The Lantern Festival
Lantern Festival, also known as the Lantern Festival, the Little January Festival, the Lantern Festival or the Lantern Festival, is one of the traditional festivals in China. The first month is the first month of the lunar calendar. The ancients called "night" as "Xiao", and the fifteenth day of the first month is the first full night of the year. Therefore, the fifteenth day of the first month is called "Lantern Festival". According to the Taoist saying of "three yuan", the fifteenth day of the first month is also called "Shangyuan Festival". The custom of Lantern Festival has been based on the custom of watching lanterns warmly and festivally since ancient times.
The formation of the Lantern Festival custom has a long process. According to general information and folklore, the fifteenth day of the first lunar month has been paid attention to in the Western Han Dynasty. Emperor Wudi's activities of offering sacrifices to the "Taiyi" in Ganquan Palace on the night of the first lunar month have been regarded as the forerunner of the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. However, the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first lunar month was really a folk festival after the Han and Wei Dynasties. The custom of burning lamps on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month is related to the spread of Buddhism to the east. In the Tang Dynasty, Buddhism was flourishing. Officials and ordinary people generally burned lamps for Buddha on the 15th day of the first lunar month, and Buddhist lights spread all over the people. Since the Tang Dynasty, lantern display has become a legal matter, and gradually become a folk custom.
Lantern Festival is one of the traditional festivals of Chinese and Chinese character cultural circles as well as overseas Chinese. Lantern Festival mainly includes a series of traditional folk activities such as watching lanterns, eating dumplings, guessing lantern riddles and setting off fireworks. In addition, in many places, traditional folk performances such as dragon lanterns, lions, stilts, boating, Yangko twisting and Taiping drum playing have been added to the Lantern Festival. In June 2008, Lantern Festival was selected as the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage.
Origin of Festivals
The Origin of Festivals
Lantern Festival is a traditional festival in China. The formation of the custom of Lantern Festival has a long process. According to general information and folklore, the fifteenth day of the first lunar month has been paid attention to in the Western Han Dynasty. The activities of Emperor Wudi in the first lunar month to worship Taiyi in Ganquan Palace are regarded by later generations as the first voice of worshiping God on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. Music Book: "The Han family often goes to Xin Temple in the first month, Taiyi Ganquan, and evening temple in the evening, until the end of the Ming Dynasty". The introduction of Buddhist culture in the Eastern Han Dynasty is of great significance in promoting the formation of the Lantern Festival custom. During the Yongping reign of Emperor Han Ming, in order to promote Buddhism, Emperor Han Ming ordered the 15th night of the first lunar month to "light the lamp to watch Buddha" in the palace and monastery. Therefore, the custom of lighting lanterns on the 15th night of the first lunar month has gradually expanded in China with the expansion of Buddhist culture and the subsequent addition of Taoist culture. During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, lanterns were becoming popular in the Lantern Festival. Emperor Wudi of Liang believed in Buddhism, and his palace was ablaze with lights on the 15th day of the first lunar month. During the Tang Dynasty, cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries became closer. Buddhism was flourishing. Officials and ordinary people generally "burned lamps for Buddha" on the 15th day of the first lunar month, and Buddhist lights spread all over the people. Since the Tang Dynasty, lantern display has become a legal matter, and gradually become a folk custom.
The fifteenth day of the first lunar month is the Lantern Festival, also known as the Lantern Festival, the Lantern Festival and the Lantern Festival. The first month is the first month of the lunar calendar. The ancients called night "Xiao", so they called the fifteenth day of the first month "Lantern Festival". With the changes of society and times, the customs and habits of Lantern Festival have changed greatly, but it is still a traditional Chinese folk festival. Lantern Festival in the early formation of the festival, only called the fifteenth day of the first month, the first half of the month or the moon, after the Sui Dynasty called the New Year's Eve or the New Year's Eve. The early Tang Dynasty was influenced by Taoism, also known as Shangyuan, and the late Tang Dynasty was occasionally called the Lantern Festival. But since the Song Dynasty, it has also been called Lantern Evening. In the Qing Dynasty, it was also called the Lantern Festival. Overseas, Lantern Festival is also known as the Lantern Festival. On the evening of the 15th day of the first lunar month, Chinese people usually have a series of traditional folk activities, such as watching lanterns, eating dumplings, guessing lantern riddles and setting off fireworks.
To commemorate "Pinglu"
It is said that the Lantern Festival was set up to commemorate "Pinglu" at the time of Emperor Wendi of the Han Dynasty. After the death of Liu Bang, the grandfather of the Han Dynasty, Liu Ying, the son of Lu Hou, ascended the throne as Emperor Huidi of the Han Dynasty. Emperor Huidi was cowardly and indecisive by nature, and his power gradually fell into the hands of Emperor Lu. After Emperor Huidi's death, Emperor Lu led the Dynasty and turned Liu's world into Lu's world. The middle-aged and old ministers and Liu's clan were deeply indignant, but they were afraid of Lu's cruelty and dared not speak out.
After Lv Hou died of illness, Zhu Lv was afraid of being hurt and excluded. So, in order to completely seize Liu's Jiangshan, General Lu Lu's family gathered secretly and conspired to commit a riot. The incident spread to Liu Xiangli, the king of Qi in Liu's clan. Liu Xiang decided to fight against Zhu Lu in order to protect him. Then he contacted Zhou Bo, the founding minister, and Chen Ping. The design lifted Lu Lu, and the "Zhu Lu Rebellion" was completely calmed down.
After the peace, the ministers upheld Liu Heng, Liu Bang's second son, and declared that Emperor Wendi of the Han Dynasty, who was deeply impressed by the hard work of peaceful prosperity, set the 15th day of the first lunar month to calm the "Zhulu Rebellion" as a day of joy with the people and celebrated it with lanterns. Since then, the fifteenth day of the first lunar month has become a popular festival of celebration - "Lantern Festival".
During Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty, the sacrificial activities of "Taiyi God" were scheduled for the 15th day of the first lunar month. (Matthew 1: God who governs everything in the universe). When Sima Qian founded the Taichu Calendar, the Lantern Festival was designated as a major festival.
Lantern Festival is a traditional festival in China since ancient times. Lantern Festival lanterns began when ancient people held torches in the countryside to drive away insects and animals in the hope of reducing pests and praying for a good harvest. To this day, people in some parts of Southwest China still make torches from reeds or branches on the 15th of the first lunar month, and dance in groups with torches in the fields or in the barnyard. Since Sui, Tang and Song dynasties, it has been flourishing. There are tens of thousands of singers and dancers, from dusk to obscurity. With the changes of society and times, the customs and habits of Lantern Festival have changed greatly, but it is still a traditional Chinese folk festival.
The "Three-Dimension Theory"
The custom of lighting lanterns in Lantern Festival originated from the Taoist "three-yuan theory".
Shangyuan means the first full moon night of the new year. The origin of Shangyuan Festival is recorded in Zaji of the Age, which is based on Taoist stereotypes. At the end of Han Dynasty, the important faction of Taoism, Wudoumi Dao, worshipped the gods of Tian Guan, Di Guan and Shui Guan. They said that Tian Guan blessed them, the Di Guan pardoned their sins, and the Shui Guan relieved their misfortunes. The Taoists of Wei and Jin Dynasty set the fifteenth day of the first month as Shangyuan, the fifteenth day of July as Zhongyuan, and the fifteenth day of October as Xiayuan. Thus, the fifteenth day of the first month is called the Shangyuan Festival. Wu Zimu of the Southern Song Dynasty said in "Dream Liang Lu" that "the fifteenth day of the first lunar month is the day of blessing from the Heavenly Officer of the Yuan Dynasty." Therefore, the Lantern Festival should be lit.
Emperor Ming worships Buddha
From Buddhism. This statement is mainly in the 300 Questions of Social Customs edited by Mr. Hu Shensheng: "In Buddhist doctrine, the light of fire is compared to the prestige of Buddha, and the Sutra of Immeasurable Life has the saying of"infinite flame, infinite illumination". In Buddhist doctrine, lamp has always been one of the offerings before Buddha. In addition, Buddhist classics repeatedly publicize:'Thousands of lamplight confession'(Bodhisattva Tibetan Sutra),'for the world lamplight the most Futian' (Wuliangshou Sutra). Every Buddhist festival must have a bright light. In Buddhist legends, the fifteenth lantern in the first month is related to the deeds of Buddha's gods.
According to "A Brief History of Monks", Buddha Sakyamuni's manifestation and surrender of deities and Demons took place on December 30 in the West, the 15th day of the first lunar month in Eastern China. In order to commemorate the Buddha's transformation, a lamp-lighting ceremony was held on this day. When the Emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty and Ming Dynasty came to France to preach, the Emperor of the Han Ming Dynasty ordered the day of Buddha's transformation on the 15th day of the first month to light the lamp, and personally went to the temple to display the lamp in order to show the ritual Buddha. Since then, lanterns have become popular." However, some scholars believe that this view is untenable and that Buddhism only uses people's festival atmosphere to expand its influence on this day.
Festivals and customs
The Festival period and festival activities of Lantern Festival extend and expand with the development of history. As far as the duration of the festival is concerned, the Han Dynasty is only one day, the Tang Dynasty is three days, the Song Dynasty is five days, and the Ming Dynasty is the longest Lantern Festival in Chinese history, which is connected with the Spring Festival. The day is the city, and the night lights are very busy. The night lights are magnificent. Especially the exquisite and colorful lights make it the climax of recreational activities during the Spring Festival. In the Qing Dynasty, the contents of "hundred operas" such as dragon dance, lion dance, dry boat running, stilt walking and Yangko twisting were added, but the festival period was shortened to four to five days.
Evolution and Development
During the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Ming Emperor advocated Buddhism. He heard that Buddhism had the practice of monks observing Buddhist relics on the 15th day of the first lunar month and lighting Buddhist lamps. He ordered that Buddhist lamps be lit in imperial palaces and temples on that night, so that the ordinary people of the scholar clan could hang lamps, thus forming a lantern for the Lantern Festival. Later, this Buddhist ritual festival gradually formed a grand folk festival. The Festival has undergone a process of development from the court to the people, from the Central Plains to the whole country.
In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, it was the Sui and Tang Dynasties that made the Lantern Festival light-burning become a climatic phenomenon. In the Sui Dynasty, the Lantern Festival on the fifteenth day of the first month was unprecedented. "Sui Shu Liu Biao Biography" records: "Every January night watching, crowded streets, gathering theatre friends. Sound drums in the sky and light torches on the ground." At that time, the residents of Chang'an City would come out to watch lanterns and theatres. Street performances were also rich and interesting. "People wore animal faces, men wore women's clothes, advocated fine tricks and strange shapes."
Since Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties, Lantern Festival has been very popular. "Sui Shu Music Records" Day: "Every January, all countries come to Korea, and stay outside Duanmen on the 15th in the founding of the country gate, spanning eight miles, theatres for the theatre." The number of singers and dancers reached tens of thousands, from dawn to obscurity. The Lantern Festival in Tang Dynasty is more lively than that in Sui Dynasty. Tang Liu Su's New Analects of the Great Tang Dynasty recorded: "The first moon of the capital looks at the sun, the meeting of decorating lanterns and shadows, Jin Wu relaxes the ban and concessions night trips. Your courtiers, relatives and slave laborers all go on night trips." In the Tang Dynasty, Lantern Festival Lantern is very prosperous in the Tang Dynasty, which has unprecedented national strength. Whether in the capital or in the towns, colorful lights are hanging everywhere. People also make huge wheel, tree, lamp post and so on. The city is full of sparks and honeysuckles, which is very prosperous and lively.
In the Song Dynasty, from the fourteenth to eighteenth of the first month, there were lamp-lighting activities. In addition to the revelry of "women traveling in the streets, from night to night, men and women are confused", there are also officials who distribute profits and the emperor and the people enjoy the Lantern Festival together. Even with the color of terror, prison institutions will use lights, images to interpret prison stories or display prison implements. Lantern Festival in the Song Dynasty developed into the most lively secular carnival, Lantern Festival is more colorful, Lantern Festival Lantern Festival lasts for five days, the lamp style is complex and diverse, visiting the lamp market is a very pleasant thing. Xin Qiji, a poet, wrote, "Thousands of trees blossom in the east wind at night, and the stars fall like rain." That is to say, there are countless lanterns and fireworks like stars in the Song Dynasty. At that time, riddles of lanterns were also rising. They were written on paper and pasted on lanterns. Those who guessed the riddles could get a small reward. This kind of recreational and intellectual activity is loved by people and widely circulated.
By the Yuan Dynasty, most of the holidays had been cancelled. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty believed that life consisted in movement and work was rest. The annual holidays lasted only 16 days.
The Lantern Festival of the Ming Dynasty lasted longer, from the eighth to seventeen full ten days of the first lunar month, to show the level of singing and dancing.
In the Qing Dynasty, when the Manchu people came to power in the Central Plains, the court no longer held lantern festivals, but the folk lantern festivals were still spectacular. Lantern Festival is only three days in Qing Dynasty, but the lights are bright and more exquisite and fantastic, which is still very attractive.
In modern times, the date is shortened to five days, which continues to this day. In 2015, delegates suggested that the Lantern Festival be a holiday. Lantern Festival is a very unique festival, so far, lamp appreciation and fireworks are still one of the main customs of Lantern Festival.
When people worship God on New Year's Eve, they should set up heaven and earth. People put up a small shed in the courtyard, inside the small table stands the god's throne of "three boundaries of heaven and earth, ten sides of the world, all spirits and true slaughter". In front of the throne, there are incense burners, offerings, and a lantern, which represents the seat of Jiang Taigong. It is said that when Jiang Taigong was a god-maker, everyone else had sealed it, that is, he had forgotten to seal himself, and he had no seat and had to sit with God.
Lanterns are related to gods, so they are also endowed with many symbolic meanings.
In ancient times, in order to expel the fear of darkness, lanterns were derived to have the meaning of exorcism and blessing, and to pray for light.
In Minnan dialect, the pronunciation of "lantern" is similar to that of "ding", so lanterns are also used to seek son, add ding, gain merit and fame, and avoid evil and peace.
There is a kind of "light lamp". At the end of the year and the beginning of the year, lanterns are placed in temples, so that Buddha's magic power can be used to achieve a safe and smooth year.
There are also farmers hanging a lamp "illuminating silkworms" on a long bamboo pole in the field, observing the fire color to predict the situation of drought and flood in a year, in order to have a good year.
In the past, people used to light skylights as a sign of mutual peace after they fled from bandits. Since the Lantern Festival is the day when people take refuge and return home, every year since then, people celebrate it with the ceremony of putting skylights, so they are also called "prayer lights" or "peace lanterns". Later, it gradually evolved into a folk activity of praying to God. The sky lamp is filled with all kinds of wishes in my heart. I hope that the sky lamp can reach the heaven and bring infinite hope and light to people.
Legend has it that Li Shimin, Taizong of Tang Dynasty, encouraged reading, and all the people sent their children to school. The first program of admission is "Turn on the lights", which is to take the pre-made lanterns to the school.
Invite a knowledgeable old gentleman to light up, symbolizing a bright future. Private schools in the past mostly opened later on the 15th day of the first lunar month, so the lanterns that opened the school also became the embellishment of the "Shangyuan Festival".
There are many kinds of lanterns on Lantern Festival, such as dragon lanterns, tiger lanterns, rabbit lanterns and so on, or activity lanterns based on folk tales, such as Cowherd and Weaver Girl, Twenty-four Filial Piety and so on, which show the national spirit of loyalty and filial piety. All kinds of lanterns are made skillfully, showing the wisdom and skills of craftsmen.
With the development of the times, Lantern Festival has become more and more grand, with more and more national characteristics, and the time of Lantern Festival has become longer and longer. The Lantern Festival in the Tang Dynasty lasted for one day and three days before and after the last Yuan Dynasty; in the Song Dynasty, two days and five days were added after the sixteenth year; and in the Ming Dynasty, it lasted for ten days from the eighth day to the eighteenth day. Because the lamp period is different, the first day to open the lamp is called "test lamp", the fifteenth day is called "positive lamp", and the last day is called "residual lamp" and "appendix lamp". They are also called "divine lamp", "human lamp" and "ghost lamp". Fourteen days and nights are "divine lanterns", which are placed in front of the sacred places and ancestral temples in order to sacrifice the Gods'ancestors; fifteen days and nights are called "human lanterns", which are placed in doors and windows, beds, several cases and other places to avoid scorpions; sixteen days and nights are "ghost lanterns", which are placed in mounds, tombs and fields, so as to get away from ghost realms for the sake of wandering souls. Pray for heaven's will, protect the heavens and the heavens, the gods, people, ghosts and animals, nothing is missing.
China has a vast territory and a long history, so the customs of Lantern Festival are different all over the country. Among them, eating Lantern Festival, watching lanterns, dancing dragons and lions are several important folk customs of Lantern Festival. Lantern Festival is a traditional festival in China, so it has been celebrated all over the country. The customs in most areas are similar, but each place has its own characteristics.
Eat Lantern Festival
Lantern Festival is eaten on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. As a food, Lantern Festival has a long history in China. In Song Dynasty, a kind of novel food for Lantern Festival was popular among the people. This kind of food was first called "Yuanxiao" after "Fuyuanzi", which was also known as "Yuanbao" by businessmen. Lantern Festival, or Tangyuan, is filled with sugar, roses, sesame, bean paste, cinnamon, walnut, nuts and jujube paste. It is wrapped in glutinous rice flour to form a round shape with different flavors. The soup can be boiled, fried and steamed, which means a happy reunion. Shaanxi Tangyuan is not wrapped, but rolled in glutinous rice flour, or boiled or fried, hot and hot, reunion.
Lantern Festival, as a food, has a long history in China. In Song Dynasty, a kind of novel food for Lantern Festival was popular among the people. This kind of food was first called "Yuanxiao" after "Fuyuanzi", which was also known as "Yuanbao" by businessmen. In ancient times, the price of "Lantern Festival" was relatively expensive. A poem said, "When you look at the Royal Street with the curtain, the precious goods in the city come for a while. There is no way for the flower rack in front of the curtain, and no money can be returned.
The Northern "Rolling" Lantern Festival and the Southern "Bao" Tangyuan are two different kinds of food with different taste.
- Flower lights
The fifteenth day of the first lunar month is the Lantern Festival. This Festival is also called the Lantern Festival because of the custom of hanging lights, lighting and watching lights among the people.
Lantern-making is a traditional festival custom of Lantern Festival, which began in the Western Han Dynasty and flourished in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. After the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the trend of lighting prevailed in successive dynasties and passed down to later generations. And the fifteenth day of the first month is the climax of the annual fireworks display. Therefore, the Lantern Festival is also called "Lantern Festival" in Shanxi's county level city or even township, town, these residents concentrated areas, bustling areas, before the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, the streets are full of lanterns, flowers everywhere, light flickering, to the fifteenth night of the first lunar month to reach a climax. The "Lantern Viewing" on the 15th day of the first lunar month has become a popular phenomenon in Shanxi Province.
Spontaneous activities, on the fifteenth night of the first lunar month, in the streets and lanes, red lights hanging high, there are Palace lights, animal headlights, street lanterns, flower lights, bird lights and so on, attracting the people watching the lights. Taiyuan area, Taigu County lamp is very famous. Taigu lamp is famous for its variety, exquisite production and appearance.
- Guessing lantern riddles
Guessing lantern riddles, also known as playing lantern riddles, is a unique form of traditional folk recreational activities with rich national style in China. It has been a featured activity of Lantern Festival since ancient times. On the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, traditional folk people hang up colorful lanterns and set off fireworks. Later, good people wrote riddles on paper and pasted them on colorful lanterns for guessing. Because riddles can inspire wisdom and cater to the festival atmosphere, so many people responded, and then guessing riddles gradually became an indispensable program for the Lantern Festival. Lantern riddles add to the festival atmosphere, showing the wisdom and wisdom of the ancient working people and their yearning for a better life.
Playing dragon lanterns
Dragon lantern, also known as dragon lantern dance or dragon dance. Its origin can be traced back to ancient times. According to legend, as early as the Huangdi period, in a large-scale song and dance of Qingjiao, there appeared the image of the leading bird body played by human beings, and then six dragons interlaced with each other. Dragon Dance, which is recorded in the text, is Zhang Heng's Xijing Fu of the Han Dynasty. The author vividly describes the dragon dance in the narration of Bai Opera. According to the Sui Shu Music Records, the Dragon Dance Performance of Emperor Yangdi in Sui Dynasty, similar to the Dragon Dance Performance in Hundred Opera, is also very exciting. Dragon Dance is popular in many parts of China. The Chinese nation advocates dragon and regards dragon as a symbol of auspiciousness.
Stilt walking is a popular folk art performance. Stilts, one of the hundred ancient Chinese operas, appeared as early as the Spring and Autumn Period. The earliest introduction of stilts in China was "Liezi Shuofu": "Those who have orchids in Song Dynasty are skilled in Song and Yuan Dynasty. Song and Yuan Dynasty called to see their skills.
Lion dance is an excellent folk art in China. Every Lantern Festival or rally celebration, people come to the lion dance to cheer up. This custom originated in the Three Kingdoms Period and became popular in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. It has a history of more than 1,000 years.
"Lion Dance" began in the Wei and Jin Dynasties and flourished in the Tang Dynasty. It was also called "Lion Dance" and "Taiping Music". Generally, it was completed by three people. Two people dressed as lions, one as lion's head, one as lion's body and hind foot, the other as lion guide, and the dancing method has the distinction of civil and military. Literary dance shows lion's gentleness, feathershaking, rolling and other movements. The martial lion shows the lion's ferocity, such as leaping, pedaling, rolling the ball and so on.
- Drought boating
Drought boating, folklore is to commemorate the success of Dayu water control. Drought boating, also known as dry boating, is to imitate the boat's performance on land. Most of the girls who perform dry boating are girls. Dry boats are not real boats. They are made of two thin plates, sawn into boat shapes, tied with bamboo and wood, covered with coloured cloth and tied to the waist of the girl. They are rowing with oars in their hands, while running, singing local tunes and dancing. This is called dry boating. Sometimes another man dressed as a boat passenger, accompanied by performances, mostly dressed as a clown, to amuse the audience with all kinds of funny actions. Dry boating is popular in many parts of China.
The sacrificial door and the sacrificial door
There were seven sacrifices in ancient times, which were two of them. The method of sacrifice is to insert poplar branches above the door, a pair of chopsticks in a bowl filled with bean porridge, or directly put wine and meat in front of the door.
Rat chase is a traditional folk activity during the Lantern Festival, which began in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. It's mainly about silkworm farmers. Because rats often eat large areas of silkworm at night, it is said that on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, mice are fed rice porridge, so they can stop eating silkworm.
"Jingchu Sui Ji" said that on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, a God went down to a family surnamed Chen and said to them, "If you can sacrifice me, let your silkworm harvest. Later, customs came into being.
Abbreviated as "sending lanterns", also known as "sending lanterns" and so on, that is, before the Lantern Festival, the mother's house gives lanterns to the newly married daughter's home, or the general relatives and friends give them to the newly married sterile home, in order to add Ding Jizhao, because "lamp" and "Ding" homonym. This custom is found in many places. In Xi'an, Shaanxi, lanterns are sent during the eighth to fifteenth day of the first lunar month. In the first year, a pair of big palace lanterns and a pair of glass lanterns with colored paintings are sent. We hope our daughter will shine brightly after marriage and give birth to Lin Zi early. If her daughter is pregnant, we will send one or two pairs of small lanterns besides the big palace lanterns to wish her daughter a safe pregnancy.
Zigu is also called Qigu. In the north, Zigu is often called Sangu of toilet and pit. Ancient folk custom of the fifteenth day of the first lunar month to greet the toilet God Zigu and sacrifice, divination silkworm mulberry, and occupy public affairs. Legend has it that Zigu was originally a concubine and a jealous woman. She was killed in the toilet on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month and became the God of the toilet. On the night of Yingzigu, people use straw and cloth to make life-size portraits of Aunt Zigu, and worship them in the pig pen in the toilet at night. This custom was popular in all parts of the North and South Dynasty and was recorded as early as the Northern and Southern Dynasties.
To go against all kinds of illnesses
"Walk all diseases", also known as travel all diseases, scattered all diseases, roast all diseases, walking bridges and so on, is a kind of disaster relief and health prayer activities. On the night of Lantern Festival, women make an appointment to travel together. When they see a bridge, they must cross it. They think that this way can dispel illness and prolong life.
It has been a custom in the north since the Ming and Qing Dynasties to go through all kinds of diseases, some on the 15th, but mostly on the 16th. On this day, women dressed in festive attire, came out of their homes in groups, crossed dangerous bridges, went to the city and tried to find their way back until midnight.
Like the Han nationality, some minority brothers also celebrate the Lantern Festival. They are Manchu, Korean, Hezhe, Mongolian, Daur, Ewenki, Oroqen, Bai, Xibo, Tibetan, Naxi, Yao, She, Buyi, Zhuang, Li and Gelao.
Like the Han people, the Manchu people also have the custom of hanging lanterns and eating Lantern Festival.
Bai people in Dali attach great importance to the Lantern Festival. On the 15th day of the first lunar month, they often play dragons and lions, and organize a "golden Flower Song and dance team" to make a scene of the Lantern Festival. The Lantern Festival in Midu County in Dali is very lively, which makes people fully appreciate the endless charm of Yunnan folk culture. "Nowadays, the Lantern Festival in Dali is usually celebrated by Bai, Yi and Han nationalities, regardless of each other."
The Miao Food Stealing Festival, which is popular in Huangping, Guizhou Province, is also held on the 15th day of the first lunar month. On the festival day, girls flock to steal food from other people's homes. It is strictly forbidden to steal food from their families or from friends of the same sex, because stealing food is related to their marriage. The stolen vegetables are only Chinese cabbage, enough for everyone to eat. Stolen vegetables are not afraid of being found, and the stolen families are not to blame. Everyone gathered the stolen vegetables together for a cabbage dinner. It is said that who eats the most, who can be proud of his beloved early, at the same time, the silkworm is the strongest and produces the most silk.
The traditional festival of the Yi people, Bawu Festival, falls on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. "Bawu" means "returning from hunting". Seen in the Heqing Yi tribe of Yunnan Province, Black Living Residential Area. At that time, the festival was originally a custom of celebrating the return of hunting, and there were no fixed festivals.
In Taiwan, in the Tang Dynasty, there were also performances of music and dance in lantern markets. Thousands of palace girls and folk girls downloaded songs and dances in lanterns, which were called walking songs and stepping songs.
Festival Food Customs
Lantern Festival, every household homemade Lantern Festival (now there are professional household monopoly). Lantern Festival, known as "float yuan zi" in ancient times, is a popular folk snack with both elegance and vulgarity, which is sweet but not greasy. Lantern Festival is eaten on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. As a food, Lantern Festival has a long history in China. In Song Dynasty, a kind of novel food for Lantern Festival was popular among the people. In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, rice porridge or bean porridge with meat and stool soup was poured. But this food is mainly used for sacrifice, not for festival food. Only in Zheng Wangzhi's Dieter Record of the Song Dynasty did it be recorded: "Diet in Bianzhong, oil hammer in Shangyuan". According to the law of oil hammer, according to a record of "Shang Shi Ling" in Lushi Za Shuo cited in Taiping Guangji, it is similar to the fried Lantern Festival of later generations. Others call it "Pearl of Oil Painting". The Lantern Festival in the Tang Dynasty was a flour silkworm. Wang Renyu (1980-956) recorded in Kaiyuan Tianbao Remains: "Every year old, the custom of man-made noodle silkworm still remains in the Song Dynasty, but different food for festival is more abundant than that in the Tang Dynasty." Lu Yuanming's "Zaji of Sui Shi" mentioned: "Beijing people regard mung bean powder as Kedou soup, boiled glutinous as pill, sugar as bait, so-called Yuanzi salt soup. The soup made of twisted mixed meat is called the soup of salt and soy sauce. It is also like the silkworm made by man and by day. They all go on a Yuan diet. By the Southern Song Dynasty, the so-called "lactose round son" appeared, which should be the predecessor of Tangyuan.
During the reign of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, the special "Eight Treasures Lantern Festival" in the imperial dining room was famous for its delicacy. Ma Siyuan was a master of Lantern Festival in Beijing at that time. His dripping powder Lantern Festival is famous far and near. Fu Zeng (born in 1688) wrote "Shangyuan Bamboo Branch Ci": "Osmanthus fragrant stuffing Xiangwalnut, Jiangmi such as pearl well water wash out. See that Ma Jia dripping powder is good, try to sell Lantern Festival in the wind. What the poem chants is the famous Majia Lantern Festival.
Over the past thousand years, the production of Lantern Festival has become increasingly sophisticated. As far as the surface is concerned, there are Jiangmi noodles, viscous sorghum noodles, yellow rice noodles and bark noodles. The content of filling is sweet, salty and all-round. Sweet sweet osmanthus sugar, hawthorn sugar, assorted brocades, bean paste, sesame, peanuts and so on. Salted pork filling with lard can be used for fried and fried Lantern Festival. Vegetable is mustard, garlic, leek, ginger composed of five Xin Lantern Festival, has the meaning of hard work, long-term, upward.
The methods of production vary from north to south. The Northern Lantern Festival uses the method of rolling and shaking hands, while the Southern Lantern Festival uses the method of rubbing balls with hands and hearts. Lantern Festival can be as big as walnuts, but also as small as soybeans. The cooking methods include soup, fried food, oil sauce, steamed food, etc. The same delicious stuffing or not. Lantern Festival has become a snack ready for all seasons. You can always come to a bowl of dessert.
The Lantern Festival, a traditional festival of the Chinese nation, is approaching. On the evening of February 23, 2013, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held the Lantern Festival Gala in the Great Hall of the People in 2013. Party and state leaders Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan, Zhang Gaoli and other well-known intellectuals, capital labor model and advanced workers, migrant workers and other grass-roots cadres and mass representatives gathered to celebrate the festival.
The most lively festival in old Beijing is not the Spring Festival, but the Lantern Festival. The annual Lantern Festival, dragon and lion dancing, and old Beijing Hawking are the main reasons why the old Beijing citizens expect this festival. The traditional activities of the Lantern Festival in old Beijing mainly consist of three parts: flower festival, Lantern Festival and eating Lantern Festival.
The unique custom of Lantern Festival in Hebei Province is Jinglonglahua, which is a wonderful flower of ancient art. Zanhuang County Lantern Festival custom - "Laluqiao", Laluqiao is a performance of labor and life dance, mainly in the Lantern Festival, it accompanied by percussion music. There are big drums, gongs, cymbals, cymbals and so on. The Lantern Festival in Yongping Prefecture is called "pottery moxibustion" when sick women gather in kilns. Children staggered Duqiao, known as "Dubai Er". Others cut paper into nine pieces of paper rope, knotting to divine the blame, known as "knotting sheep intestines".
In Fengyang County, the ancient city, swing, lanterns, torches and other folk customs have become the three major customs of the Lantern Festival. Fengyang folk saying "Lantern Festival swing, one year waist pain" is not. Every Lantern Festival, the most exciting thing for children is to "carry lanterns". Various kinds of lanterns have been on the market as early as a few days ago. The lanterns with different shapes will decorate the cities and towns at night. Throwing a torch is a collective activity for teenagers. In Fengyang countryside, the children who pay attention will consciously collect and prepare some old brooms and brushes as early as possible to prepare the torches for the Lantern Festival.
Lantern hanging is a necessary form for Shanxi people to celebrate the Lantern Festival. Every Lantern Festival comes, every household hangs up all kinds of lights, from 14 to 16, every night in all shapes and colors. Fireworks are the most delightful activity of Shanxi People's Lantern Festival. On the Lantern Festival night, fireworks will be set off in the square. At that time, the whole family will go to the street to see the beautiful fireworks.
Developing recreational activities is an important part of Lantern Festival. Various forms of juggling, such as lion dance, dragon lantern dance, stilts, boats, flower sticks, Yangko, donkeys and so on, are available. The main content of juggling is opera. Dragon lanterns are played in villages around Qufu City. Dragon lanterns in each village are performed in Confucian mansion. The place where Confucian mansion plays dragon lanterns is in front of the lobby of Ermenli. It is not allowed to enter Confucian mansion in peacetime. At this time, outsiders are also allowed to enter and watch dragon lanterns. When playing Dragon lanterns, Confucian officials and "fireworks households" set off fireworks.
The most unique custom of Henan people is that on the night of Lantern Festival, every family must tie lanterns with bamboo slights and red paper in front of their ancestors'tombs, and light candles in between. The General Customs of Lantern Festival are to admire lanterns, guess riddles, eat dumplings and dance lions. Even Henan people rarely light a lamp in front of their ancestors'graves.
Every year during the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first lunar month, besides making a scene of lanterns, there is also a custom of "putting up sky lanterns". This custom has a long history. According to history, it was done in Tang Dynasty. "Accompanying lamp bun" is popular in Tongchuan area of Shaanxi Province. Every year on the 15th day of the first lunar month, during the Lantern Festival, families set incense candles and set off firecrackers in their houses. Everywhere in the house, there are lights, beside which there are various kinds of buns, called "accompanying buns".
There are five customs in Taizhou for Lantern Festival: eating Lantern Festival, making Lantern Festival, guessing lantern riddles, setting off fireworks and delivering good luck. Giving good luck is a unique custom in some townships in Taizhou. On the Lantern Festival, relatives and friends will send bridal stakes and Guanyin to the newly married bride to bless the early birth of your son. There are also places where the bride is dragged along Baiziqiao, which is also a way of seeking children.
The fifteenth day of the first lunar month in Hangzhou is the blessed day of the Heavenly Official of the Shangyuan Dynasty. Duo Zhai recites sutras and crawls to worship in Wushan. Haining County Lantern Festival is best known for its exquisite chrysanthemum lanterns. Shangyu County is less than the Lantern Festival evening to the platform to fight martial arts. In Jiande County, people who have newly married daughters-in-law set up wine sacrificial beds on the Lantern Festival.
From the first to fifteenth day of the first lunar month after dinner, the whole village will gather in ancestral halls or temples, holding the Lantern Festival song book, singing to the Lantern Festival painting, the local people call it singing Lantern Festival song (also called singing boat). On the fifteenth night of the first lunar month, besides singing, praising boats and boating, we also need to drink Lantern Festival wine and eat Lantern Festival soup, which is the highlight of the evening. The whole ancestral hall was filled with tables and chairs. Villagers filled their own rice wine with long-standing seapots, filled each guest with a bowl, and each table with a large pot of Lantern Festival Soup for everyone to enjoy.
Yangdian Town, Xiaogan County, Hubei Province is the "Land of Dragon Lanterns". Yangdian Dragon Lantern, known as "Yangdian Gaolong" by Xiaogan, is the second batch of intangible cultural heritage in Xiaogan City and the third batch of intangible cultural heritage in Hubei Province.
Every year from December, we start to use bamboo pieces to tie dragon lanterns, dragon bodies, dragon tails and embroidered dragon clothes; tie dragon heads and dragon tails with colored paper, and connect them to form a complete dragon lamp. The whole dragon lamp has 12 sections (the dragon body is made up of ten bamboo lights, plus the dragon heads and dragon tails are 12 sections), indicating that there are 12 months in a year. 。 On the 12th night of the first month, a dragon lantern opening ceremony was held, and on the 13th day of the first month, a trip to the temple and a cheer were held. Each dragon lantern passed through the narrow old street of Yangdian for activities, and incense tablets were placed in front of the house to welcome Bin Long. On the 14th day of the first month, each dragon lamp worshipped the masses in their bays to express New Year's greetings and represent auspiciousness; on the 15th day of the first month, they played with the lanterns and the lanterns; the crowd followed the lanterns and swam to their bays separately. At 12:00 p.m., all the men, women and children in the Bay came together to burn the lanterns, which were called the lanterns, sending the lanterns to heaven. With the sound of gongs, drums and firecrackers.
The composition of Gaolong in Yangdian is made of bamboo, wood, cloth and colored paper. The dragon clothes are usually made of yellow, green, white, red and black. Legend has it that they represent five elements of gold, wood, water, fire and earth. The dragon lantern body burns candles, and the dragon dancers shorten the distance between the sections in order. They hold the dragon's feet with both hands and swing around the "dragon beads" from the beginning to the end. It is like a giant dragon moving gracefully. It has a great momentum and magnificent scenes. Its cultural connotation is very rich, there are dragon out of the hole, three-point number one, Bai Quartet, as well as drilling holes, turning upside down, dragon Yingshui, etc., graceful and lyric in slow dancing; fast dancing is more vigorous and unrestrained, unique, with strong local characteristics, the music used is festive and beautiful, with a strong artistic appeal.
Every family in Shangyuan, Changde takes pepper as soup, and joins leek, vegetable and fruit to entertain guests, which is called "Shi Tang". After Xintian County toured the Dragon lantern, the dragon lantern was torched, known as "sending disaster".
Villagers in Zhengyuan Village, Suxian District, Chenzhou City, Hunan Province are making a final rehearsal for the upcoming Lantern Festival of "Fire Immortal Cattle". According to villagers, cattle are the patron saint of the village, and "Fire Fairy Cattle" originates from an ancient myth. On January 15, every year, villagers use straw to form cattle, then insert incense and fire dragons to make Lantern Festival to keep the village safe.
Sichuan Lantern Festival has the custom of "four steals": "one steals Tangyuan, two steals Qing, three steals eaves and four steals red lights." In addition to stealing young people to strengthen the body, the rest are the custom of seeking children. Kaixian has the custom of "cursing". On the Lantern Festival, people move benches to the outdoors and scold everyday complaints. Those who are scolded must not be scolded back.
It is a custom in Fujian in the old days to send lanterns to newly married women on the Lantern Festival. The styles of lanterns sent from different places are different, but the purpose is the same: "Timing." In some places in southern Fujian, such as Zhangpu, there is a custom called "wearing lamp feet" in the Lantern Festival. The dragon lantern dance in the Lantern Festival is the most popular program in Fujian Lantern Festival. The dragon lantern is tens of feet long, with head and tail. There is also a popular lantern guess in the festival, which is also called "guessing lantern riddles" or "guessing out of the lantern".
The Lantern Festival in Guangdong likes picking lettuce "stealthily" and cooking with cakes for auspiciousness. People in Xin'an County, who had a boy last year, celebrate lanterns on the night of the Lantern Festival. When Nanxiong was bustling with lanterns, the parents took the dragon's whisker thread from the lantern to tie the children. It was said that the children could be protected from diseases. They also took the remaining candles from the dragon lantern and illuminated it under the bed. It was said that they could produce noble sons. When people steal the Lantern Festival Eve in Wenchang County, they are auspicious to be scolded while those who steal the Lantern Festival night are auspicious to not be scolded.
With the Lantern Festival approaching, Zhaiying Ancient Town, Songtao and Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province, held the "Rolling Dragon Lantern Festival". "Rolling Dragon" is a unique folk art in Zhaiying ancient town, which has a history of more than 600 years. On the night of January 15, the Tujia folk custom "fried dragon" activity opened in the central city of Dejiang. The "Detonglong" gathered more than 70 dragon lanterns, and attracted nearly 200,000 people to stop and watch, the scene shocked people heartbeat. The Lantern Festival of the Tujia people in Dejiang can be divided into two periods: day and night: dragon dancing, lion playing and lantern performance in the daytime, and dragon-exploding Carnival in the night of the Lantern Festival. More than 600 years ago, there were pictorial records of "Dragon Dance for Rain" and the traditions of Tujia Dragon Dance and Dragon Explosion in this county. This activity has been included in the list of intangible cultural heritage in Guizhou Province.
Before the Lantern Festival, Yunlong County welcomed the three gods and erected canopies along the streets to offer sacrifices. One day after the Lantern Festival in Maitreya, incense was burned on the bridge, stones were thrown into the water, and water was taken to wash the eyes. It was said that diseases could be eliminated. Lantern Festival eating Lantern Festival is a common custom throughout the country. This kind of food first appeared in the Song Dynasty. Poet Jiang Baishi wrote in a poem chanting the Lantern Festival: "When you see the Royal Street from the curtain, the precious goods in the city come for a while." "This" city treasure "refers to the Lantern Festival. Zhou Bida of the Song Dynasty also wrote a poem entitled "Boiling Floating Round Boiler at Lantern Festival": What evening is this, reunion is the same thing. Tang Guan patrols the old flavor and the kitchen maid wonders at the new achievement. In the stars and clouds, the pearls float in the turbid water. When I was 15 years old, I compiled a miscellaneous chant, with a comment on family style.
In Taiwan, there are also traditional customs that unmarried women picking onions or vegetables on Lantern Festival night will marry a good husband, commonly known as "picking onions secretly, marrying a good wife", "picking vegetables secretly, marrying a good husband". Girls who wish to have a happy marriage will steal onions or vegetables in the vegetable garden on Lantern Festival Night, expecting family happiness in the future. The lamp market of Tang Dynasty will also appear. Music and dance performances, thousands of palace girls, folk girls in the lights download songs and dances, called songs, step songs.
Chinese traditional festival custom adapts to the comprehensive needs of the masses of Chinese society in material, spiritual, ethical and aesthetic aspects. In terms of material life, Chinese traditional festivals have many unique foods for different festivals. On the Lantern Festival, the whole family eat dumplings together. The pronunciation of "dumplings" is similar to that of "reunion", which symbolizes reunion and harmonious coexistence.
The cultural value of Lantern Festival lies in that it is a carnival for all people, in which everyone participates and enjoys themselves. In ancient times, the Lantern Festival was easy to produce love because of the ban, crowds and encounters between men and women. For thousands of years, there have been numerous love stories between two people on Lantern Festival.
The main activity of Lantern Festival is mass entertainment, but its social and cultural significance is not just entertainment. There are many religious activities on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, praying for the blessings of the gods. Lantern Festival is also a good time to beg for children. In explaining the reasons why people stole lanterns during the Lantern Festival, Chen Yuanqiang of the Song Dynasty explained in Volume 12 of Guangji at the Age of the Age: "A cloud, a person who stole lanterns, is a sign of a man's birth." Here the homonym "ding" of "lamp" is male. In this way, stealing lamps symbolizes the birth of sons, and stealing lamps means praying for the continuity of children. According to the same principle, viewing lanterns also has the meaning of seeking son. Thus, the ancient women went out to watch lanterns for this reason, and the name was right.
Festival culture has no national boundaries, so does the Spring Festival, and Lantern Festival is no exception. The enthusiasm, boldness and publicity of hundreds of millions of people can be compared with carnivals in Brazil, Germany and other countries.
The formation of the Lantern Festival custom has a long process. The fifteenth day of the first lunar month has been paid attention to in the Western Han Dynasty. However, the fifteenth day of the first lunar month is really a folk festival after the Han and Wei Dynasties. The introduction of Buddhist culture in the Eastern Han Dynasty is of great significance to the formation of the custom of Lantern Festival. During the Yongping reign of Emperor Han Ming (AD 58-75), because Emperor Ming advocated Buddhism, Cai Bing came back from India to seek Buddhism. He said that every fifteenth day of the first lunar month in India, monks gathered to look up to Buddha's religion, which was a good day to participate in Buddhism. In order to carry forward Buddhism, Emperor Han Ming ordered the 15th night of the first lunar month to "light lamps to watch Buddha" in the palace and monastery. Therefore, the custom of lighting lanterns on the 15th night of the first lunar month has gradually expanded in China with the expansion of Buddhist culture and the addition of Taoist culture. Nowadays, with the development of the times, today's Lantern Festival is moving from family to society. No matter how the Lantern Festival, color lanterns and fireworks change, the old traditional customs that these Lantern Festivals continue remain unchanged. These elements of traditional culture, it has always been people's hearts to give up the feelings.
With the Lantern Festival approaching, the commodity business of lanterns, Tangyuan and fireworks is booming, and the "Lantern Festival Economy" in Rizhao City, Shandong Province is booming. Businessmen blow the "rally number" of the Lantern Festival economy . Feb. 17, 2011 is the Lantern Festival. Every citizen is grabbing the tail of the Spring Festival and enjoying the New Year's flavor of the Lantern Festival. When the Lantern Festival arrives, the festival economy is stirred up again, hotels are full of bookings, supermarkets sell Lantern Festival on fire. In recent years, some colleagues and relatives who haven't had time to get together during the Spring Festival have taken Lantern Festival as an opportunity to have dinner together, which has greatly increased the booking rate of Lantern Festival hotels. The number of Lantern Festival orders is almost equal to that of New Year's Eve dinner. Some hotels specially launch Lantern Festival aiming at the habits of citizens who like to eat big fish and meat during the Spring Festival.“ Recalling bitterness and thinking sweet "dishes, coarse grains, wild vegetables, Wowotou are very popular with the public.
The Lantern Festival, like the Spring Festival, the Qingming Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival, is a traditional Chinese festival. In fact, its cultural connotation and social value are far superior to other festivals, and it has extraordinary significance.
The Spring Festival begins with the closing of doors on New Year's Eve and ends with the Lantern Festival. It is a process in which people expand their activities and interpersonal relationships. New Year's greetings to parents on the first day of junior high school, and New Year's greetings to mother's home on the second day of junior high school. Later, it gradually expanded the scope of New Year's greetings to general relatives and friends. During this period, people's activities are limited to acquaintances. The fifth day of junior middle school is broken five. The farm work can start and the shops can open. During this period, society began to function normally. On the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, all members of society, men, women, old and young, joined in the festival activities. Therefore, Lantern Festival has the significance of confirming the relationship between all members of society, including those who do not know each other.
Chinese Valentine's Day
Lantern Festival is also a romantic festival in Chinese traditional festivals. In feudal traditional society, Lantern Festival provides an opportunity for unmarried men and women to get acquainted. Young girls in traditional society are not allowed to go out freely, but they can go out to play together during the festival. Lantern Festival is just an opportunity for friendship. Unmarried men and women can also find objects for themselves by watching lanterns.
The Lantern Festival is also a time for young men and women to meet their lover. So the Lantern Festival can be said to be authentic Chinese Valentine's Day.
List of Heritage
On June 14, 2008, Beijing Huairou District, Miyun District, Liulin County, Shanxi Province, Yuxian County, Hebei Province, Mawei District, Fuzhou City, Quanzhou City, Jinjiang City, Xianyou County, Liancheng County, Yongchang County, Gansu Province, Ledu County, Qinghai Province declared the Lantern Festival (Lianqiaofang Custom, Jiuqu Yellow River Array Lamp Custom, Liulin Panzihui, Weixian Bai) Lantern Mountain Custom, Mawei-Mazu Lantern Festival Custom, Quanzhou Lantern Festival Custom, Fujian-Taiwanese East Stone Lantern Custom, Fengting Lantern Festival Custom, Hakka Lantern Festival in Western Fujian, Yongchang County Plaque Lantern Custom, Jiuqu Yellow River Lantern Custom) were listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list (category: folk custom; serial number: _-71) with the approval of the State Council. 。
On December 3, 2014, Beijing Mentougou District, Luanping County, Hebei Province, Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, Ninghai County, Ninghai County, Zibo City, Zhangdian District, Shandong Province, Bin County, Shaanxi Province declared the Lantern Festival (Qianjuntaizhuang Huxing Fair, Luhua Fair, Heshang Longdengsheng Fair, Qiantong Lantern Festival, Zibo Flower Lantern Fair, Binxian Dengshan Fair). The State Council approved it to be included in the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.
The Republic of Korea
South Korea does not have the saying of Lantern Festival. The fifteenth day of the first lunar month is called "Great Looking at the Day of the First Moon", which means "Looking at the Full Moon". Unlike in China, they don't eat Lantern Festival on this day. They eat five-grain rice made of mixed glutinous rice, sorghum rice, red beans, yellow rice, black beans and other grains. They eat a variety of nuts, peanuts, walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, ginkgo and so on. It is said that they can make teeth stronger and prevent skin diseases such as boils. In addition, we should drink "Sake Ear Wine" to pray that we will not suffer from ear diseases in the New Year, and we will hear good news all year round. There are also some traditional celebrations of the 15th day of the first lunar month in rural South Korea. For example, "Burning the Moon House", a conical roof frame made of tree trunks or bamboo and a note with New Year's wishes hanging on it. After the full moon rises, people light the "Moon House" with torches in their hands and dance around the fire.
In China Street, Japan calls January the first month of the Gregorian calendar and January 15 the small first month. There are many folk activities in Japan. The Lantern Festival on the fifteenth day of the first month of the lunar calendar is relatively unfamiliar to most Japanese. On the 15th day of the first lunar month, China Street in Japan is very busy. For example, the Lantern Festival Lantern Festival is held in Yokohama China Street every year, and some local Chinese will come to join in the festival.
The Lantern Festival is called the 15th day of the first lunar month in Korea. On this day, every household has to use rice, yellow rice, millet, beans and barley mixed into a "five-grain rice". This kind of "grain meal" not only symbolizes "grain abundance", but also symbolizes longevity, affluence, health, fertility and peace. In addition, every household also has an indispensable dish on this day, that is, nine kinds of dried vegetables, such as dried radish leaves, dried ferns, dried pepper leaves, dried Platycodon grandiflorum, sweet potato rattan dried, gourd dried and so on, which are common in winter. The most interesting thing to arouse people's interest is the "greeting the moon" in the evening. It is said that the first person to see the "15th" moon will have good things in one year, and the unmarried young man will see that this year will marry a "full moon" beautiful girl; the married man will see that this year will have a healthy baby.
Lion Dance Tour Nanyin has a large proportion of Chinese in many countries of Southeast Asia, so the Chinese people in these places have maintained the customs of southern China. In Lantern Festival, the traditional Chinese festival, the local Chinese New Year's custom maintained their own traditions while developing with the integration of local culture, forming a distinctive New Year's custom. Fujian Guild Hall in Singapore began to hold a lively "step on the street" activity on Lantern Festival several years ago. It will perform martial arts, lion dance and Nanyin. Lantern Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals for Chinese Malaysians. Its custom of "throwing oranges and taking bananas" is lively, romantic and unique. In Yamaguchi, Indonesia's West Kalimantan Province, the annual Chinese traditional cultural activities were held. Lantern Festival parade is an important part of Shankou foreign Chinese Spring Festival celebrations, and also the climax of the activities.
Lantern lantern display is the traditional custom of our people. Throughout the ages, there are not only a large number of popular lantern chanting poems, but also left countless interesting lantern chanting couplets. At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty and the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, when a man named Jia Simitao was guarding Huaiyin (now Yangzhou) in the Southern Song Dynasty, there was a lantern festival in Shangyuan in one year. Some of the visitors picked Tang poems and verses to make lanterns to couplet "three bright moonlit nights in the world, ten li small red building in Yangzhou". It is said that this couplet is the earliest one in China. Since then, people in all dynasties have been competing to follow suit. Inserting wall-lamp couplets and door-lamp couplets in doors or prominent pillars not only adds Festival interest to the Lantern Festival, but also adds appreciation content to the people who appreciate lanterns.
Zhang Ying and Zhang Tingyu, known as "father and son, bachelor and Prime Minister of both young and old" in Tongcheng, Anhui Province in the Qing Dynasty, were both good poets. One year during the Lantern Festival, Zhang Fu used to hang lights and colors and set off firecrackers. The old prime minister made a couplet of experiments: "High-burning candles reflect the sky, light, light spread all over the ground." Xiao Tingyu heard a fireworks sound outside the door when she was thinking. She immediately realized that the low-point fireworks shook the earth, sounded and breathed into the sky. The battle is neat and seamless, which is wonderful.
Perhaps the most popular story is the story of Wang An-shi Miaolian in the Northern Song Dynasty. When Wang Anshi was 20 years old, he went to Beijing to catch up with his exams. On the Lantern Festival, he passed by some place and enjoyed the lanterns while walking. He saw a large family hanging lanterns and a couplet hanging under the lanterns to recruit relatives. The couplet said, "Walk the lamp, the lamp walks the horse, the lamp goes out and the horse stops." When Wang Anshi saw it, he couldn't answer it right for a moment, so he kept it in mind. To the capital, the examiner with the flying tiger flag fluttering with the wind out of the "flying tiger flag, Flying Tiger flag, tiger flag roll hiding." Wang Anshi was selected as a scholar by recruiting relatives. When I passed the family home, I heard that there was still no one to identify the relatives, so I was recruited as a quick son-in-law by the examiner. A pair of coincidence couplets, actually achieved Wang Anshi's two major happy events.
Legend has it that Zhu Di, the ancestor of Ming Dynasty, went on a trip on the Lantern Festival in a small costume in a certain year. When he met a talented person, he talked speculatively. Zhu Di tried his talent in Shanglian. Lianyun said, "The light is bright, the light is bright, and the bright is unified." The scholar immediately went to the couplet and said, "Jun Le Min Yue, Jun Min Tong Yue, Yongle Wannian." "Yongle" is the year of Ming Chengzu. Zhu Di was so happy that he was awarded the first prize.
Riddles have always been a traditional Chinese puzzle game. By the Song Dynasty, the Lantern Festival had the meaning of "puzzle festival". One of the symbols is the emergence of "lantern riddles". Lantern riddles are riddles posted on Lantern Festival lanterns for tourists to guess. They are also called "lyrics" and "hidden words". Liu Xie, Liang of the Southern Dynasty, said in "Wenxindiaolong Xieqian": "Since the Wei Dynasty, they have not been excellent, but the gentleman ridiculed them and turned them into riddles."
In the Southern Song Dynasty, lantern riddles, as a type of riddles, became an indispensable boost to the Lantern Festival. According to Wu Zimu's Dream Lianglu, the puzzles of the Southern Song Dynasty, like storytelling and chess, can be used as a means of livelihood: "The puzzlers of the Shang Dynasty, first congratulate them with drums, then gather people to guess the puzzles of poetry, crossword, and society, which are implicit. There is a riddle, and the visitors miss the ridicule of the Siyu ridicule, also known as riddle. There are similar records in the meticulous "Old Stories of Wulin" lamp: "There are silk lamp cut poems, ridicule, and paintings of characters, Hidden Head Hidden Words, and old Beijing mockery, teasing pedestrians."
Lantern Festival riddles matured in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In Qing Jialu written by Qing Gulu, the scene of guessing lantern riddles on the Lantern Festival in Suzhou was recorded: "Good deeds cleverly make hidden words and use various lanterns. The lamp overlays the wall on one side and sticks to the questions on three sides. It is called playing riddles. The riddles are all handed down by classics, poems, schools of thought, Legendary Novels and proverbs, objects, featherscales, insects, flowers and herbs, vegetables and medicines at will. The winner has a prize. The prizes include scarf fans, sachets, fruits and food, which are called "riddle gifts". Guessing lantern riddles is often described in Ming and Qing fictions, such as the plot in Chapter 22 of A Dream of Red Mansions: "Suddenly, Niang Niang (Yuan Chun) sent out a lantern riddle and asked all of you to guess, guessing that each of you also made one in."
"A song of Sheng is like spring in the sea, and a thousand lights are like day at night." There are countless lines of praise for dollar lanterns by literati and ink poets of past dynasties, which are still interesting to read today.
In Tang Dynasty, Lantern Festival Lantern Playing has developed into an unprecedented lighting market. Beijing "as a lamp wheel 20 feet high, clothes to Jinqi, decorated with gold and silver, burning 50,000 lamps, cluster as flowers and trees". Tang Dynasty poet Su Weiwei's poem "Fifteen Nights of the First Moon" is "Fire Trees and Honeysuckles, Star Bridge Iron Locks. Dark dust goes with the horse, and the bright moon comes with each other." It depicts the scenes of bright lights and bright moons, tourists like knitting, lively and extraordinary. To be commended, we should also first promote the Tang Dynasty poet Cui Shui's "Shangyuan Night" Jade leak copper pot and do not rush, Tieguan gold lock open; who can sit idly at the moon, where do not look at the lamp. Although there is no positive description of the grand occasion of the Lantern Festival, it contains a very happy, joyful and enthusiastic scene.
The Lantern Festival Night in the Song Dynasty was more spectacular than ever before. Su Dongpo has a poem called "Lighting house, Sheng Ge office building." Fan Chengda also wrote in his poems that "Wutai is prosperous in modern and ancient times, preferring Lantern Festival Shadow and Lantern Opera." The "shadow lamp" in the poem is the "street lamp". Xin Qiji, a great poet, once had a long-standing eulogy of the grand occasion of the Lantern Festival: "Thousands of trees blossom in the east wind at night, but even more fall, stars like rain." BMW carved cars are fragrant all over the road. Fengxiao sound, jade pot light turn, fish and dragon dance overnight.
In the Ming Dynasty, lanterns were put on the Lantern Festival from three nights to ten nights. Tang Bohu once wrote poems praising the Lantern Festival, bringing people into the charming Lantern Festival night. The poem says, "No lamp, no moon, no entertainment, no moon, no lamp, no spring. Spring to the world like jade, light burning moon like silver. Pearl Green Street touring village women, boiling Sheng Ge contest goddess. If you don't open your mouth and laugh, how can you get rid of this wonderful occasion?
In addition to various lanterns, the lively scenes of the Lantern Festival in the Qing Dynasty included torches, fireballs, rain, dragons and lions. Ruan Yuan has the poetry cloud of Yangcheng Lantern Market: "The sea cheese cloud and Phoenix are exquisite and exquisite, and the color screen is clearly displayed in Guide Men. The city is full of material resources, and the Yangde Fuxian spirit is long-standing. Moon can be full of spring all night, people seem to have been exploring flowers and horses; that is to say, Yingzhou double passengers arrived, the windows are even brighter. Yao Yuanzhi, a poet of the Qing Dynasty, wrote the poem "Wing the Lantern Festival": "The bees and butterflies in the flowers are in ecstasy while the BMW car is in full swing at night. The headlights on the twelfth floor are like fire, and the moon is like frost outside Siping Street." It's more vivid and wonderful.
The Lantern Festival, full of poetry and romance, is often associated with love. There are many poems in the past dynasties expressing their love through Lantern Festival. Ouyang Xiu Ci of Northern Song Dynasty: "On the first night of this year, the moon and the lamp are still there; the last year's people are missing, and tears fill the sleeves of the spring shirt." It expresses the misery of missing the lover.
The traditional opera Chen Sanhe and Wuniang fell in love at first sight when they met in the Lantern Festival. Princess Lechang and Xu Deyan broke their mirrors on the Lantern Festival night, and Yu Wenyan and Ying Niang in the Riddle of the Spring Lantern ordered love at the Lantern Festival.
Origin of Lighting
Legend has it that long, long ago, there were many ferocious birds and beasts, which hurt people and livestock everywhere. People organized to fight them. A God Bird landed on the earth because it was lost, but was accidentally shot dead by an unknown hunter.
The Emperor of Heaven was very angry when he learned about it. He immediately preached a decree that the Heavenly Soldiers should set fire to the earth on the 15th of the first month of the first month and burn all the human and animal property. The daughter of the Emperor of Heaven was kind-hearted and could not bear to see the innocent sufferings of the people. She took the risk of her life and secretly drove Xiangyun to the world to tell the people the news. When people heard the news, they were as frightened as a Jiao Lei ringing on their head.
It took a long time for an old man to come up with a solution. He said, "On the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth days of the first month, every family sets up lights, lights firecrackers and sets off fireworks at home. In this way, the Emperor of Heaven would think that people were burned to death."
Everyone nodded and said yes, and then they separated to go. On the evening of the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, the Emperor looked down and found a red glow and a loud noise in the world. It was the same for three consecutive nights. He thought it was a fire burning with great speed in his heart. In this way, people have saved their lives and property. In order to commemorate this success, every household hangs lanterns and sets off fireworks to commemorate this day from the 15th day of the first lunar month.
Dongfang Shuo and Yuan Xiao
This legend is related to the custom of eating Lantern Festival. It is said that Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty had a favorite minister named Dongfangshuo, who was kind and funny. One winter, after several days of heavy snow, Dongfangshuo went to the imperial garden to fold plum blossoms for Emperor Wu. As soon as I entered the garden gate, I found a lady with tears all over her face ready to throw into the well. Dongfangshuo hurried to rescue her and asked why she wanted to commit suicide. Originally, the maid of the palace was called Yuanxiao, and there were her parents and a sister in the family. Since she entered the palace, she had no chance to meet her family anymore. Every year, when Laduchun came, she missed her family more than usual. I think it's better to die than to be filial before my parents. Dongfangshuo was deeply sympathetic to her experience and assured her that she would try to reunite with her family.
One day, Dongfangshuo Palace set up a divination stand on Chang'an Street. Many people are scrambling to divine divination from him. Unexpectedly, what everyone wants is the sign of "burning on the 16th of January". For a while, great panic broke out in Chang'anli. People are asking for solutions to disasters. Dongfangshuo said, "On the evening of the 15th day of the first lunar month, the Lord of Fire will send a goddess in red to visit everywhere. She is the envoy of burning Chang'an under the decree. I will give you the transcribed phrases so that the Son of Heaven can find a way out." After that, he threw down a red card and went away. The common people picked up the red card and rushed to the palace to report it to the emperor.
When Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty took a look at it, he saw that it said, "Chang'an is robbing, burning Emperor's Queen, fifteen days of fire, fireworks and night". He was so shocked that he quickly invited the resourceful Dongfangshuo. When Dongfangshuo thought about it, he said, "I heard that Lord Huo Shenjun likes Tangyuan best. Doesn't the Lantern Festival in the palace often make you Tangyuan?" The Lantern Festival can be made into dumplings in the fifteenth night. Long live incense offering, ordered Kyoto families to make dumplings, together worship the fire god. Then he instructed his subjects to hang lamps together on the 15th night, light firecrackers and set off fireworks all over the city, as if it were a fire all over the city, so that they could hide from the Jade Emperor. In addition, inform people outside the city, 15 nights into the city lights, mixed in the crowd to eliminate disasters. After listening, Emperor Wu was very happy, and he preached to follow the way of Dongfangshuo.
On the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, the city of Chang'an was full of lights and colors, and tourists came and went busily. The parents of the Gong Nv Lantern Festival also took their sister to the city to watch the lights. When they saw the big palace lamp with the words "Lantern Festival", they shouted in surprise: "Lantern Festival! Lantern Festival!" The Lantern Festival heard a cry and finally reunited with family members.
After such a busy night, Chang'an City was really safe and sound. Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty was so happy that he ordered to make Tangyuan for fire on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. On the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, the whole city would hang lights and set off fireworks. The Lantern Festival is called the Lantern Festival because the dumplings made by the Lantern Festival are the best.
Yuan Shikai and Lantern Festival
Legend has it that Yuan Shikai, a theft robber, had usurped the achievements of the 1911 Revolution, and was anxious to restore his reign as emperor, fearing the opposition of the people. One day, he heard people selling Lantern Festival in the street shouting "Lantern - Xiao" in a long voice. Feeling that the homophonic "Yuan Xiao" of the word "Yuan Xiao" was suspected of being eliminated by Yuan Shikai, and associating with his own destiny, before the Lantern Festival in 1913, he ordered that the term "Yuanxiao" be prohibited, which could only be called "Tangyuan" or "Pink Fruit". However, the word "Lantern Festival" has not been cancelled because of his will. People do not buy his account, and it is still popular among the people.