Sizhou Opera, a local traditional drama on both sides of Huaihe River in Anhui Province, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Sizhou Opera is one of the four major operas in Anhui Province. Its original name is Lahun Opera. It has a history of more than 200 years. Many people think that it originated in Haizhou, northern Jiangsu. It was originally a small opera improvised by local peasants in folk tunes such as "Orion Tune" and "Taiping Song", which was later introduced into Sizhou and absorbed the local folk singing art to form Sizhou Opera of "Lahun Tune" in Anhui Province. Sizhou opera has the passionate generosity of northern opera, the gentle and soothing of southern opera, the plain and simple colorful tunes and tongues with great difficulty and folk piano books.
On May 20, 2006, Sizhou Opera was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, the heritage number: IV - 62.
During the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1736-1795), two kinds of folk tunes were popular in Haizhou and Yancheng. One was the peaceful tune reflecting the joy of farmers'harvest and the other was the hunter's tune reflecting the joy of hunters' post-hunting. Local folk music enthusiasts Qiu Lao, Zhang Lao and Ge Lao have adjusted and processed the two kinds of music to form a soul-pulling tune. Three old people, wandering around, selling and singing. When Qiu Lao arrived in Huaibei, he absorbed local folk music materials and recruited artists widely. By the end of Qing Dynasty, Sizhou opera system was basically formed.
At first, singers only came to sing. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, they could not only perform Yanmen Guan, Xiaojin Lock and Gan Gan Gan, but also perform such dramas as Pi Xiuying's Four Advertisements, gradually moving from the countryside to the city.
During the War of Resistance Against Japan, Huaibei Bureau organized many training sessions for Sizhou opera artists, rehearsed modern operas such as "Advising the husband to join the army" and "Sending the son to join the army" successively. Chen Yi, Peng Xuefeng and other leaders of the New Fourth Army loved Sihong opera very much when they were in Sihong.
In the early days of the founding of New China, there were more than 30 family groups in Sihong County. The most famous ones were Li Jiaban and Xu Bujun Ban. In 1955, Li Jiaban and Ding Jiaban merged to form Sizhou Opera Troupe of Sihong County, rehearsing the modern drama "Little Son-in-law", and the first performance made Sihong County a sensation. Since then, Sizhou Opera has a fixed performance venue, ending the traveling guerrilla performances.
In the early 1950s, Sizhou Opera first went to Beijing to perform. Guo Moruo praised it as "a flower of Huaibei people". Mei Lanfang praised the dance of "embossing ground" in Sizhou Opera, which has never been seen in more than 300 local operas in the country, saying that it is the artistic crystallization of Sizhou Opera and worth learning.
In 1965, Sihong County Local Opera Troupe was founded. Most of the new trainees enrolled in 1977 are now stirring up a stir in the troupe.
In the early stage of Sizhou Opera, there were no scripts and no music scores, all of which were taught by the old artists. After forming a group, the performances are divided into three categories:
One is the traditional Sizhou opera, such as Dashu Guan, Sigao, Fanli Hua Ding Bing, with fixed lyrics and dialogues.
The second category is to absorb and transplant other operas, such as "Twelve Widows Zhengxi", "Double Jade Cicadas", "En Qiu Ji" and so on, which belongs to the category of water words (without fixed lyrics).
The third category is that there is no fixed lyrics and dialogues, but according to the way the old artists put forward, assign roles, and the students will perform on the stage. This is a series of dramas arranged by the old artists by means of curtain-telling and drama-telling. The repertoire includes "Huyanqing Dazhao", "Luoyuan Xiashan", "Leibao Tong's Family Surrender" and so on. Actors'lyrics on stage are mostly "pieces", "babies" and "sheep" in traditional plays. More importantly, they need to compile lyrics in front of the stage, depending on actors' experience, touching scenes and sentiments, looking at elegant willows and improvising, which can be long or short.
The main board types are slow board, walking board, number board, stacking board, tight board, rigid board, connecting board, etc. The main tunes are Sizhou tune, Haizhou tune, main tune, ejection tune, dress tune, Leide tune, Yangqiang tune, basic tune, Yeli Zanhua, etc. It is very arbitrary, often singing in the clip say, say in the clip sing, so it is called happy tone. In the falling part of the vocal cavity, the female voice is usually turned up eight degrees, and the male voice is dragged back by adding linings. Dao Bai is basically spoken in Northern Jiangsu dialect. Dao Bai and lyrics are straightforward, humorous and colloquial. Life drama, white mouth with the northern Jiangsu dialect: gown with drama, rhyme in dialect. All singing is in dialect.
Differentiation (freshmen, freshmen and laosheng). Old man: that is, old man, two heads: that is, green clothes, small head: that is, Huadan. Ugly (literary clown, martial clown, old clown, clown, milk clown).
On the basis of rap and singing, it absorbed a large number of folk dance performances such as "embossing ground", "car dance", "dry boat dance", "lantern dance" and "donkey running". It was not influenced by the opera formula, but was lively, plain, bright and vigorous.
Spicy features, full of strong local flavor of northern Anhui. During the performance, there are many unique stature and footwork, such as four corners, cyclone style, scissors, crane walking, Baima War, beam pulling and column changing, swallow pulling mud, embracing the moon in the arms, Phoenix wings spreading, etc. Actors must pay attention to the coordination and coordination of hands, eyes, waist, legs, steps and other parts.
With plucked instruments as the main part, there was only one local Pipa (like the shrinking pipa, made by Sizhou opera artists themselves, with willow as the body, Paulownia as the panel, sorghum stalk as the product, two silk strings, also known as the willow leaf piano). Only one and a half octave interval, no semitone, less range) and a bang. After the formation of the association in the 1970s, the four-stringed liuqin, erhu, sanxian, yangqin, bamboo flute, Sheng and so on were used. Accompaniment techniques include flattering, sending, flashing, supporting and foiling. There are four percussion instruments: plate drum, gong, cymbal and gong.
Inheritance and Protection
Sizhou Opera is deeply rooted in the emotional fertile soil of Huaibei Plain, and is close to the lively, hot, warm and comfortable rural life landscape. It is not only the life source of Sizhou Opera charm, but also the aesthetic source of the vitality of local opera.
The exploration, rescue, protection and inheritance of Sizhou Opera will have a far-reaching impact on enriching the spiritual and cultural life of the people in northern Anhui and building a harmonious society.
Current situation of inheritance
Sizhou Opera is closely related to the life and customs of the people in northern Anhui Province, showing strong regional and cultural characteristics. But in recent years, with the rapid development of society, audiences have gradually decreased, performance losses, traditional skills are on the verge of loss, the survival of Sizhou Opera has been in crisis, and the government and society are in urgent need of support.
Chen Ruomei, female, Han nationality, born in 1964, from Yongxi, Anhui Province. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage project representative successors, Suqian City, Anhui Province, declared. Declaration item: Baling Opera.
Li Baoqin, female, Han nationality, born in 1933 in Sihong, Jiangsu Province. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage project representative successors, Bengbu City, Anhui Province, declared. Declaration item: Baling Opera.
Lushibin, male, Han nationality, born in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province in 1938. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage project representative successors, Bengbu City, Anhui Province, declared. Declaration item: Baling Opera.
In 1952, the Ministry of Culture issued the Directive on Rectifying and Strengthening the Work of National Opera Troupes. The Anhui Provincial Cultural Bureau designated three more basic Sizhou Opera Folk Professional Troupes as the troupes for key rectification and guidance. At the same time, a group of professional cadres are allocated to carry out specific counseling work: sorting out and adapting excellent traditional plays; recording and sorting out music and singing; abolishing the narrative method of the curtain-telling system and establishing a new director system; which plays a positive role in inheriting and carrying forward the fine traditional opera art, clarifying the ugly stage art image and improving the performers'performing art level. Dance and push.
In 1955, Suxian District held training courses for Sizhou opera trainees in Suxian and Huaiyuan successively. In 1967, Anhui Art School also opened Sizhou Opera Troupe. The above-mentioned training courses and schools have trained a number of young actors and delivered fresh blood to the Sizhou Drama Troupe.
From 1956 to 1958, at the initiative of Anhui Cultural Bureau, Bengbu City and Bengbu District Cultural Bureau organized a group of professionals to set up a "Sizhou Traditional Drama Mining Group" to excavate and record the heritage. After more than two years, more than 67 discounted dramas and 80 small dramas were recorded, and more than 200 "short stories" were recorded. Traditional dramas were compiled into Anhui Traditional Dramas Collection by the Drama Workshop of Anhui Cultural Bureau. At the same time, a number of traditional dramas and modern dramas were created, sorted out and adapted. Some of these dramas were compiled into the "Chinese Local Opera Integration Anhui Volume", "Anhui Opera Selection" and "Sizhou Opera Excellent Traditional Drama Selection" and "Excellent Small Opera Series" for publication. Others were made into films, such as "Picking up Cotton".
In order to further inherit and develop Sizhou Opera, on November 16, 2010, the Sixian People's Government and Suzhou College signed a framework agreement for the co-construction of Sizhou Opera College. "Sizhou Opera College" plans to open undergraduate classes of Sizhou Opera to train talents of performance specialty (Sizhou Opera Direction). It is listed in 2011 and enrolled in 2012.
In 1954, the delegation of Anhui Province selected four operas of Sizhou Opera "Picking up Cotton", "Fighting Dry Rods", "Barring Horses" and "Before Marriage" to participate in the first East China Opera Concert in Shanghai.
In the autumn of 1954, led by the Huaiguang Sizhou Theatre Troupe of Bengbu City, the troupe performed in the countryside, industry and mining areas.
In the autumn of 1954, he also participated in the National People's Comfort Corps headed by Shao Lizi, and went to the provincial military districts to offer condolences to the People's Liberation Army (PLA) who persevered in fighting posts.
In July 1956, Sizhou Opera organized a delegation to attend the first Anhui Opera Concert with modern opera "Female Du Chang" (Bengbu Special Zone), "Chaotic Match" (Bengbu City) and traditional operas such as "Da Meng Liang", "Jingtai Hui" and "Lao Caiyuan".
On the eve of May Day in 1957, Sizhou Opera and Luzhou Opera Troupe of Anhui Province organized a delegation of opera art to report and perform in Beijing. On the evening of May 6, Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai and Zhang Zhizhong, leaders of the Party and the state, watched Sizhou Opera in Huairen Hall.
At the first Anhui Opera Concert, Sizhou opera performers Li Baoqin, Huo Guixia, Zhou Fengyun, He Lanying, Wei Shengyun, Chen Mingchun, Chen Jinfeng and Wang Baolian won performance awards respectively.
On September 14, 2016, at the Fifth National Minority Literature and Art Festival, the modern Sizhou Opera "Green Leather Train" won the silver prize for its repertoire.