Zhongshan Memorial Hall is located in Dongfeng Middle Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province. It was built by the people of Guangzhou and overseas Chinese to commemorate Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
The Zhongshan Memorial Hall began construction in January 1929 and was completed in November 1931. In 1956, a 5-meter-high bronze statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen stood in front of the memorial hall. In 1963, a large-scale renovation of the memorial hall was carried out. The roofs were all made of blue glazed tiles. Iron fences were built around more than 60,000 square meters of parks, and many trees and flowers were planted in the park.
Guangzhou Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagonal building with solemn and grand shape and strong national characteristics. The designer skillfully applied the structural principle of architectural mechanics, using a steel frame and reinforced concrete composite structure, with a span of 71 meters without a column in the building space.
Guangzhou Zhongshan Memorial Hall is a key cultural relic protection unit in Guangdong Province and the whole country. It is a memorial building funded by the people of Guangzhou and overseas Chinese to commemorate Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the pioneer of the great democratic revolution. It was designed by Mr. Lu Yanzhi, a famous architect in China. It is a national AAAA-level tourist attraction.
The Memorial Hall of Sun Yat-sen was originally the presidential palace of Sun Yat-sen when he was a very large president in 1921, and was flattened by artillery fire during Chen Jingming's rebellion in 1922. It was organized by Li Jishen in 1928 and started construction in January 1929. It was financially supported by Chen Jitang. It was finally completed in October 1931. The overall layout was designed by famous architect Lu Yanzhi, who combined the traditional palace style with modern western graphic design techniques. The building area is 3700 square meters, 49 meters high, surrounded by four double eaves Xieshan Bay buildings, arch support center octagonal cushion type giant roof. The white granite is the base and steps, the light blue marble is the skirt, the cream yellow veneer brick is the wall body, the purple red water mill pillar is covered with the blue glazed tile top, cascade and roll, appears particularly graceful and magnificent. Sun Yat-sen's four big characters of "the world is public" hang high on the plaque under the front eaves. They are vigorous and powerful.
Guangzhou Zhongshan Memorial Hall is one of the most beautiful buildings in Guangzhou, and also an important place for large-scale gatherings and performances in Guangzhou. It witnessed many historic events in Guangzhou: in 1936, people from all walks of life in Guangzhou held a big anti-smoking parade here; in September 1945, after the Japanese invading army stationed in Guangzhou signed and put into operation here, various activities in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, important gatherings in provinces and municipalities, and literary and artistic performances were held here every year, such as the Million Banks of Education Fund, Guangzhou International Collective Wedding and Mao Memorial. The 100th anniversary of Zedong's birth, the 60th anniversary of the Long March of the Red Army, the 50th anniversary of the victory of the Anti-Japanese War and the world anti-fascist war, etc.
On the eve of liberation, the memorial hall was seriously damaged because of its disrepair. After liberation, the people's government allocated special funds seven times from the early 1950s to 1988 to repair and improve various facilities. In 1998, another 60 million yuan was allocated for a comprehensive overhaul of the memorial hall. Central air-conditioning, lighting, sound and seats were replaced. The VIP rooms, dressing rooms and stage were revamped. Fire sprinkler systems and security monitoring systems were added. The statue of Zhongshan in front of the memorial hall was cast with copper, and the square and environment were further beautified.
The Zhongshan Memorial Hall in Guangzhou was built by the people of Guangzhou and overseas Chinese to commemorate Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Construction started in January 1929 and completed in November 1931. This is the former site of the presidential palace of Sun Yat-sen when he became the interim president in Guangzhou in 1921. Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagonal palace building with a total floor area of more than 3700 square meters and a height of 49 meters. It is a famous modern architectural masterpiece in Guangzhou. There is a nearly circular hall, 71 meters in diameter, divided into two floors, a total of more than 4700 seats. The designer uses four large columns (in the walls around them) to support four long-span steel trusses, like an open umbrella, to form a huge arched roof. The arched roof lifts eight main trusses to form an octagonal pavilion. This was designed by architect Lu Yanzhi (1894 - 1929).
He also designed the Zhongshan Monument at Zhongshan Mausoleum in Nanjing and Yuexiu Mountain in Guangzhou. He died young at the age of 35, failing to see the magnificent Memorial he designed for himself. In 1956, a 5-meter-high bronze statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen stood in front of the memorial hall. In 1963, a large-scale renovation of the memorial hall was carried out, with all the roofs adopt blue glazed tiles. More than 60,000 square meters of parks were surrounded by iron fences, and many trees and flowers were planted in the park. The memorial hall has become an important venue for gatherings and performances in Guangzhou. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the government has spent huge sums seven times to repair and maintain the surrounding environment of Zhongshan Memorial Hall, making it a more quiet and comfortable place for Chinese and foreign tourists.
Features of scenic spots
The eaves of the memorial hall are rolled up with glazed tiles. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall chose his favorite sapphire blue glazed tile as the main tone. In 1963, Zhongshan Memorial Hall was renovated on a large scale, especially from Shiwan, Foshan, Guangdong Province. The blue glazed tiles were customized, and the roof tiles were reconstructed. On the basis of retaining the original design, the renovation was carried out.
The patterns of cloud and water on eaves, decorative patterns on bucket arches, bell-shaped iron horses on eaves and the "d" figure on beams are also very rich in national characteristics. In maintenance, the renovation method is traditional, but the material is modern. The paintings outside the memorial hall are protected by silicified waterproofing agent besides the conventional sewing and patching, which is like a protective film on the outside. In the hall, new anti-mildew and moisture-proof paints were used, and imported materials were used to ensure better protection of the paintings.
The five huge rectangular bronze chandeliers hanging under the eaves of the main entrance of the memorial hall are all cast with pig iron except glass. Even the tassels hanging at the bottom of the side are cast with pig iron.
The colored ceramics Pavement Tiles and decorative wool tiles used in Zhongshan Memorial Hall were originated by Shanghai Taishan Brick and Tile Co., Ltd. and became one of the first patented products in China. Beautiful and dignified, natural and simple, durable, with sound absorption, light absorption, frost resistance, never fading unique effect, known as "Taishan brick".
Looking down from the sky, the memorial hall has an umbrella-shaped structure, with blue bricks and tiles symbolizing Mr. Sun Yat-sen's year.
The whole world as one community
The front of the memorial hall is between the upper and lower eaves of the building, and Sun Yat-sen's handwriting "The world is for the public" has profound implications: the state is shared by the people, the government is managed by the people, and the national interests are shared by the people.
Mr. Sun Yat-sen's Bronze Statue
A bronze statue of Sun Yat-sen standing in the center of the memorial hall. In 1956, the cement statue created by the sculptor Yin Jichang et al. (the copper-plated surface was replaced only after 1998). It is 5.5 meters high and weighs 3.9 tons. It is the shape of Mr. Sun Yat-sen when he gave a speech at Zhongshan University. On the base of the white granite under the bronze statue is inscribed the contents of the Outline of the Founding of the People written by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
Old and Famous Trees
Kapok as a city flower, no one knows. "Shizhang Coral is kapok. The flowers blossom more red than the morning sunshine. The trees in Tiannan are all in peak fire, which is less pitiful than climbing branches and flowers. "(Ming Dajun Qu).
The oldest kapok tree in Guangzhou (more than 300 years old) is located in the Zhongshan Memorial Hall. This old tree witnessed the decadence and degeneration of the Manchu and Qing dynasties; witnessed the cruelty and magnificence of the Guangzhou uprising; witnessed Sun Yat-sen's perseverance; witnessed Chen Jingming's rebellion; witnessed the ruined presidential palace next to him, and built a new memorial hall; personally experienced rebel artillery fire and bombs dropped by Japanese invaders. The wind is flying, the stars are passing away, the old trees are still standing quietly, the night is long and the wind and frost of hundreds of years are savored carefully.
Zhongshan Memorial Hall is not only the oldest kapok king in Guangzhou, but also the two largest brandy trees in Guangzhou. They were planted when the memorial hall was laid and completed. They spent more than half a century with the memorial hall. The evergreen, pavilion-like green tree crowns shaded hundreds of square meters all the year round, like two tall and loyal guards guarding the memorial hall. Every year in early summer (June) and late autumn (October), small fragrant, white and flawless osmanthus flowers fill the branches, fragrant for miles, symbolizing the great achievements of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the pioneer of the revolution.
The Gateway Building of Zhongshan Memorial Hall
In front of the memorial hall stands a broad square with three roofs and three holes. Zhu's iron door, heavy eaves at the head of the door, the eaves rolled out; the blue glazed tiles reflected the brilliant sunshine, and looked solemn and gorgeous - this building without beams is the gate building of Zhongshan Memorial Hall. Together
The basement is stretched from the left to the right of the entrance building by a wall of iron blossoms dangling with stones and rice, and the whole memorial hall is surrounded by groups.
Cloud Crane Watch of Zhongshan Memorial Hall
"Cloud Crane Huabiao", high in the clouds, magnificent and handsome, its octagonal base more than a person's height, the pillar top of the clouds around, appears extraordinary, solemn and solemn.
Sun Yat-sen Monument, one of the monumental buildings built in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, is located on the top of Yuexiu Mountain and on the same axis as Zhongshan Memorial Hall. The monument covers an area of more than 30 square meters. It is a square cone-shaped building made of granite. It has a great potential for heaven-shaking because of its large size, small size, steep apex on four slopes and upright.
From the monument down about 100 meters, on the mountainside of Yuexiu Mountain, there is another building related to Dr. Sun Yat-sen, that is Premier Sun's Reading Affairs Office.
Built in 1929 and completed in 1931, the main building of Zhongshan Memorial Hall is inscribed with the symbol of on each column, which is exactly the same as the currency symbol of RMB.
As for whether there is a connection between the two, the staff of the Memorial Hall Administration believe that this should be a coincidence. This symbol is actually a "sheep" character. The use of this symbol in Zhongshan Memorial Hall should be related to the beautiful legend of "five sheep offering ears" in Yangcheng. It means "the Zhongshan Memorial Hall of Yangcheng" and "the people of Yangcheng cherish Sun Yat-sen forever". Although the currency symbol of RMB is also, it may be related to the fact that the sheep was the earliest barter equivalent when there was no currency in ancient times. Therefore, the on the RMB has little to do with the on the top of the pillar of the memorial hall.
Refuge ancient tripod
On both sides of the main entrance of the memorial hall, there are two tripod fired on June 1, 1929 and October 10, 1930 respectively. They have a history of nearly 80 years.
It is reported that during the "Cultural Revolution" period, the words "Republic of China" on the two tripods were removed because of the "broken four old" movement. The old curator of the memorial hall, in order to avoid damaging the ancient tripod, led several strong labourers and buried them in the eastern grassland at midnight to protect them as a fertilizer pool for greening. After the end of the Cultural Revolution, it was dug up and displayed to tourists.
Nine and Five Steps
It is hard to notice that along the main entrance of Sun Yat-sen's bronze statue, two steps are ascended, the series of which are nine and five, respectively. In ancient China, numbers were usually divided into positive and negative numbers, odd numbers were positive and even numbers were negative. Nine of the Yangshu is the highest, and the five are in the middle. Therefore, the "nine" and the "five" are often used to symbolize the authority of the emperor, which are called the "nine-five respects".
According to the staff of the Memorial Hall Administration Office, the 1911 Revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen overthrew the feudal monarchy of more than 2,000 years, established the first democratic republic in Chinese history, and took office in Nanjing on January 1, 1912 and Guangzhou on May 5, 1921 as the "very big president". Therefore, the nine and five steps here coincide with Mr. Sun Yat-sen's presence. The supreme position in people's minds.
Dripping stone is not worn
There is an idiom called "dripping wears stone", but the stone slabs on the ground around the memorial hall with a history of nearly 100 years are "dripping wears stone". This is because the designer skillfully designed a "gutter" at the eaves to intercept most of the rainwater on the roof and then drain it from the hidden pillars, which can hardly affect the slate.
Red copper gutter
On the roof of the memorial hall, there is a copper "trench" on every rainwater surface. This "gutter" intercepts most of the rain on the roof and drains it away from the gutter on the wall. It can be seen that the designers were very scientific in the drainage design of the roof of the memorial hall.
A glorious doorway
There are sixteen doors on the first and second floors of the hall. The thick doors and holes are handled artistically appropriately. Especially the light relief on the doorframe made of Kenaf stone gives people a feeling of radiance.
Painted Sky and Ground Corridors
The memorial hall also retains the painted sky, mainly clouds, the ground paintings are "blue sky, red day and day", similar to the design of the Kuomintang flag and emblem.
Men's and Women's Room Signs
The label of men's and women's toilets on the first floor of the lobby still retains the title of "men's room" and "women's room". Through these two small brands, we can understand that in the past, the name of toilet was men's room and women's room, not "pit" or toilet.
Integrated Chinese and Western Architecture
Hall-style architecture has opened a new starting point for the ingenious combination of Chinese and Western architecture. It organically combines Chinese traditional palace-style buildings with Western reinforced concrete structures. There is no column in the space with a height of 47 meters and a span of 71 meters. It mainly relies on eight giant columns hidden between walls to support large steel trusses with a span of 30 meters in four directions in the southeast, northwest and the upper part to support the main truss. And then the octagonal roof is supported.
Sun Yat-sen's Testament of Han Baiyu Stone
On the stage of the memorial hall, there is a white marble tablet of the Han Dynasty, carved with the relief head of Sun Yat-sen and the contents of the Prime Minister's will. According to reports, the inscription of the Prime Minister's will inscribed on the "Cao Quan Stele" is Wu Zifu's handwriting, engraved by Mr. Liang Junsheng of Duanzhou, Guangdong Province.
On the north side of the east gate of the memorial hall, there is a wall covered with copper rust-like spots. The staff of the Memorial Hall Management Office told reporters that the copper rust-like spots were "bestowed" by the Japanese military institute. The bombs dropped by the invading Japanese army on June 7, 1938, left bullet marks on the walls of the memorial hall. According to reports, at that time, a large crater was also exploded on the right side in front of the main entrance, and about 40 square meters were exploded in the Northwest corner.
Residual shrapnel from Japanese ghosts
The outer wall of the East Gate of the memorial is covered with shrapnel left over from the bombing by Japanese devils. Because the remaining shrapnel will rust, in order to protect the cultural relics, it is sealed with a kind of adhesive to avoid rust stains on the ancient walls.
Signature of surrender
National Standard Stone Stele
In the grassland at the exit of the East Xiaomen Memorial Hall, there is a National Level Stone, which is a national level for monitoring groundwater.
One square meter floor tiles for five years
On the second floor of the historical exhibition hall of Zhongshan Memorial Hall in Guangzhou, there is an "absolute cultural relic" which I am afraid can not be seen anywhere: a square metre of floor is covered with floor tiles of five years. It is understood that it is difficult to verify which kind of bricks came from which era, but at least two kinds of floor tiles can be seen at a glance before liberation, because one of them is similar to the Kuomintang flag, and the other is similar to the Kuomintang emblem.
Bus routes: 2, 27, 56, 62, 74, 80, 83, 85, 133, 204, 209, 224A, 224, 229, 261, 276, 283, 284, 289, 293, 297, 305, 518, 556 and other bus routes and metro line C exit 2 are accessible.
The park is open free of charge. It will enter the main building and exhibition hall for 10 yuan per person in peak season and 8 yuan per person in off season. With valid certificates, retired cadres and active servicemen can enter the park free of charge for children under 1.1 meters.
At 10 a.m. on September 16, 1945, Japanese Commander Nobuaki Tanaka signed a surrender letter to Commander Zhang Fakui, the second front army of the Kuomintang, on the stage of the Zhongshan Memorial Hall. Only a few dozen people witnessed this history for security reasons. On March 27, 1947, Tanaka, whose hands were covered with the blood of the Chinese people, was shot at Liuhua Bridge as soon as he was tied up and paraded in the streets.