The Decorative Techniques of Yi Lacquerware
Yis lacquerware decoration skills, Sichuan Xide County, Guizhou Province Dafang County, local traditional handicraft, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Yis lacquerware decoration technology chooses high-quality azalea, acid wood, camphor wood as raw materials, through sawing, planer, grinding, sticking and other processes, and then carefully paint the surface of the painting pattern decoration to complete a lacquerware.
On June 7, 2008, Yi lacquerware decoration technology was approved by the State Council to be included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, item number_-128.
The Sprouting of Yi Lacquerware
According to the Jiwu Craft Family of Liangshan Yi Nationality, in 1616 AD, the ancestors of Jiwu, Abu and Busan lived in Leolaixie (Place Name) in the northeastern part of Xide County. Jishi processed some simple wooden articles such as grinders, barrels, wooden ladles, wooden helmet and so on. Later, it slowly processed more complex things. Bimo (priest) used tools to do things, and later made Wuqu into a dragon figure; Abu and Busan followed Ji's history to make wooden lacquerware, but at that time the production process was simple and no paint was found, so they were just in the bud of wooden lacquerware.
Discovery of Lacquerware Coatings
According to records, one day when Givu was cutting down a tree, the black liquid dripped from the cut fell on his clothes. When he returned home, it was useless to wash it with cold fire or boiling water. The next day, when he came to this place again, he found that on stones and dead branches, as long as the black liquid dripped into the place, no matter how clean it was, and the surface was still very smooth. When he returned, he chopped some to take home and let the black liquid drip on the rough wooden articles. Similarly, these articles are not only smooth, but also more durable. The three brothers collected the black liquid (raw lacquer, the trees they cut are lacquer trees) and painted all the wooden appliances they produced with black lacquer. Since then, although there has not been any pattern, the wooden lacquerware painted with black lacquer has the characteristics of durability, simplicity and generosity, which has made the wooden lacquerware of the Yi nationality have long feet. Development.
The Creation of Painting Brushes
In 1766, Abi of the Jiwu family drew a yellow or red line with his finger on the wooden furniture that had been painted only with raw lacquer, then a red curve was added to the yellow line and a yellow curve was drawn on the red curve. The result of this treatment was much better than that of the original one. By the time of Djibouti, there were special brushes.
Long production time
There are more than 40 processes for the production of Yi lacquerware. There is a strict time interval between each two processes, at least ten days and a half months, and more than one and a half years. For example, from cutting timber to making rough embryos, from deep burial to making fine embryos, it needs half a year. If the Yi lacquerware is made strictly according to the traditional production requirements, it will take about two years for each lacquerware to form.
Variety, exquisite production
There are many kinds of Yi lacquerware, which involve all aspects of daily life. The process, shape, decoration, pattern and use of each product are relatively fixed and standardized. For example, a group of patterns called "De-oh" can only be used for the decoration of cowhide bowls, high-feet trays and saddles, while cattle eye patterns can only be painted on wooden bowls and low-feet trays. Painting of pigments is also very exquisite, using high-quality bamboo and wood chips, fine linen rope and goat's beard to make brushes, in accordance with the black-yellow-red order, to make exquisite, generous and diverse shapes of lacquerware.
In the past, many Yi lacquerware were directly used in production and life, some for three meals a day, some for drinking water, some for religious activities, some for military weapons, some for weddings, funerals, marriages and so on, pure crafts and decorations are few.
After thousands of years of refinement and development, the Yi lacquerware decoration technology has formed a unique national craft. Its production process can be divided into dozens of processes, probably in the following six aspects:
The Yi people have accumulated valuable experience in their long-term practice. They believe that the best logs for making Yi lacquerware are Guni (birch) and Soma (one of cuckoo trees). Guni is used to make dinner (wine) utensils, Soma is used to make snack (wine) utensils. Material harvesting usually needs to be cut down in winter. Wood must be naturally shady in the woods before it can be put into production the following winter.
Rough billet production
The blanks of Yi lacquerware are divided into rough and fine blanks. The production of rough blanks refers to the cutting and shaping of logs with knives and axes, which are divided into field production and indoor production. Field production is to produce rough blanks directly in the place where the wood is stored. Indoor production is to transport the wood back to the house to make rough blanks. Generally speaking, the bigger roughcast is made in the field, and it is transported back after the prototype is made, so as to reduce the difficulty of transportation; the smaller roughcast is made indoors and can be transported back at one time. According to the shape characteristics of various meals and wine utensils, Yi lacquerware roughness is generally divided into Kuzu and Aizhi two categories. Kuzu category is the roughness of wooden soup bowl, high-legged vegetable dish, low-legged vegetable dish, wooden bowl, jewelry bowl, wine cup and other utensils. Aizhi category mainly refers to the roughness of large pot spoon, small soup spoon, hairpin and other articles. The main difference between the two types of rough billets is that the shape of the matrix is different. The Kuzu type is conical or cylindrical, and the Aichi type is semi-elliptical.
Rough stock storage
After rough billet is made, it is rough billet storage, which is a link related to the quality of lacquerware. It is usually buried deep in the ground, and then accumulated farm manure on the pit for fermentation. The buried time is generally about 100 days. The lacquerware made by this disposal is not easy to deform, crack, and durable.
Fine billet production
This link is actually the specific shape of lacquerware. To be completed in traditional workshops, lacquerware handicraft workshops are often located near houses, digging a rectangular pit, erecting a wooden frame, and taking a belt to form a seemingly simple traditional machine. When making the concrete blank, the piston type is fixed on the wooden frame, and one person is responsible for it. Or some people sit on the wooden shelf and tread on the machine to make it rotate orderly. The master sits cross-legged on the top of the workshop, holds a long-handled rotary knife in both hands one after the other, and "cuts" the rough parts of the flying rotation. Through the progressive processing and fine production of different parts of the wooden tire, the wooden-colored utensils can be made into log-colored utensils. The next step is to enter the painting stage.
The lacquer painting techniques of Yi lacquerware are unique. Every lacquerware of Yi nationality has only three colors: black, red and yellow. Among them, the black pigment is lacquer, which is the juice collected from lacquer trees. Lacquer trees basically grow in Erba Mountain area about 2000 meters above sea level; the red pigment is silver and vermilion, which was not known from its former origin, and the old people. Only know from the "Han District", now the Yi lacquerware producers mainly buy Silver and Zhu in Guangdong; yellow pigments called Shihuang, is a mineral natural pigments produced in Xiaguan area of Yunnan Province. Painting tools include black paint pen, yellow paint pen, red paint pen, dotting pen and paint bottle. Painting brushes are artists'own. They usually use goat's beard to make pencil hair, bamboo or wood as pen poles, tied with fine linen rope, and made into neat-edged or oblique-edged pen-like tools. The pencil brushes with dotted brushes have only a few goat's beards, which are mainly used in "dot" painting. Each pen has its own use in lacquer painting and can not be used interactively; all kinds of pigments can only be used at intervals but can not be mixed with each other. The first process of the Yi lacquerware production is to lay the base color. The base color pigments are carefully prepared with pig blood, soybean noodles and pot smoke. The base color is laid on the wooden fetus and then dried naturally in the shade. After three days, the first black road begins after polishing with a special oval flat pebble. Lacquer, after shade drying and polishing, then black paint, after the second black paint and shade drying, after shade drying and the third black paint... The more such times, the better, as many as ten times, at least three times or more. After the last black paint has dried in the shade, we can enter the stage of painting. When painting, yellow is first painted, then red, but each color is completed by three different pens. When painting, the left hand holds the wooden tire, the right hand holds the brush, and the left hand moves the wooden tire constantly when the right hand moves the pen. The two hands cooperate with each other in painting. The sun, moon, stars, flowers, birds, insects, fish and other patterns are freely painted on the embryo. When painting a picture, the symbolic painting of the characteristics of a part of the object is often grasped. For example, if you want to embody the totem of cattle, you can't paint the whole cow on the wooden tire, but symbolically draw the eyes of the cattle. Therefore, the main patterns of Yi lacquerware are cattle eye pattern, chicken crown pattern, sheep horn pattern, fish spine pattern, insect pattern, fern pattern, crescent pattern, net pattern, chain pattern, window lattice pattern, etc. In the lacquer painting process of Yi lacquerware, all lines have not been completed by means of rulers, compasses and other tools, but by hand.
Storage of finished products
After the lacquer painting process of Yi lacquerware is finished, it enters the stage of shady and dry storage. The storage room is usually built in front of and behind the house. Usually a small cave is excavated in the earth pier. The volume of the cave is suitable for an adult man's arm to extend into the place. A layer of pine leaves is laid in the cave. Then the finished lacquerware is laid flat in the cave. The number of pieces depends on the volume. Fixed, can not be crowded stacking, finally to the slate as the door, cloth cloth, cloth, cloth, seals tight, can not ventilate, can not leak rain, can not have mice, frogs and other small animals to crawl into. As the saying goes, "three years of painting" means that the drying time of lacquerware is very long. Generally, lacquerware can only be put into use and sold after more than one year in the storage room.
Inheritance and Protection
The Yi nationality is a nation with a long history. The lacquerware decoration technique of the Yi nationality is an ancient skill. The lacquerware decoration technique of the Yi nationality has been accompanied by the development of the history of the Yi nationality. There are records of Yi lacquerware in Yi's Creation Epic and Bimo's classics, rap and praise to Yi's lacquerware in Yi's traditional folk songs and Khilbi, and the expression of Yi's lacquerware decoration skills in many Yi's historical relics. Therefore, the lacquerware decoration skills of Yi have an important value for the study of Yi's history and culture. Value.
The Value of Arts and Crafts
Each piece of Yi lacquerware is condensed with complex production technology. Each lacquerware decoration contains certain cultural connotations. The shape and tone of each product has its own national characteristics and has important value of Arts and crafts.
Practical Functional Value
Among the beautiful Yi lacquerware, there are few as ornaments, which are almost directly applicable to people's production and life. They play their respective functions in different areas of life and living space, and have practical value.
Development and Collection Value
Yi lacquerware decoration originates from nature and comes from life. There are decorations embodying nature, animals and plants, as well as decorations reflecting people's production and life. The patterns are mostly based on sun, moon, stars, mountains, rivers, trees, flowers, birds, snakes, birds, animals and living utensils. The patterns are abstract, artistic and regular, and then on the fetus. Now the scenes of nature and human production and life. Yi lacquerware has the style of exquisite workmanship, various shapes, elegant appearance, exquisite brushwork, general body pattern, simplicity and appropriateness, strong color contrast, proper primary and secondary position, non-toxic, non-peculiar smell, acid and alkali resistance, high temperature resistance, non-deformable, non-crackable, non-paint-stripping performance, luxurious, gorgeous pattern decoration and beautiful shape. Unity, harmony and unity. With the development of society and the progress of life, the Yi lacquerware is becoming more and more popular. It has become a gift and tourist souvenir, and its collection and market development value has become increasingly prominent.
Jiwu Wuqi, male, was born on May 1, 1953. In May 2009, Jiwu Wu was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Xide County, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Project Name: Yis lacquerware decoration skills.
In October 2013, the Agricultural Office of the Xide County Party Committee invited three producers, such as Jiwu Youse, a hereditary producer of Yis'lacquerware from Apuruha, to conduct a ten-day training for farmers in Xide County Chiyi Lacquerware Co., Ltd. to popularize the skills of lacquerware production, break the traditional hereditary teaching concept and make the traditional writing of Yis' lacquerware production. It has been further consolidated and developed, laying a solid foundation for the inheritance of the cultural industry of Yi lacquerware production in the county.
Beginning in 2006, Jiwu Wu also accepted apprentices in Xichang and Zhaojue, engaged in lectures and exchanged lacquerware techniques.
Since 2007, Dafang County Cultural Heritage Administration has regularly held training courses for inheritors of lacquerware decoration skills of the Yi nationality, providing professional training for relevant personnel. In 2007, Dafang County promulgated "Standardized Management Measures for Lacquerware Products Market". By increasing investment, cluster layout of workshop-style decentralized production and management in the form of parks can effectively promote the inheritance, protection, development and utilization of generous lacquerware.
From May 23 to June 2007, the first Chengdu International Intangible Cultural Heritage Festival fully demonstrated the Yi lacquerware culture, which was praised by experts and colleagues from more than 70 countries and regions and officials at all levels.
In July 2008, Givu Wu and his lacquerware participated in the Fifth International Folk Art Trade Fair held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, exhibiting 285 individual works and showing Yi lacquerware skills and works of art to more than 17,000 visitors.
In 2016, China (Guizhou) Yi Cultural Industry Expo was held in a generous manner, and the Yi lacquerware decoration skills were displayed in the exhibition.
In 1915, at the World Exposition held in San Francisco, Guizhou Dafang lacquerware and Jiangsu Yangzhou lacquerware both won silver prizes.
In 1983, Jiwu Wu and his lacquerware obtained the certificate of high quality products issued by the State Civil Affairs Commission and the Ministry of Light Industry.
In 1986, Jiwu Wuhe's lacquerware was awarded the "Innovation Award" for tourism products of the Second Light Department of Sichuan Province.
In 2006, Jiwu Wuhe's lacquerware was awarded the bronze prize in the Tourism Commodity Design Competition of the Second Sichuan Winter Tourism Development Conference.
In April 2008, Jiwu Wuqie's Wine Ware series was collected by Sichuan Wenlian and Sichuan People's Association. In July 2008, the works of Kuzu and Book Di by Wuqi Jiwu were directly collected by the World Folklore Museum.