Tea Picking Opera

Home Culture 2019-04-04

Tea Picking Opera

Tea-picking opera is a kind of traditional opera popular in Jiangnan and Lingnan provinces. It was mostly produced from the middle of Qing Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty. It has many kinds and distinct local characteristics. On May 20, 2006, the tea-picking opera was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.

Brief history of drama

The so-called tea-picking opera is a kind of traditional opera popular in Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and other provinces and regions. In each province, it is often distinguished by the geographical names of the places where they are prevalent. Such as Guangdong's "North Guangdong Tea Picking Opera", Hubei's "Yangxin Tea Picking Opera", "Huangmei Tea Picking Opera", "Qichun Tea Picking Opera" and so on. This kind of opera, especially in Jiangxi, is more common, and there are many kinds of operas. For example, Jiangxi tea-picking operas include "Pingxiang tea-picking opera", "Gannan tea-picking opera", "Fuzhou tea-picking opera", "Nanchang tea-picking opera", "Gao'an tea-picking opera", "Wuning tea-picking opera", "Gandong tea-picking opera", "Ji'an tea-picking opera", "Jingdezhen tea-picking opera" and "Ningdu tea-picking opera". Although these operas have many names, most of them were formed in the middle of Qing Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty.


Jiangxi tea-picking opera, mainly originated in Anyuan, southern Jiangxi, Xinfeng area, tea-picking opera is related to the abundant production of tea. In the Ming Dynasty, during the rainy season in southern, Eastern and Northern Jiangxi tea districts, working women went up to the mountains and sang folk songs to stimulate their enthusiasm for work while picking tea. This kind of folk song circulated in tea districts was called "tea picking song". Folk tea-picking songs and lamp singing developed into a folk opera with characters and story plots. It is also known as the "triangle class" because it usually only has the performances of "once ugly" or "once ugly", or "once ugly". After the formation of tea-picking opera in southern Jiangxi, it developed outward in several ways, merged with local dialects and tunes, and formed five schools of eastern, western, southern, northern and middle Jiangxi, each with different local accents. The general characteristics of Jiangxi tea-picking opera are: cheerful performance, witty, singing and dancing, strong comedy, rich in local flavor, popular with the masses.

There are several stages in the development of tea-picking opera from singing tea-picking songs. Tea-picking songs were first sung in minor tunes, with only four lyrics in each sentence, such as "Tea picking grows in spring, white tea blossoms fill the roadside; Big sister returns home to report two sisters, head tea is no more fragrant than late tea." This kind of song is lively and euphemistic. After further development, tea-picking songs are composed of tea-picking songs, which are called "Tea-picking Songs in December". For example, "Tea harvesting in the first month is the New Year, sisters and sisters entered the tea garden, tenant 12 mu of tea garden. Writing books in person pays two dollars. Tea picking in February... Later, "December Tea Picking Song" combined with folk dance, entered the ranks of Lantern Festival lanterns and became "Tea Picking Lamp". The main tunes of "Tea Picking Lamp" were "Tea Yellow Tune", "Tea Picking Song", "Tea Picking Tune", "Tea Name" and so on. It is made up of eight or twelve girls in each team, and two younger people are the head of the team, holding flower baskets, singing and dancing while singing and singing "Tea picking in December". This kind of "tea-picking lamp" is simple in form and purely a collective performance of singing and dancing, but it has taken a step towards the tea-picking drama.

In Ming Dynasty, in Jiulongshan Tea District, Anyuan County, Gannan Province, where famous tea was abundant, tea growers improvised tea-picking programs in the form of tea lanterns in order to receive Cantonese businessmen. That is to say, two of the eight (or twelve) tea-picking women in the "Tea Lamp" are separated from each other. They are Danjiao elder sister and Erjie, and one of the first clowns in the team is just the "triangle class" of Danjiao elder sister and Erjie. The two sisters performed tea picking in the mountains, holding tea baskets, singing and dancing, singing the "December Tea Picking Song" (each singing for six months in a round); the paper fans in the clown's hand were intertwined in the middle. This is the original program "Sisters Pick Tea". Afterwards, the details of opening tea mountain, fried tea, sending elder brother to sell tea and tray tea were added. The clown dressed as Gange to sell tea changed its name to "sending elder brother to sell tea". The performance of this kind of tea-picking lamp (also known as "tea basket lamp") is the embryonic form of tea-picking opera. Gannan's "tea basket lantern" has been increasing new content, and there are also a number of small operas which perform other labor life, such as "Yangmai", "digging bamboo shoots", "leather shoes", "picking up snails", "floral thread", "grinding tofu" and so on. They are collectively called "tea picking opera" because they sing in the tune of tea picking, singing in harmony and without orchestral accompaniment. Tea-picking opera is a local opera developed from folk songs and dances and lanterns. Its performances reflect the lives of the working people, and its musical singing is full of folk songs, so it is deeply loved by the people.

Inheritance significance

If there were no tea picking and other tea work, there would be no tea picking songs and dances; if there were no tea picking songs and dances, there would be no tea picking operas widely popular in many provinces and regions of southern China. Therefore, tea-picking opera is not only related to tea, but also a splendid culture derived from tea culture in the field of opera or absorbed by tea culture.

The formation of tea-picking opera is not only outstanding in tea-picking songs and dance, but also closely related to the styles of Lantern opera and flower-drum opera. Flower lantern opera is a general term for the types of flower lantern operas popular in Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces and regions, with Yunnan as the most popular type of flower lantern opera. Its production time was later than tea-picking opera and flower-drum opera, mostly formed in the late Qing Dynasty. Huagu Opera is mostly produced in Hubei and Hunan provinces, and its formation time is roughly the same as that of tea-picking Opera. These two kinds of operas also originated from folk song minor and folk dance. Because the origin, formation and development time and style of tea-picking opera, lantern opera and flower-drum opera are close, there is a cross-relationship of mutual absorption and nutrition among them.

The influence of tea on opera not only directly produces the tea-picking opera, but also has an impact on all operas. It is the playwrights, actors and audiences who like to drink tea. It is the tea culture that permeates all aspects of people's lives, and even the theatre cannot leave the tea. For example, there is an artistic school in the playwriting of Ming Dynasty in China, called "Yumingtang School" (also known as Linchuan School), which is caused by the dramatist Tang Xianzu's tea-addiction and the name of his residence in Linchuan as "Yumingtang". Tang Xianzu's plays focus on expressing the emotions of the characters and paying attention to the rhetoric. After the publication of "Four Dreams of Yuming Tang", Tang Xianzu's plays have an immeasurable influence on the drama creation at that time and later generations. In this regard, Tang Xianzu's role in the history of Chinese drama should not be limited to a name of a genre.

For example, in the past, not only the performances of singing, cross talk, drums, commentary and so on were mostly performed in teahouses, but also theatres for various theatre performances. They also sold tea concurrently or were initially in teahouses. Therefore, in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, theatre venues with commercial performances were generally referred to as "tea gardens" or "tea houses". Because of this, the income of the opera performers was paid by the teahouse earlier. In other words, in the early stage theatres or theatres, their income was mainly from selling tea; they only received tea money, but did not sell theatre tickets. The theatres served to entertain and attract tea customers. For example, at the end of the last century, Beijing's most famous "Chajia Tea House", "Guanghe Tea House" and Shanghai's "Dangui Tea Garden" and "Tianxian Tea Garden" are all performing venues. This kind of tea garden or tea house is usually built in the middle of a wall, which is termed "pool" flat in front of the stage. The three sides are surrounded by corridors as auditorium. Tea tables and chairs are set up for the audience to enjoy the tea while watching the theatre. Professional theatre appeared before and after the Revolution of 1911. At that time, it was specially named as "new-style theatre trend or"theatre"and"theatre hall". The words "garden" and "house" come from tea garden and teahouse. Therefore, some people also vividly say, "Opera is an art watered with tea juice in our country." In addition, since tea production, trade and consumption have become an important aspect of social production, social culture and social life, naturally, it is impossible not to be absorbed and reflected by drama. Therefore, many famous plays and dramas at all times and in all over the world not only have the contents and scenes of the tea affair, but also take the tea affair as the background and theme. For example, in the opening words of the traditional Chinese opera "The Story of the West Garden", there are "buy Lanling wine, cook Yangxian new tea", which leads the audience to a specific local style.

Drama category

Tea-picking Opera in Western and Northern Fujian

Tea Picking Opera is a kind of opera popular in Longyan, Ninghua, Qingliu, Changting, Liancheng and the luster, political harmony and general music of northern Fujian. According to the legend of the old artists, tea picking opera originated from Jiulong Mountain in southern Jiangxi Province. In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, tea songs, lantern dances and flower drums were popular in Jiulongshan. Tea farmers were singing and dancing all night long in celebration of the god's contest or harvest. Later, on the basis of tea songs, lantern dances and flower drums, the performances of Donghe Opera and Hui Opera were absorbed, and a kind of small drama was gradually formed. In the early stage, the content of opera mostly expressed folk life, generally only three or five roles. Since the late Qing Dynasty, tea-picking operas have developed rapidly and theatrical troupes have spread all over the country.

Longyan, Ninghua, Qingliu and Changting are located in the mountainous areas of Western Fujian, bordering on Southern Jiangxi, where people's living customs and languages are relatively close, so tea-picking operas soon spread in, blending with local folk operas, and become popular operas among the people. It is reported that during the reign of Kangxi and Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1662-1795), people in Ninghua Mountains decorated various lights and sang tea songs in small tunes in winter and spring. At that time, tea-picking operas in southern Jiangxi also came to perform, resulting in the phenomenon of "singing song and singing in the moon, and Heyi was crazy". According to Volume 1 of Ninghua County Chronicle compiled by Li Shixiong in the reign of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty (1662-1722), "There will be five decorative lantern operas to welcome God, boiling day and night." By the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, tea-picking operas not only prevailed in Ninghua, but also spread to Qingliu, Changting, Liancheng and other places. By the 1930s, tea-picking operas had sprung up in both urban and rural areas. At that time, tea-picking troupes in Fujian and Jiangxi often exchanged performances. Some Jiangxi teachers came to teach western Fujian operas. Many artists in Ninghua area also went to Gannan to perform in groups. Wen Zibiao, an old artist from Talc Wenfang in Ninghua County, once worked as an actor in a tea-picking troupe in southern Jiangxi Province. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, he returned home to teach operas.

In 1952, Zhongshan Township, Chengguan, Ninghua County, first organized amateur tea-picking theatre troupe. In 1956, Wenfang Tea Picking Theatre Garden was founded. In December 1957, Fujian Provincial Bureau of Culture compiled the List of Traditional Dramas of Fujian Opera, which included 44 tea-picking dramas, including "Lou Ma Qiao", "Meat Cutting Meter", "Hudu River", "Che Gong Zhuan" and so on. In 1987, there were 13 amateur tea-picking theatre troupes in the county.

According to the records of Longyan County Chronicle written by Kangxi in Qing Dynasty, Longyan Tea Picking Opera, also known as "Tea Lantern Opera", consists of two tea mothers, one Wu Xiaosheng and one clown, and eight tea aunts. The actress is played by men, mainly singing and dancing in small operas. Because of her "peace in the world" and "Fengdeng in five grains" in the rural performances, she is regarded as an auspicious play, which has spread to Yongding, Zhangping, Changting and other places. The tea-picking opera in Guangze County of northern Fujian, also known as "tea lantern opera", originated in Beixiang. During the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1736-1795), tea-picking tunes were widely spread in the county, with the tea-girl as the main character, tea basket in hand, flower-wrapped scarf on head, waist-tied apron, performing the action of tea-picking. In order to facilitate evening performances, after artists processing, the light-lit tea basket was changed.

The tea-picking opera in Yongding County was introduced from Jiaying and Dapu, Guangdong Province, according to the records of the 16th "Custom Records" in the Ten Years of Qingdaoguang (1830) of Yongding County Records. "Men dress up as women, in groups of three or five, singing earthen tunes and Hu strings, flowing in rural markets, local lights, playing skills all night." Often deported for being considered "obscene", the theatre troupe had to "avoid".

Tea-picking operas in Zhenghe County were introduced from Jiangxi in the middle of Qing Dynasty, and were mainly popular in Dongping, Sudi and other townships. The first month of each year is its main activity period, with few tunes, belonging to the high-pitched system, singing in "Tuguan dialect". In 1979, Sudi Tea Lantern Opera "The sole of the shoes" and other three plays participated in the first "Wuyi Spring" performance in Jianyang area, and received high praise.

The tea-picking opera in Jiangle County is also called "flower lantern opera" and "jump lantern". During the reign of Qingdaoguang (1821-1850), lantern opera artists from Changting County introduced it and became popular all over the country. Initially, once a ugly couple of songs and dances, and then continue to develop, sometimes there are seven or eight actors. In 1982, she rehearsed "Yang Bajie Youchun" and participated in the performance of Sanming District Literature and Art Festival, winning the performance award.

Tea Picking Opera is a kind of opera developed from folk songs and dances. Its repertoire mostly reflects people's life and has strong local color and human feelings. The content is mainly about stories reflecting love, joys and sorrows, ethics and retribution for good and evil between men and women. The language is vivid and simple. The singing is in Ninghua dialect. The lyrics are easy to understand. There are more than 100 traditional plays. The plays include Zhao Yulin, Qinglong Mountain, Sanjiafu, Cutting Meat, Selling Flowers, Jiulong Cup, Bus Gongzhuan, Talented Lang Chai Dian and Hu Jia. Biographies, etc. Small plays include "Ten Buys and Ten Belts", "Shuangfu Ship", "Supplementary Cylinder", "Wang Shiquan Fu", "Seeing Phantom", "Selling Groceries", "Huazhai", "Peony to Medicine" and so on.

The performance of Tea Picking Opera maintains the characteristics of tea song, lantern dance and flower drum singing and dancing. It is fresh, lively and beautiful. The role of tea picking theatre is relatively simple at the beginning, mostly once a lifetime or once an ugly pair of performances, and then gradually increased, in addition to Xiaosheng, Xiaodan, clown, there are Laosheng, Laodan, Huadan, Caidan, Dahua and so on, known as "octagonal head". Each character has certain acting actions and basic skills. Danjiao's basic footwork is broken steps, but there are speed, speed and thickness. The footwork of pupils and clowns includes high and low steps. Besides short steps, fans and handkerchiefs, the basic skills include playing umbrellas, benches, sticks and drums. Performing action virtual exaggeration, image fun, often using flower pads, umbrellas as props, through the male and female roles of dance and rap, showing a beautiful body and action.

Tea songs and minors are the main music of tea-picking operas. Men and women have the same tune and different tunes. Local "local mandarin" is used for singing. There are dozens of tunes. Each play uses one or two tunes, often named after the tune. Such as [Cailang set up shop], , , , [Wang Shiquan husband] and so on. Because of the speed of rhythm, it can be divided into many different types, such as "tight board", "slow board", "guide board", "loose board", "complaint board", "crying board", "flat board". In order to express people's emotional needs, it is often adapted according to the original pattern to create new tunes, or to connect several tunes to express the complex changes of people's emotions. Tea Picking Opera instruments are generally simple, accompanied by instruments such as Huqin, Erhu, three strings, flute, Haona, etc. Percussion instruments include drums, boards, gongs, gongs, cymbals, cymbals and so on.

Gannan Hakka Tea-picking Opera

Gannan tea-picking opera originated in Jiulongshan area of far county of Jiangxi and has a history of more than 300 years. It is based on the "Kowloon Tea Lamp", absorbing other folk arts in southern Jiangxi, and gradually formed. The epidemic areas are mainly southern Jiangxi, northern Guangdong and Western Fujian, and have also spread to southern Guangxi. It is one of the most representative tea-picking operas in Jiangxi.

Jiangxi opera theorist and opera historian Liusha once said that "Gannan is the home of tea-picking opera", and Gannan Hakka tea-picking opera is the native tea-picking opera in Gannan.

Tea-picking song is the embryo of tea-picking opera. Tea-picking songs are especially popular in southern Jiangxi mountainous areas. Its singing form is relatively simple. First, it is singing by one person without accompaniment. Later, it developed into a form of "December Tea-picking Song" with bamboo festival, which is the beginning of introducing tea-picking songs into courtyard room singing. During the Wanli period of Ming Dynasty, the people had entered the noble gentry's official residence to sing (see the six Xiong's genealogy "Biography of Mr. Xiong Tifu" in Yaling, Shicheng County). After the mid-Ming Dynasty, under the influence of folk lanterns and other artistic forms in southern Jiangxi, the "December Tea Picking Song" was further developed into a tea picking lamp with paper-tied tea basket, fan, handkerchief and other props, singing and dancing, also known as "Tea Basket Lamp" (see "Guangdong Xinyu" by Qu Dajun, the late Ming Dynasty student, and "Miscellaneous Records of Lingnan" by Wu Zhenfang during the reign of Kangxi).

After the mid-Ming Dynasty, tea-picking lanterns in Gannan and Guangdong Province had frequent exchanges. In the process of mutual exchanges, tea-picking in southern Jiangxi had gained new development. The former twelve tea-picking women and the first two men's team had changed their tea-picking lanterns to two women and one man, i.e. elder sister, second sister and tea boy. And the original "December Tea Picking Song" was changed into the form of sisters'duet singing, showing the joyous mood of picking tea on the mountain with a tea basket in hand and dancing while singing. Tea children not only use paper fans, but also play tricks to regulate the atmosphere. In this way, the first primitive traditional drama of Gannan Hakka tea picking opera, Sister tea picking, was formed. Later, on the basis of the tea-picking lamp, a small play "Bench Dragon" was created, which imitated a bench as a dragon lantern. It was played by Erdan Yi ugly, Erdan was a big sister, Erdan was a second sister, and it was called Sanlangzi ugly. These two operas are called the earliest and oldest tea-picking operas.

The spread of Hakka tea-picking opera in southern Jiangxi: The opera records of Ganzhou area show that after the birth of the tea-picking opera in southern Jiangxi province, besides being widely spread in Jiangxi province, it also moved to Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Guangxi and other provinces successively. Its routes are as follows: 1. Since the introduction of southern Jiangxi into western Fujian, it has been divided into two branches: one is spread along Wuyi Mountain to Eastern Jiangxi, central Jiangxi and Northern Jiangxi, and even across the Yangtze River to Huangmei in Hubei; the other is spread to Zhangzhou and to Taiwan, which has become the basic factor for the formation of Gezi Opera. 2. The Zigong River flows into Wan'an and Suichuan in the middle and lower reaches of Ganjiang River, and then flows along the Luoxiao Mountains to Western Jiangxi and central Hunan. 3. It was introduced into southern Hunan and southern Guangxi through Eastern Guangdong and Northern Guangdong.

The "three sons" of Gannan tea-picking opera also aroused great interest in Taiwan. The "step" in the "three sons" is the short step. Hakka people living in the mountains have to bend down to climb the mountains when they go out. The dwarf step created by them has become the basic dance step of the unique tea-picking opera in the world. The "sleeve" in the "three sons" is a single left sleeve in the performance costume. The movements of throwing up, throwing down, wrapping around the waist and bending knees of the sleeve have become a doom in the domestic art. There is also a fan among the "three sons". Zeng Qingchi said wittily, "Fan is a fixed prop of tea-picking opera. If you don't have a fan in the performance, it will be as indispensable as if you don't have chopsticks when you eat. As many as dozens of fan movements, with a strong performance of the South Jiangxi Tea Picking Opera another stunt.

"Sister Picking Tea" of Gannan Tea Picking Opera spread to Wuning, Jingdezhen and Huangmei of Hubei, called "Gu Sister Picking Tea" or "Monk Hoeing Tea"; it was called "Sending Brothers to Sell Tea" after it came to Hepu of Guangxi. "Bench Dragon" was spread to Eastern Jiangxi, later called "Three Sisters Viewing Lanterns" or "Three Dwarfs Viewing Lanterns" in central Jiangxi, while it was still called "Bench Dragon" in Yunnan, Guangxi. There are also such dramas as "leather shoes", "porcelain bowl", "fungus collection", "snail collection", "digging bamboo shoots", "selling money", "selling vegetables", "paper flowers", "blind clothes cutting", "blind shop", "bronze mirror grinding", "cotton pants", "doctor persuasion", "little persuasion husband", "four sisters'rebellion", "grocery sales" and so on, which have become popular with local customs and customs. Some of them have become local traditional dramas.

Tea-picking Opera in Northern Guangdong

(1)     The curtain of history. Tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong used to be called flower lanterns, flower drums, tea-picking operas, big tea or tripod classes. It is a local folk opera originating from the festival lights, colorful songs and dances in the northern mountainous areas of Guangdong Province. Taking Shaoguan City as the center, it is mainly popular in Nanxiong, Shixing, Qujiang District, Renhua, Lechang, Ruyuan, Wengyuan, Xinfeng, Lianping, Heyuan, Meixian District, Wuhua, Xingning, Dapu, Fogang, Qingyuan, Yingde, Lianxian, Liannan Lianshan and other districts and counties in northern Guangdong. After 1950, Nanxiong Lantern, Shaonan Dacha and Lianyang Tune gradually blended and merged. In 1959, they were unified as northern Guangdong Tea Picking Opera.

The formation and development of tea-picking opera in northern Guangdong has a history of more than 200 years. According to Li Tiaoyuan (notes from South Vietnam) during the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, he said, "The common age of Guangdong is Zhengyuan, adorned with children as picking girls. Twelve members of the team hold baskets. A treasure lamp is burned in the basket, covered with silk yarn, bound by silk, stepping on songs, and picking tea in December." Qing Dynasty dry,

During the Carnival period, tea picking was popular in northern and northeastern Guangdong. The prefectural and county chronicles and literati writings mostly included such descriptions as "singing tea picking songs", "singing tea picking in December", "tea picking songs are especially beautiful". Rural artists organize tune classes, lantern classes, large tea classes, and plot the ground for performances by a man, a woman or a man and two women. They dance with fans or towels while singing folk minors, commonly known as singing lanterns and flower drums. Later, artists used the melody of Lantern singing and dancing to sing the story of labor, production and love and marriage, such as "carving", "couple picking tea", etc., in the performance of the formation of fan flowers, short steps, hanging horses as the main characteristics of the program action, then people call it "tripod class", "tea picking opera". According to the investigation, the Qing Dynasty had the tune classes of He Jia Zi Tang in Lian County, Lixi Lantern Class in Nanxiong County, and Lao Yue Qunying and Yue Qunying Tea Class in Qujiang County. In the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong gradually took shape.

From the countryside to the cities and towns outside the province, some operas from the province and other provinces often come to perform in these mountainous counties. Through exchanges with some operas from Jiangxi and Hunan, the music and performance of tea-picking operas have been enriched. On the basis of the original two small plays and three small plays, the plots of the characters such as Hu Ping Jiu, Jiu Lian Bao Deng and Ba Bao Shan have been successively compiled. Costume drama. Later, more than 150 popular dramas were discovered, such as "Chai Tou Cu Lu Ji", "Milling Tofu", "Double Matches", "Grocery Sale", "Dog Suggestion" and "A San Watch Sister", and a small number of mythological and public drama. There were more than 30 professional theatre troupes and more than 200 professional artists in the most prosperous tea-picking theatre in northern Guangdong. Among them, Liu Jizeng, Shen Song, Pan Jinfeng, Liu Ronghua, Zhong Nanshi, Tang Renxi and Xie Qichi enjoyed a reputation. After 32 years (1943) of the Republic of China, tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong declined gradually due to the turmoil of war. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, due to the attention of the Party and the government, the Northern Guangdong Folk Art Troupe was established in 1957 and renamed the Northern Guangdong Tea Picking Troupe in 1959. At the same time, Qujiang, Wengyuan, Nanxiong, Lianxian and other counties have also established professional tea-picking troupes. These theatre troupes collect and organize the traditional art of tea-picking theatre in northern Guangdong. They have more than 200 traditional operas and more than 200 musical tunes. At the same time, they organize training courses for actors to carry out research and innovation of traditional art. In the 1950s and 1960s, the performances of tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong were quite rich. Some of them were traditional operas with opera characteristics, such as "Mending Shoes", "Dressing Thrushes", "Wang Sandao Birds", "Sentry Girl", "Fishing clams", "Borrowing Matches" and so on. The other part was transplanted and adapted for the purpose of expanding the artistic expressiveness of the operas, such as "Cowherd and Weaver Girl". "Liu Sanjie", "Red Leaf Poems" and so on; there are also some modern plays reflecting real life, such as "Liu Jiemei", "Manaoshan", "Xuebang Hate" and so on. Through various artistic practices, the traditional art has been seriously inherited and innovated, and the advantages of other operas and dramas have been extensively used for reference. The art of tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong has been improved in an all-round way. Luo Fabin, He Yaozhu, He Shengxiang, Xie Fusheng and so on have become popular actors in this period. In 1966, tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong stopped performing because of the "Cultural Revolution" and did not carry out normal performances, research and innovative activities until 1976. After the 1980s, a number of plays performed through creation, adaptation and arrangement, such as "Daughter to College", "Satisfying Flowers", "A Sanxi Gong Ye", "Life Road", "Qingfeng Mountain Legend" and so on, have been welcomed by the broad audience, and won many awards in Guangdong Province. A number of outstanding young and middle-aged actors such as Wu Yancheng, Chen Lianfeng and Lan Xinglang also emerged on the stage.

During the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, tea-picking operas in northern Guangdong were introduced into Nanxiong from Nankang, Xinfeng and Longnan. The music singing was composed of tea-picking lanterns in southern Jiangxi and Nanxiong folk music. In the early stage, there were fewer roles in the opera. The three actors, Sheng, Dan and Ugly, served as actors, were accompanied by Hu Qin, one side of gongs and drums, and five people could perform. Tea-picking operas use fanning flowers in performing arts, that is, the right hand of men and women are all holding colored silk fans, as props, using fans in different positions, such as high, low, left, right, front, back, positive and negative. Short steps are used in stage performances. Short steps are used in stage performances according to the evolution of the movement of the working people to go up and down hills and pick tea (known as "shrimp back" and "old crab step" by the masses). Among the old artists, there are such traditional movements as "Xianggong Back Umbrella", "Lazy People Bearing Fans", "Crow Down Wing", "Black Cloud Covering Moon", "Beauty of Phoenix", "Lion Rolling Ball" and "Crow Playing Water". The aria is interspersed with three-character tunes: "Ai Ke Yo", "Na Ha Ke", "Yi Du (Ya Du) Feed", "Yi (Ya Yi) Zi Yo", "Li" and so on. They generally appear at the end of the phrase or the aria, and have a downward slide. The performance is mainly in local languages.

During the period of the Republic of China, Nanxiong tea-picking opera was called "pornographic opera" because of some obscene programs and actions. The County town was only allowed to perform on a small empty plain in front of the "Wanli Yiqing" archway. Later, it was gradually allowed to perform in Shangwumiao (now eight elementary schools). Rural ancestral halls and polders arenas are generally not allowed to perform, often in Barnyard performances. Most of the performers come from the performing teams in the counties of southern Jiangxi, and all the members of the troupes are composed of men.

In the early days of the founding of New China, amateur theatre troupes in villages and towns performed traditional dramas such as "Girls", "Fishing", "Double Matches", "Furnishing Shoes", "Furnishing Porcelain Cylinder". 1957. Chengguan Town Propaganda Team "Girls" won an excellent award for participating in the provincial amateur literary and art festival. On New Year's Day, 1955, Nanxiong held its first folk art show. On July 1, 1958, Nanxiong Tea Picking Troupe was set up. It was arranged, transplanted and created and staged Dragon Boat Race, Bird Striking, Leather-mending Shoes, White Snake Biography, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, Mountain Country Wind and Cloud, President's Daughter, Yixinxiang Society, Sentinel under Neon Light, Spring Sister-in-law, Satisfaction Flower, Tian Lao Han Bull Selling Cattle, Yue Watching Yue Yue Yue Yue Ai. Look at more than 200 ancient and modern dramas, such as "Wedding Surprise", "Matchmaker Married Daughter", "Rain and Wind" and "La Bian Shan". The more you watch, the more you love to watch (author: Hua Yunjie, intermediate director: Liu Weidong, director: Zhong Yuhua, assistant librarian) participated in the provincial professional performance of literature and art in 1981 and won the second prize of creation and performance. "Chasing a Car" (director Zhu Shuzhen) won the gold medal of the 3rd Guangdong Mass Drama Flower Festival in 1999. In 2001, he won the gold medal of the 11th National Star Award and was selected to be presented in Beijing. "La Bian Shan" won the Silver Award and Organizational Award in December 2002 when it participated in the Fourth Mass Drama Flower Festival in Guangdong Province. Liao Yuemei won the Excellent Actor Award and Li Guangli won the Silver Award for her works.

Gao'an Tea Picking Opera

Gao'an, formerly known as "Jiangyou Shangxian", has a profound cultural accumulation, while Gao'an Tea Picking Opera is an old wine bred by the industrious and wise people in this ancient land, which emits intoxicating mellow fragrance. Gao'an farmers either in silkworm cultivation, or in the harvest festival, have a feeling and say a word, one person calls, the crowd and, the orchestra, cymbals, pheasant heads, gather and enjoy, so an ancient drama was born in the farmers'inadvertent playfulness.

Looking at the picture scroll of the formation and development of Gao'an tea-picking opera, the most exciting part is the part since the founding of the People's Republic. After hundreds of years of deductive development, Gao'an tea-picking opera has formed the artistic characteristics of popular and plain language, simple and graceful singing, and harmonious performance style. Wild music, once denounced as "good etiquette and custom", has entered the hall of art and elegance, and has become one of the four major local operas with considerable influence in Jiangxi. Up to now, many county and city theatre troupes in central and Western Jiangxi have performed Gao'an tea picking opera.

Gao'an Tea Picking Troupe has carried out the "two-for-one" direction and the "two hundred" policy, creating brilliant successes with strong vitality. In 1959, the troupe performed The Ninth Watching Girls for Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De and Deng Xiaoping at the Eighth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Lushan Party. In October of that year, 15 actors were transferred from Gao'an local theatre troupe to set up Yichun local theatre troupe. In the mid-1960s, Gao'an Tea Picking Opera entered Beijing again, and Huairen Tang in Zhongnanhai performed "Small Custody" for the central leadership, causing a sensation. Then the play won a nationwide acclaim and was shot by Shanghai Tianma Film Studio and released as a stage art film. Gao'an Tea Picking Opera has entered the period of reform and opening up, which not only pays attention to carrying forward the main theme of the times, but also retains the excellent traditional culture, fully demonstrating the rich cultural atmosphere of Ganzhong. Ge Cai and Gao Cai devote themselves to the exploration of the connotation of drama and the innovation of its expressive techniques. They have entered a mature stage in editing, directing, acting, music, dancing and other aspects. In 1979, the opera group Sun Cheng Da Jiu went to Beijing to participate in the performance of the 30th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic and won the first prize. Later, "Lang Dangsuo", "Zhangshu'ao Style", "As long as you live better than me", "Broken Chicken" and other plays won the first prize in all previous Jiangxi Yumiaohua Drama Festivals, and "Family", "Rural Tide" and "Cold Confucian Seeking Supervisor" also won good results. "Cold Confucian Inquisition for Imprisonment" and "Broken Chicken" also won the second and third prizes of "Tianhan Drama Award" in East China. In 1991, Gao'an Tea Picking Troupe was transferred to Beijing to participate in the first "China National Culture Exposition" and won the "Special Prize for Rare Opera Performance". Shortly after, Sun Chengda Wine, produced by Gao'an Tea Picking Theatre Troupe and Jiangxi TV Station, won the second prize of the 8th National Opera and TV Drama Criticism Competition and the second prize of the 14th National "Flying Sky Award" Short Opera and TV Drama (the first prize vacancy). CCTV and Jiangxi TV then moved Gao'an Tea Picking Troupe's "Pumpkin Story", "Broken Chicken", "49 Sisters Watching" and "Tour Lake" onto the screen, making stage art films and feature films to broadcast nationwide. It is particularly worth mentioning that in 1995, the large-scale Gao'an tea-picking opera "Muxiang Mayor" created and performed by Yichun Tea-picking Opera Troupe won the first prize for the repertoire of the 4th Jiangxi Yuminghua Drama Festival, as well as the first prize for the compiler, director and director, followed by the excellent performance prize for "National Modern Opera Exchange Performance", the "Five-One Project Prize for the Central Propaganda Department" and the "Wenhua New Drama Prize" for the Ministry of Culture. In addition to compiling, directing and directing a single "Wenhua Award", the script won the "Cao Yu Drama Literature Award" and participated in the performance of the Fifth China Art Festival in Chengdu, Sichuan.

Gao'an Tea Picking Opera is full of talent. Over the past 50 years, this red land has not only assembled and created several representative performing artists, such as Guotai, Lihua Ying, Luo Yuncai, Wu Qiduo, Peng Jinhua, Liu Runan, Huang Yinquan, Peng Jincheng, but also trained Huangkai, Ma Zhengtai, Painting Biography, Hu Jugen, Zhao Rixiang, Liu Mintao and other famous composers. Their excellent performing arts and creative skills have always been the favorite of the old composers in Ganzhong. Avenue.

Fuzhou Tea Picking Opera

The old name is "tripod class" and "half class". At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, many people migrated in Fuzhou counties after years of famine. Some refugees made a living by selling art. They combined the popular folk tunes with the performance forms of lighting, and began to break away from lighting performances, forming an independent "three-legged class", which produced a number of single-stage and monotonous performances. Its birthplace is the border area of Yihuang, Linchuan, Chongren and Le'an. Yihuang Opera, which has long been popular in this area, provides learning and reference conditions for the emergence and development of the "three-legged class" in Fuzhou.

In the early days of Fuzhou "Sanjiao Ban" only once it was ugly, plus a "sitting hall" (gong and drummer), singing a single opera and small opera. It was only during the reign of Kangxi and Qianlong that the business of primary school students was increased. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, the "three-legged class" began to transit to the "half-class". The number of people increased from three to seven or eight, and the number of colorful faces and old-fashioned professions was increased. The life of the three-legged class was complete, and the accompaniment instruments also increased Erhu, Sanxian, flute, Suona and so on. In 1934, Zhang Youmin, a famous tea-picking artist in Chongren County, set up the first professional half-class "Youmin Hall" of Fuzhou tea-picking opera. Later, vocational half-classes were established one after another. Some old performers of Fuzhou puppet opera also joined the "half-class" performance, and brought a large number of repertoires, accompaniment cards and some singing tunes into the tea-picking opera. After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan, Fengcheng and Gao'an silk string troupes entered Fuzhou and joined with Fuzhou's "half-class" artists, bringing new tunes such as "original tune" and "small flower tune" to tea-picking operas, which were combined with local monotony and Huitian tune and developed into Fuzhou's "original tune" and "caressing tune" respectively.

Fuzhou tea-picking opera is native, healthy and plain, with strong local feelings; lyrics and pronunciation, a large number of use of folk sayings and allegorical sayings, easy to understand, with a strong local style and flavor of life.

Most of the singing tunes of Fuzhou Tea Picking Opera come from folk tunes, which have distinct local color. Its traditional aria is a special type of tune, and after development and innovation, a large number of arias have appeared. Its lexical form is usually five-character, seven-character or cross-sentence. The melody is characterized by many words and few tunes, concise and lively. The line tune of each aria is closely combined with the tone of the local language. It is like singing and telling, and has the style of rap music. The singing tune of Fuzhou Tea Picking Opera is based on pure Fuzhou dialect. When singing, both male and female voices use the original noise, especially the clear pronunciation and smooth operation of the voice. Overall singing can be divided into three categories: opera tune, opera miscellaneous tune and folk song minor tune.

The main tune of the opera is the body tune of the tune. There are four tunes: the original tune, the caress tune, the single tune and the Sichuan tune. This tune is developed by absorbing the original tune of Fengcheng Silk String Band and blending with local single tune. It is a symbolic aria with the structure of upper and lower sentences. It is divided into male and female voices. It has a formal (also known as "long rhyme"), simple board, laminated board, allegro, inverted board, rocking board, loose board, clear board, crying head and so on. The conciliation is developed from the local club mother tone mixed with the floral tone of Gao'an Silk String Class. It is a palace tune with the structure of upper and lower sentences. It has the distinction between male, female and ugly tunes. It has rich slate style, just like the original tune. Single tune is the oldest type of singing in the opera, regardless of male and female tunes, but there are four lines of three and two rhymes, the difference between sine (symbolic mode) and anti-sine (palace mode), as well as simplicity. Sichuan Dialogue is developed from a simple mix of foreign Sichuan Dialogue and single-channel Dialogue and double-channel Dialogue. It has a slight distinction between male and female tones. It has two kinds of receptive methods: levy mode and palace mode. It also has two kinds of simple boards: levy mode and feather mode.

Opera miscellaneous Tunes - mainly the tunes in Sanjiaoban operas, are generally called opera names, such as "Sanjianzi cattle tune", "picking up spring mushroom tune", "selling cherry tune", "selling flower line tune", "double persuasion tune", "downward Nanjing tune", "Wang Mu cursing chicken tune", "back-filling tune" and so on. Another part is the "Southern Ci", "Northern Ci", "Xin Diao" and so on, which were absorbed by Sanjiaoban later period. In addition, there are some intonations.

Folk song minors - in addition to some minors used in a single opera, such as "Several World Maps", "Dali Lotus Flower", "Wanlang", "Painting" and so on, there are also "Tea Picking in December", "Copper Qian Song", "Ten Cups of Wine", "Zhaohuatai" and so on. It is usually used as an interlude in a play.

Fuzhou Tea-picking Opera is born out of Lantern singing and dancing, so it is good at reflecting the little people in short dresses and skirts. Its artistic features are: rich local color; vivid and humorous language, easy to understand; simple singing, singing and dancing, lively and interesting. Its performance originates from life but is higher than life. Especially the fan skill of the clown, the clown's short step and Xiaodan's handkerchief skill are extracted from life. They have both simple folk art charm and distinct performance characteristics. Such as the clown's short steps, humorous and interesting movements, vivid images, and many changes, such as "monkey boxing steps", "clam jumping", "wading steps", "cock pecking rice", "monkey jumping circles", "lazy cat scratching itch" and so on. Another example is Xiaodan's hand work, which uses a big handkerchief to cooperate with hand, eye and body steps, or rubbing, or throwing, or hiding, or flying, to express the character and thoughts and emotions of the characters. Another example is the fan work of Xiaosheng (clown). It can play with one hand and both hands and shoulders. Sometimes it turns around the fingers. Sometimes it throws in the air, opens and closes left and right, flies up and down, and is rich and colorful.

Many performances and dances of Fuzhou Tea Picking Opera, such as Xiaodan's dressing curtain, bed front mosquito, embroidery bottom, sewing, paste washing, picking tea and mulberry, opening (closing) doors, cloud hand, kite turning over, clown's shouldering and grinding, cattle driving and hoeing, pushing boats and other body parts are very detailed and realistic. In the triangle troupe drama, the above characteristics are particularly prominent. After the development of "Half Class" to perform the grand opera, learn from the ancient opera gown with opera performance procedures, but also absorb the nutrients of opera, so that it can perform both traditional opera and modern life.

Fuzhou Tea Picking Opera pays attention to both singing and acting. Coordination of gestures, eyes, stature and footwork. Danjiao's Basic Footwork includes "cloud step", "broken step", "stand step", "kneeling step", "pacing" and "small step". Raw horn includes "square step", "pacing", "kneeling step" and "fast pacing". Clown has "short step", "jumping step" and so on. In addition to dwarfs, clowns sometimes perform bench work, tiger jump, front servant and other rollover movements. Sometimes, Sheng and Dan also perform carpet skills such as "robbing the back", "splitting the fork", "lying in the clouds" and "Oolong winch column".

The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, tea-picking operas were approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.

Qimen Tea Picking Opera

Qimen tea-picking opera originated from Jiangxi. In the early Qing Dynasty, some people surnamed Chen moved to Kengkou, Qimen County, Jiangxi Province, bringing a drama called Raohe Diao, also known as "Jiangxi Diao". The melody was lively and simple to play. It soon spread to Shinli, Likou, Qihong, Qiling and other places, and gradually formed a new kind of drama, Qimen Tea Picking Opera. Tea-picking operas are rich in tunes, including "Xipi", "Suonapi", "Sanfan", "Fan Erfan", "Puzi", "Qinqiang", "Gao Erfan", "Wenci", "Southern Ci", "Northern Ci" and "Huadiao".

Qimen Tea-picking Opera is a local opera of Qimen County, Anhui Province, the hometown of world famous tea Qihong, which coexists with tea and plays for tea. It is an important part of the vast and profound treasure house of tea culture in China. Its main features are: Tea Man, Tea Man Performing; Tea Man Performing, Tea Event Performing; Tea Mountain Singing, Tea Village Performing; Heavy dialect, strong tea flavor.

Qimen County is located at the junction of Anhui and Jiangxi. It has a long history of tea production. As early as the Tang Dynasty, Qimen people's tea has been recorded. However, the birth of Qimen tea-picking opera was not later than the success of Qihong in the late Qing Dynasty. Because Qimen people were sparsely populated in remote areas at that time, and Qihong production process was complicated and the amount of work was large, a large number of tea-picking and tea-making workers were urgently needed. Therefore, the farmers in Fuliang, Jiangxi Province and Anqing, Anhui Province, came down to Qimen from the north to the south one after another. Women gathered men's system, followed the custom in their native places, lived happily and worked together to promote tea. "Jiangxi Tea Picking Opera" and "Anqing Huangmei Opera" are two kinds of opera factors, which are also introduced into Qimen, and they are merged with Qimen's ancient folk operas (such as Mulian Opera, Nuo Opera, etc.) to form a brand-new local opera. Qimen Tea Picking Opera came into being at the historic moment.

Qimen Tea-picking Opera is rich in tunes, including Xipi, Erfan, Gao Erfan, Fan Erfan, Puzi, Qin Opera, Suonapi, Wenci, Nanci, Beici and Huadiao. At first, Qimen Tea Picking Opera performed in the form of solfeggio. It could be sung anywhere, whether in tea hills or in rural areas or even in ancient ancestral halls and stage. It was in the early years of the Republic of China that theatrical performances were performed on the stage. At that time, Qimen tea-picking opera had been quite popular, and there were records of "seven days and seven nights in succession" in the historical books. According to local tea culture data, on the eve of liberation, "there were 12 major operas and 46 minor operas in traditional tea-picking operas staged in Qimen". The most representative tea picking dramas in Qimen include "Tea Picking", "Hailao Three Teas", "Qimen Black Tea", "The Number of Black Tea under Heaven" and "Tea House Is My Home". Especially, the six-act Qimen tea picking drama "The Number of Black Tea under Heaven" deserves special mention, because the original scriptwriter of this tea picking drama originated in 1937 was precisely from the North of the Republic of China. Mr. Hu Haochuan, the director of Qimen Tea Improvement Farm, founded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce of the Beijing Government in 1915, is a famous tea expert. This six-act tea-picking opera, with its carrier, is a detailed interpretation of the whole process of Qimen famous tea picking from fresh leaf picking to primary production and then to refinement. After its performance at the celebration party celebrating the liberation of Qimen, the response is quite strong. Another Qimen tea-picking opera, named Hailao Three Teas, is recorded in the history of Qimen tea-picking opera for its characteristics of singing in Qimen dialect and Taobai.

Qimen Tea Picking Opera, as a precious tea cultural heritage in Qimen Tea Township, has been well protected and developed. The newly compiled Qimen Tea Picking Opera has been constantly emerging, and has won many awards in the literary and artistic performances of the county, the whole region and the whole province. When guests at home and abroad talk about Qimen, they can not only mention "Qihong" famous tea, but also "Qimen Tea Picking Opera", because it is another wonderful tea culture which is popular among tea people and is full of tea fragrance.

Jinyun Tea Picking Opera

Tea-picking opera has a long history and wide distribution in Jinyun. Jinyun County Chronicle of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty contains: "On Lantern Festival, lanterns burst with fireworks, including Qiaolong lanterns, Bulong lanterns, tea-picking lanterns, bamboo horse lanterns, desk and pavilion lanterns..." It shows that Jinyun Tea Picking Opera was very popular in Qing Dynasty. According to the non-legacy census, tea-picking opera performances are still popular in Jinyun countryside. In the old days, each village had its own set of local rules and regulations for choosing tea-picking opera actors, rehearsing plays and performing procedures.

There are two villages in Xinbi Xiaoxi, each of which has its own tea-picking troupe, which is stipulated every four years. Since November of last year, the chief director has chosen actors from boys aged 11 to 14 in the village. The parents of the participants have to pay more than ten kilograms of rice for their children's dinner during the school play. After one performance, because of their age, they are not suitable to perform on stage. Most of them turn to bands or choose their best teachers as their next teachers, but the short-statured ones are not limited to this, they can continue for one more time.

New Zhenlikeng Village is more solemn in selecting actors. Every year before New Year's Eve, the village leaders gather to select "octagonal disciples" and mark them as actors with red paper stalks. They stick their heads to the doorway of the candidate's house, commonly known as "sticking lights". It is no wonder that one of them is elected and the whole family is honored.

The mountain village is more unique. All successful actors must first go to Benbao Hall to worship Bodhisattvas and eat "wooden bread" together in front of the Buddha statue. "Wood noodles" in Jinyun folk called thick-skinned, meaning that after eating "wood noodles cake", in the performance will not be shy, stage fright. At the same time, worship Buddha and eat cake also contain the meaning of oath. "If you eat wooden flour cake, you can't get out of the hall." You have to start and finish, and you can't quit halfway.

Tea-picking performances are closely related to the annual Lantern Festival activities. Whenever you start to learn opera, you have to have a rehearsal, commonly known as "out of the red stage", before you can perform formally. The fifteenth day of the first lunar month is the "sunshine" of the Lantern Festival, thirteen "lights up" and seventeen "full lights". Within these five days, Yinglong lanterns, lanterns, pavilions, horse racing, etc. make a scene of Lantern Festival, and tea-picking plays will also be performed for three to five nights.

Xiaoxi Village Tea Picking Tea Tea Troupe should wear theatrical costume on the day of "going out of Hongtai", first go to the "Yonggong Temple" of Benbao Hall to worship; on the thirteenth day of the first lunar month when "lighting up" and "Bulong" are on tour in the main streets and alleys, each encounter stage and ancestral hall hall to perform; on the fifteenth day, after attending the opening ceremony of the giant plate dragon head of the seventy-two bars, the two troupes try their best to perform in front of the stage at that time; when the cannon sound The audience decides how much to win or lose. Every year on the seventh day of the seventh month of the seventh lunar month, Xiaoxi Tea Picking Tea

From the evening of the Lantern Festival, Likeng Village Tea Picking Tea Troupe has followed the "steel fork" and "flower lantern troupe" on a tour throughout the village, crossing doors, and performing in every hall. When the Gong of the ancestral hall opened, it was almost midnight, and the villagers were still enjoying themselves.

Tea-picking Opera in Southern Guizhou

One of the traditional operas in Guangxi. In the late Ming Dynasty (around 1628 A.D.), tea-picking operas in southern Guizhou were introduced from southern Jiangxi to Bobai, and developed from singing bamboo horses to singing and dancing tea-picking operas. According to the characteristics of the lining, it is also called "Du Ya". It is widely spread in 33 townships and their surrounding areas under the jurisdiction of Bobai County, Yulin City, southern Guangxi, as well as parts of adjacent Qinzhou City. After the introduction of Bobai, it formed its unique style in the Qing Dynasty. During the period of the Republic of China, it gradually developed and became a unique opera in the history of Chinese opera.

basic content

Tea-picking opera in southern Guizhou belongs to folk opera. The actors are Xiaosheng, Xiaodan and clown. Therefore, it is also called "three small operas" or "triangle class". As far as the organizational scale of performance teams is concerned, they are small teams, small programs and small props, which is another meaning of "three small plays". The main content of the performance is "Tea Picking in December". The general sequence of performances is as follows: (1) Opening tea (also known as "Congratulations Tea" or "Visiting Tea"), i.e. congratulations to the performers and the audience at the beginning of the performance. (2) Opening up wasteland and ordering tea. Third, explore the tea. (4) picking tea. A man and two women pick tea and sing and dance. Stir fry tea. Selling tea. The whole process of singing and dancing is the whole process of tea planting, which reflects the working people's great enthusiasm for labor and the joy of harvest.

basic feature

The local flavor is strong, and the masses like it. Tea Picking Opera in southern Guizhou belongs to folk opera. It is native and sings in local language (Hakka dialect). It is easy to understand and popularize. (2) The performance team is sharp and flexible. The number of team members is 5-7, generally no more than 10 people, trailers, small programs, not subject to venue restrictions, easy to perform. (3) The performance is unique, singing and dancing. Singing, reciting, doing and dancing are four functions, focusing on singing and dancing. Most of the recitations are rhyme or parallel prose. The performance atmosphere is warm and the theatre effect is good. (4) The lining words have different flavor. They are often used as "Yudu Ya" and "Yudu Ya". The audience is deeply affectionate and widely singing. Therefore, "Yudu Ya" has become another "common name" of tea picking in southern Guizhou. Qupai has a large capacity. Tea-picking episode cards are relatively rich. Folk artists have constantly absorbed folk tunes, folk songs, brotherly operas and music in their long-term performance practice, which has diversity.

Main value

(1) Academic value. In Chinese local drama, the rich content and basic characteristics of tea-picking opera in southern Guizhou, and its inheritance history, are in other parts of China.

Fang's plays are unique. To excavate, rescue, protect and inherit the tea-picking opera in southern Guizhou will play a certain role in enriching and improving the history of Chinese opera and even the history of world opera. (2) Practical value. To excavate, rescue, protect and inherit the tea-picking opera in southern Guangxi will play an important role in promoting the construction of spiritual civilization in southern Guizhou and even in the whole country, enriching the cultural life of the people, enjoying teaching and entertaining, imperceptibly influencing, improving the quality of the people, promoting their all-round development and building a harmonious socialist society.

historical origin

At the end of Ming Dynasty (around 1628 A.D.), Tea Picking Opera in southern Jiangxi was introduced into Bobai. It developed from singing bamboo horses to singing and dancing tea picking operas. According to the characteristics of the lining words, it was also called "Hu Du Ya". The Qing Dynasty had formed a unique performance style and gradually developed into an independent opera in the Republic of China. After liberation, tea-picking operas circulated around Qinzhou, western Guangdong Province, were called "Hepu Tea-picking" and "Yulin Tea-picking" popular among the five genera of Yulin in Guangxi. After Qinzhou was assigned to Guangxi, they were merged and officially named "Southern Guizhou Tea-picking" as well as "Northern Guizhou Colour Diao", which was called sister art. Under the guidance of the "double hundred" policy, tea-picking operas in southern Guizhou have developed vigorously. Tea-picking operas in Bobai County have been widely popularized, and more than 300 theatre troupes (teams) have been set up successively. In 1978, the Tea-picking Opera Art Research Group, a research institution specializing in tea-picking opera, was established. In 1982, with the approval of the Cultural Department of the Autonomous Region, the former county professional performing group cultural troupe was renamed as the Bobai County Tea Picking Theatre Troupe.