for a better life and the concentration of the living environment of the past and present. Historians call it "the history book on the body."

There are more than 100 kinds of dress materials of Miao nationality in Western Hunan.

In 2006, the Miao costumes declared by Baoshan City of Yunnan Province were listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list (category: folklore; number: _-65) with the approval of the State Council.

The western Hunan type is popular in the western Hunan Prefecture and the borders of Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Hubei provinces. In ancient times, the custom of men and women to keep their hair in buns has disappeared. Today I wear a round-necked blouse.

Eastern Guizhou type, popular in southeastern Guizhou. Men's clothes are mostly blue cloth trousers and blue headdresses. Women's wear is made of collar jacket and pleated skirt, and clay cloth.

The central and southern Guizhou type is prevalent in the central and southern Guizhou and at the junction of Guizhou, Guangxi and Yunnan. Women's jackets are mostly shawls and back handkerchiefs, with blue pleated skirts and batik skirts underneath.

Hainan type, popular in Hainan Province. Women's clothes are mostly right-skinned blue cloth long shirts, batik skirts and fewer decorations.

The color and decoration of Miao men's clothes are more monotonous than that of women's clothes. Women's clothes can be divided into casual clothes and costumes. Casual clothes are usually worn clothes, and their color patterns and decorations are less brilliant than those worn at festivals when getting married .

If silver jewelry is the representative symbol of Miao women, then clothing represents the unique works of art of the Miao family. "Cihai" records that "Miao embroidery, which represents the highest level of Miao embroidery, has been earned side by side with Hunan embroidery, Su embroidery, Shu embroidery and Guangdong embroidery." Miao embroidery and costume are just as praised by Liu Haisu, a famous artist: "Miao embroidery is so skillful that it is hard to avoid vulgarity compared with Hunan embroidery. It has great commercial development and prospects.

Miao costumes are famous for their striking colors, complex decorations and intriguing cultural connotations. The Miao costume pattern bears the historical responsibility of inheriting the national culture and thus has the expressive function of the written part. Because of the long history, the written functions and the specific meanings conveyed by these patterns are also covered with mystery, which can not be fully interpreted. This is also the unique charm of Miao costume patterns.

The Miao costume pattern is a decorative art developed with the Miao costume. It is still used in daily clothing and daily necessities. It has the characteristics of combining practical function with aesthetic function. It has been endowed with rich and colorful connotations and meanings of inheriting national traditions, memorizing ancestors and inheriting ancestral precepts. The significance and origin behind these patterns represent the Miao people. Perceptual experience and interpretation of the objective world.

Miao costumes have a long history. For historical reasons, the Miao costumes have not been recorded in any historical materials. However, from the cultural connotation represented by the Miao costume pattern symbols, the Miao costume has a history of several thousand years.

Although the Miao people do not have their own literature, they only rely on a strong sense of identity and oral instruction from generation to generation, incorporating the stories of thousands of years, the cities where the ancestors lived, the migration and drifting routes into the costume culture, and embroidering the clothes and clothes in a needle-by-needle fashion, which can be inherited from generation to generation and never forgotten. Therefore, the clothes of the Miao people are praised as "the history books without words" and the clothes they wear on their bodies. History Book.

"Yao Yao Ga Zhi Xi" - the bottom-lifting embroidered dress is the most representative pattern in the white-washed Miao costume. It consists of two types: Yao character and Yao flash. Hanze's "red embroidered flower" and "dark bottom embroidered dress". Both of them have no embroidery on their backs, and the other patterns are the same as "nausea, ga, and xi". However, the most frequent change of costume pattern is "throwing Gong dial" - sleeve flower. Its pattern is mainly laid out by various geometric figures. In different geometric figures, embroidered patterns form many different names of "throwing Gong dial" - sleeve flower.

For example, the Chinese meaning is "to sell red flowers", "to throw Xilera Xueliang" and the Chinese meaning is "small red snakeskin flower", "to throw back and recover", "to throw a knife", "to throw a knife", "to throw a knife", "to throw a knife", "to throw a branch" and "to throw a fern branch flower", "to throw a bang" and "to throw a needle flower" in Chinese; and its flower is also called "to throw a needle flower". ” Chinese translation is "Baoguhua", "throwing sound to learn to throw ga", Chinese translation is "sixteen hooked silkworm flowers", "throwing away the Geyou", Chinese translation is "small four safflower", "throwing away the Ge", Chinese translation is "big four safflower", "throwing away the Polytechnics", Chinese translation is "floating red flower" and other more than forty costume patterns.


Miao clothes are also called Miao clothes. There are no more than 200 kinds of Miao clothes in southeastern Guizhou. They are the most diverse and best preserved areas of Miao clothes in China and the world. They are called "Miao Clothing Museum".

Generally speaking, the Miao costumes maintain the traditional techniques of weaving, embroidering, picking and dyeing among the Chinese people. While using one of the main techniques, they often use other techniques, either picking or dyeing with embroidery, or weaving and embroidery with embroidery in combination, so as to make these flowers glorious and show distinct national artistic characteristics.

From the content point of view, costume patterns are mostly based on various living images in daily life, which play an important role in expressing and identifying races, clans and languages. These image records are called "epic wearing on the body" by experts and scholars. From the point of view of modelling, it adopts the traditional Chinese line-drawing or near-line-drawing modelling technique, which takes single line as the pattern outline. From the perspective of production techniques, the five patterns in the history of costume development, i.e. weaving, weaving, sewing, assembling and tailoring, all have examples in the Miao costumes in southeastern Guizhou. The historical hierarchy is clear and can be called the exhibition hall of costume production history. From the color point of view, they are good at choosing a variety of strong contrast colors, and strive to pursue the rich color and strong sense of gorgeousness, generally red, black, white, yellow and blue. From the perspective of composition, it does not emphasize the prominent theme, but only focuses on adapting to the requirements of the overall sense of clothing. Formally, it can be divided into dress and casual wear.


Full dress, dress for festival protocol and marriage, is complex and gorgeous, which embodies the artistic level of Miao costume. Casual clothes are quieter, simpler, less material and less labor than full-style clothes for daily wear. Apart from dress and casual wear, there are age and regional differences in Miao costumes. Miao men's and women's casual clothes in southeastern Guizhou are relatively simple.

Various patterns of dress concentrate the scenery of Miao people's living environment and show the elegant aesthetic taste of Miao women.

Particularly noticeable is Leishan Miao costume embroidery, whose composition, color, embroidery skills are "three unique". Miao's excellent embroidery hand has the thinking of a great painter. Its composition is rigorous, symmetrical and coordinated. Each embroidery picture has its main and secondary patterns. Its composition is based on a wide range of materials, such as sky, earth, people, gods, plants and animals. There are all kinds of myths and legends, such as Mother Butterfly, etc. (1) ancient myths and legends; (2) totem worship, such as dragon and phoenix, buffalo, birds, maple trees; (3) natural longing, such as people living in harmony with mountains and rivers, houses, Idylls and valleys; (4) historical recollection into Miao University. The Yellow River, Yangtze River, Dongting Lake and their migration routes; (5) sacred images of worshipped ancestors such as Jiang Yang (also known as Fuxi) and Chiyou. The design of excellent female embroidery hand is rich in content. It comes from the humanistic, natural, historical and life views of the ancestors of Miao people from generation to generation, and embodies a unique and profound aesthetic concept. These embroideries are mostly used in Miao women's dresses, casual clothes and straps.

Men's jackets are generally left-jacket and double-skinned jacket and left-jacket, with double-skinned jacket as the most common type. Underwear is generally large-footed trousers with wide feet. Women's casual dress jacket is generally right jacket and round collar front cross-dress two categories, the bottom for all kinds of pleated pants and trousers.

Clothes & Accessories

Men's jackets with pairs of skirts are popular in most Miao areas in China. A dress consists of six parts: left and right front, left and right rear, left and right sleeves.

Five to eleven buttons are ordered on the front, buttonholes on the left and buttonholes on the right. The front of the jacket is straight and the back is curved; the left and right axillary are open and forked. The texture of men's jackets with pairs of skirts is generally home-woven, khaki, Gonny and schilling. Most of the colors are blue, Tibetan blue and blue to match them; the lower garment is usually home-made trousers and trousers. Most young and middle-aged people wear Zhongshan suits, while some young people like suits.

Left-handed men's jackets are popular in Miao villages in Congjiang, Bakai, Taijiang, anti-platoon and Jianhe. A dress consists of a left front, a right front, a back and two sleeves. The left front and the right front intersect in the middle of the throat, and slant along the right chest to the right axilla to the pendulum. Five to seven cloth buckles are ordered. The front and back pendulums are straight. The left and right axillae can't be arranged in straight barrel shape. The cloth on the left jacket is usually home-woven or Tibetan-blue-woven gonnie, and the color is mainly blue. The structure of the left-jacket is the same as that of the left-jacket. The difference is only from the top of the jacket to the instep of the foot. It is a common casual dress for Miao elderly men. Men's casual jacket is generally non-straight-shift trousers, trouser feet are wide and wide, trouser feet and trouser legs are the same, consisting of left, right front, back four pieces, easy to make.

Miao men's clothes are left jacket, long jacket, horse jacket, the appearance is the same as casual clothes, the texture is generally silk, silk and so on, the color is mostly blue, purple, no difference from place to place. Women's casual dress jackets are generally right jacket jacket and collarless cross-over front jacket. The structure of the right jacket is basically the same as that of the left jacket in the men's jacket, but in the opposite direction.

The collarless cross-over jacket, known as "Ed bad", is a traditional Miao woman's dress, such as "gown". It has no buttons and wears a cloth belt around the waist.

Miao women's clothing texture is generally home-woven fabric, corduroy, velvet, weaving gonnie, Shilin cloth, etc., the color is generally green, blue and other colors.

Young and middle-aged Miao women in the border area of Leishan, Kaili and Taijiang counties usually wear light-colored right-jacket, embroidered flowers and birds, flower and grass pattern lace along shoulders, cuffs and the edge of right large breast, or buy ready-made lace, waistband, silver waistband exercises, suit pants, high buns on the top, ear pillars, middle-aged women often wrap white towels, and young women often wear silver combs or silver dresses. Ornaments such as plastic flowers.

Older women usually wear right jacket or collarless cross-over jacket, wear long and ankle cyanin pleated skirt, tie waist, apron and skirt length. Ornaments for elderly women are usually home-woven or gonny-woven. The color prefers blue and blue.

Miao women's casual clothes in Zhouxi, Qingman, Tonggu of Majiang County, Baiwu of Development Zone and Nangao of Danzhai County, Kaili City, include lapel-to-lapel mid-long jacket, large collar-to-breast cross-over jacket, embroidered waist with silver chain, Embroidered Wrist guard; under knee-inch hundred-folded skirt, laced legs, and brocade pink stockings.

The Miao women's casual clothes in Yangwu, Changqing and Paitong of Danzhai County usually wear right-jacket, double-skinned jacket, front-skinned jacket and lower abdomen, knee-length trousers, silver waistband and trousers waist, leg-wrapping, middle-aged and young people's clothes are the same. Upper and lower materials are mostly home-woven twill, plain cloth, corduroy, velvet and woven gonnie, etc., with batik square handkerchiefs or embroidered headscarves.

Miao women's jackets in Fushan, Huangping and Shibing of Kaili City are buttonless, large collar, front cross-over jackets, with cloth belt around waist; they wear knee blue dress, red, white wax flower pleated skirt, purple apron, mostly made of home-woven fabric, and the color is mainly blue.

The Miao women's casual clothes in Taojiang, Qiaogang, Nianxian and Luiguo, Danzhai, Dangzao, Jiadu, Yangwu and Taijiang County are dressed in waist-length, tight-fitting, right-jacket, five-to-nine-inch pleated skirt, pants, two-foot square geometric pattern apron and shoulder-hung flower shawl. Upper material is generally home-woven fabric, plain velvet and corduroy, the color is plain blue, picking process is reddish, yellow, white tricolor, rare embroidery crafts.

In Bakai, Rongjiang County, Miao women's casual clothes from Jiayu, Zaibian and Shuikou of Liping County, Yahui of Danzhai County, etc. wear large open-collar and double-skinned jackets, buttonless jackets, inside bundles with flower-breasted pockets, knee-length pleated skirt or trousers before marriage, knee-length wax-flower pleated skirt after marriage, waist-tied skirt, waist-tied jacket and chest pocket edged with lace, arm-shaped bands at sleeves and arms. Style flower block.

By the manuscript of Censong Town, Jianhe County, Wuni, Guanmoxiang, Liuchuan Town and other places, the Miao costumes are coats with buttonless collar and cross-over top, embroidered with color stripes. The silk thread is now embroidered into one triangle to form a multicolored decoration. Dressed as a jacket, cross-dressed as a single coat.

Full-dressed sleeves, shoulders and back are embroidered with square patterns, mainly red, with yellow, blue and green colors, such as armor. Legend has it that the Miao people evolved from armor when they migrated because they often coped with war.

Women's dresses are usually dressed in pleated skirts at the bottom, with a large collar with silver flakes, silver bubbles and silver flowers on the top, or a right jacket with fine lace, and a Satin Embroidered or pick-up apron on the front.

"Ukrainian pendulum" is generally full-body inlaid with pick-up flowers, along the shoulder of the shoulder is generally inlaid with prismatic pick-up flowers, no buttons, with cloth belts, waistbands and other bundles. Wear a silver crown, a silver flower or a silver horn. Dress color is red, yellow, green and other warm color.

Clothing value

1. Art value.

The Miao costume has undergone a series of complex processes, such as planting hemp, collecting hemp, performance hemp, spinning, bleaching and weaving, to embroidery, batik, tailoring, and finally become a set of exquisite clothing, which reflects the diligence and patience of Miao women.

Miao women's Abstract embroidery and batik patterns reflect and express their inner emotional world, while expressing Miao women's understanding of nature and their yearning for a better life.

When a Miao girl presents her own embroidered flower ribbon to her lover, she does not use more gorgeous language to express her loyalty to her lover. As long as she embroiders the ribbon, she will include everything she wants to express, and truly achieve the emotional realm of "silence is better than voice at this time".

Miao nationality is a nation with rich feelings, which is fully illustrated by its fine embroidery and batik technology.

2. Ornamental value.

Miao embroidery and batik patterns, especially the "regularity" and "symmetry", that is, the needle point of pick-up embroidery and the dyeing distance of batik dyeing have certain specifications, certain variation rules, or equidistances, or symmetry, or repeated cycle. The pattern structure is rigorous, giving people a sense of neatness and compactness.

Especially pick-up embroidery patterns, it is easy to find the center of the circle, coordinate axis is symmetrical whether along the horizontal or vertical folding. Many patterns are not only symmetrical in the whole large combination pattern, but also symmetrical between the large pattern and the small pattern. At the same time, we pay attention to the color matching of patterns, emphasize the integrity and unity of color and patterns, which seems to have been calculated accurately in advance.

When you appreciate Miao embroidery batik patterns, whether you can incorporate mathematical formulas and geometric principles into the calculation, the equidistant and symmetrical relationship between the patterns is no different.

3. Collection value.

Miao costumes are the most colorful, the most stylized, the longest span of the times, and the most gorgeous embroidery and silver decorations among all the national costumes in China. They are a wonderful flower of our national culture. With the decline of traditional Miao crafts, exquisite hand-made Miao costumes are becoming less and less. With the departure of the old generation of Miao people with traditional crafts, traditional Miao costumes are becoming more and more difficult.