Sichuan ballad singing
Sichuan Qingyin, formerly known as Pipa and Yueqin, is one of the traditional operas in Sichuan Province. In the 1930s, Qingyin Song Concerts or Improvement Meetings were set up in Chengdu and Chongqing, and later they were named after Qingyin. Sichuan Qingyin originated from popular songs of Ming and Qing Dynasties. Sichuan Qingyin was very popular during the reign of Qianlong and Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty. It centered around Luzhou and Xufu (now Yibin), and spread all over towns and villages, with a large audience.
On June 7, 2008, the "Sichuan Qingyin" declared by Chengdu Art Theatre of Sichuan Province was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
Heritage serial number: 770V-77.
Sichuan Qingyin, which dates back to the Song and Yuan dynasties next year, originated from the miscellaneous songs, tunes, ditties and opera tunes in the south of the Saibei River, and blended with the local folk songs and slang tunes in Bayu, Shuchuan. It has the basic form of the early words and tunes of Qingyin.
In the late 19th century, in the late Qing Dynasty, Chongqing opened its port, and merchant ships from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River entered Chongqing and Jinchuan to sing ditty tunes. Civil and commercial officials and others wrote and compiled songs, sang ditties, and sang the Moon Qin. In the 1930s and 1940s, Sichuan Qingyin was almost the "most popular song" at that time. "In the 1950s and 1960s, when Chongqing held literary and artistic performances, the voiceless music was the main track, with more than 500 performances in half a year.
Early known as "singing ditty" and "singing ditty", and because artists play the moon piano or Pipa when singing, they are called "singing the moon piano" or "singing the pipa". It was not until the 1950s that it was named "Sichuan Qingyin". It is sung in Sichuan dialect and is popular in the cities and countryside centered around Chengdu, as well as in land and water wharfs along the Yangtze River. Sichuan Qingyin was developed from Ming and Qing tunes and Sichuan folk songs. Music is very rich, there are more than 100 music cards. For example, , , [Man Jianghong], , , , , , and so on. Musical aria structure can be divided into two categories: music board and music board. There are two kinds of banqiang: the Han tune and the anti-Xipi tune. The traditional way of singing is sitting, that is, putting on one or two eight immortal tables. The singer sits face to face with the audience, with the lead singer in the middle (mostly female artists). The pianist sits on the left and right sides of the lead singer. The lute, Pipa or three strings are on the left, and the bowl, erhu or Xiaohu are on the right. This way is mainly performed in teahouses and libraries, as well as along the street or in hotels and inns. After the mid-Qing Dynasty, there were many artists selling Qingyin in Sichuan, and there appeared the phenomenon of "singing Yueqin in streets and alleys, and there were many customers in tea houses and hotels". Wu Haoshan in the Qing Dynasty wrote in his Chengdu Bamboo Branch Ci: "The name of the capital is really very prosperous, not only 200,000 cooking cigarettes. More than 400 streets were straightened out, playing at night in disorder. Sichuan Qingyin is in such a prosperous situation, creating a generation of famous artists.
Where does Sichuan Qingyin originate? What is the difference between Sichuan Qingyin and Chongqing Qingyin? Deng Bixia, a 75-year-old Qingyin artist, introduced that after liberation, the development of Sichuan Qingyin in Chongqing and Chengdu gradually appeared diversion. Chengdu is still dominated by minor, while Chongqing is dominated by major. Jiang Zhuyun, sung by him, takes the form of major.
Tan Boshu, a veteran artist of the Quyi Troupe who has studied Chongqing Qingyin for many years, said that Chongqing Qingyin has more historical facts than Chengdu. "Many teachers in Chengdu went to Chengdu from Hechuan, Jiangjin and other places in Chongqing in the late Qing Dynasty." In addition, what is less known is that the term "Sichuan Qingyin" comes from Chongqing, and the first person standing to sing Qingyin is also from Chongqing!
Sichuan Qingyin was called "singing ditty" and "singing ditty" in its early stage. It was also called "singing pipa" or "singing pipa" because artists played the moon piano or Pipa when singing. In 1930, a bodyguard named Peng Yin'an, with his special influence and social influence, founded the "Clear Sound Improvement Society" near the Yachangkou, which led to the formal renaming of "Yueqin" and the renaming of "Clear Sound". After the liberation of Chongqing, the "Quyi Singing Production Group" (the predecessor of the Municipal Quyi Troupe) was set up to train and perform in the "Mass Recreation Garden", and the name of "Sichuan Qingyin" was formally determined by chance.
"At that time, the production team performed more than 20 programs every day, including voiceless sound. Every day, we put up the program list of the day's performance at the door of the propaganda room. Each program had its origin written in front of it, such as Shandong drum, Beijing cross talk and so on." At first, the production group only wrote the word "Qingyin" on the board as a performance program. Later, some people gradually asked why other programs belonged to it. Only when there was no Qingyin, the production group added the word "Sichuan" before the word "Qingyin". From then on, the word "Sichuan Qingyin" was officially named and deeply rooted in people's hearts.
Apart from professional artists, Sichuan Qingyin also has many amateurs, known as "playmates". They can not only sing, but also play Pipa or yueqin. Some of them are quite good at playing. There are also some groups of playmates who play a role in promoting the development of Sichuan's Qingyin art. In the 1950s and 1960s, Sichuan Qingyin entered the theatre, and the form of sitting singing was gradually replaced by standing singing. Instead, the performers sing on bamboo drums and beating boards, accompanied by small bands, with pipa, gaohu, erhu, Zhonghu and other instruments. The accompanist acts as a supporting actor and participates in the chorus band.
At first, most actresses performed alone in the teahouse and bookstore, accompanied by pipa, erhu, bamboo drum, sandalwood board and so on. Among them, bamboo drum is a special accompaniment instrument of Sichuan Qingyin. During the performance, the actress sings by herself, hitting bamboo drums with her right hand, sandalwood boards with her left hand and singing by herself. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Sichuan Qingyin entered the theatre stage and changed from sitting singing to standing singing, with the form of duet, chorus or solo accompaniment. During the performance, the performers beat sandalwood boards with their left hand and bamboo drums with their right hand to control the rhythm and singing speed. Accompanied instruments include sandalwood boards, bamboo drums, pipa, yueqin, erhu and Gaohu. In recent years, he has also started singing long songs such as "Bailian Nu Jie", embedding expression in his singing, and staggering rhyme and prose. Sichuan Qingyin is divided into Shanghe School and Xiahe School. Chengdu's "provincial tune" is the Shanghe School, whose singing is light, delicate and mellow. There is a unique style of continuous tune singing in the yuanqiang - "Haha tune". In the past, the singing form of Sichuan Qingyin used to be dominated by actresses, supplemented by actors, sitting and singing without performing, and the singers played their own instruments. Generally speaking, there are three to five people in a class, formerly known as "Haihu class". Sichuan Qingyin has a rich repertoire, about 400 at the end of the Qing Dynasty. In recent years, about 200 copies have been collected. Most of them are songs of grievance and nostalgia, and many of them are situational lyrics or stories of characters in legends and novels.
Sichuan Qingyin Music is very rich in music cards, and its structural forms are monomer, syntheses and slab cavity. In the aspect of moistening the cavity, the prominent features are the use of "Haha cavity" and "tongue-tip pronunciation". There are more than 600 traditional songs adapted from novels and operas, such as "Nun Down the Hill", "Xiaoqiao Weeping Man", "Broken Bridge", "Sifan", "Sifan", "Hua Mulan", "Zhaojun Out of Fortress", "Kite Flying", "Little Husband", "Jinmeihua", etc., which reflect the real life and revolutionary historical themes, such as "Huang Jiguang", "Huang Jiguang", and so on. Ding Youjun, Jiangjie Shanghuaying, Public Grain Delivery, Small Accountant and Flower Driving Club. Famous voiceless artists include Chen Qiongrui, Li Yueqiu, Huang Dejun and Cheng Yongling.
Li Yueqiu, a well-known artist of voiceless singing, has a deep attainment in "Haha tune". She has a sweet tone and a gentle and tactful tune. As early as the 1940s, she was known as "Chengdu Zhou Xuan". The representative repertoires of Sichuan Qingyin include Kite Flying, Broken Bridge, Qiujiang, Embroidered Lotus Color, Huang Jiguang and Flower Driving Fair.
It belongs to the art form of singing body brand song. Up to now, there are 8 major tunes, more than 100 minors and more than 200 arias. The major is mainly about stories and legends, while the minor is mostly about Sichuan popular folk songs and folk songs.
In 1957, Qingyin Song Ci Xuan was published, and selected some excellent traditional songs. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the traditional repertoire of Sichuan Qingyin has been sorted out and many new repertoires have been compiled. The singing form is changed to stand-up singing by actresses. The rhythm is controlled by sandalwood board and bamboo drum (supported by drum frame), accompanied by necessary facial expressions and movements. The performers act as supporting roles and chorus. Famous actor Li Yueqiu has participated in the World Youth Festival singing voiceless, won a gold medal.
There are three types of unaccented melodies: major, melody and minor. There are eight major tunes, namely, , , , , , [month tune], , . Qupai has , [flat plate], , , and so on; minor has , , , etc. There are three kinds of music structure: the combination of music and cards, the variation of plate style and the singles.
Chengdu's "provincial tune" is Shanghe School, whose singing is light, delicate and mellow, and there is a unique style, jumping continuous tune singing method "Haha tune". Li Yueqiu, a well-known artist of voiceless singing, has a deep attainment in "Haha tune". She has a sweet tone and a gentle and tactful tune. As early as the 1940s, she was known as "Chengdu Zhou Xuan".
Sichuan Qingyin's traditional repertoire is very rich, including Zhaojun Out of Fortress, Nun Down Mountain, Broken Bridge, Daiyu Burning Draft, Kite Flying. Modern repertoires include Cuckoo Gutter, June 6, Qiujiang, Embroidered Lotus, Huang Jiguang, Flower Catching Meeting, etc.
Inheritance and Protection
The inheritance of Sichuan Qingyin is facing a huge survival crisis. It has a long way to go. Only through the practice of skills, the teaching of experience, the summary of theory and the promotion of science, can the Sichuan Qingyin in Chongqing be effectively protected, inherited and developed. Only based on the height of intangible cultural heritage, in-depth practice, accumulation and summary, reform and innovation, can we realize the validity and diversity of Sichuan Qingyin inheritance, open up a new way for Sichuan Qingyin inheritance and protection, and let the precious traditional art be passed on from generation to generation.
Talents are scarce, generation by generation is worse, appearance is less and less, and like many non-legacy, Sichuan Qingyin is inevitably embarrassed in the washing of time. "Nowadays, on the land of Bashu, where the voiceless is bred, there are only a handful of voiceless performers and fewer performances. Occasionally, there are voiceless appearances on TV, but those charms and customs have long been drowned in computer-synthesized accompaniment tapes, fancy dancing and costumes, and dazzling stage lights. Tam Po-shu turned up a carefully arranged "Chongqing Qingyin Artists'Teacher-Check Relations Table", pointing to the shrinking frame structure from 1930 to 2000, sighing, "Many of these people are dead, and some of them are good materials for singing Qingyin. Finally, they failed to stick to it and took another road."
world cultural heritage application
Sichuan has declared Sichuan Qingyin as the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage. Qingyin in Chongqing is an indispensable part of Sichuan Qingyin. They have both similarities and individualities. Only when they are integrated can they be complete. "For example, Sichuan Opera and Shu Embroidery, after declaring non-legacy, are distinguished by the words"Sichuan"or"Chongqing"in parentheses behind them." Although each region of the same project has its own characteristics, it still needs to be divided into historical administrative regions when declaring. The second batch of state-level non-objects selected by Chongqing this time include Sichuan Bamboo Qin, which is actually Wanzhou. And this situation seems to be hopeful for a turnaround. "Quyi Troupe has declared Sichuan Qingyin as intangible cultural heritage, first through the municipal non-heritage, then through the national level, so that the Qingyin will be protected."
Standing singing performance
The traditional way of vocal singing is sitting, that is, putting on one or two eight immortal tables, the singer sits face to face with the audience, the main singer is in the middle, and the pianist sits on the left and right sides of the main singer. During the performance of the Soviet cultural delegation in Chongqing in 1952, Deng Bixia put the bamboo drum on the authoritarian bamboo shelf and changed it to stand singing with performances, creating a new form of Sichuan Qingyin, which was imitated by Sichuan Qingyin artists. Later, sitting singing was gradually replaced by standing singing.
"For the first time, standing and singing voiceless, hands and feet do not know where to put it!" Recalling the performance in 1952, the 75-year-old Dung Bixia was still very excited. The main reason for thinking of "standing up and singing" is that "sitting and singing is not good, and performing is not convenient.
On behalf of artists
Li Yueqiu was born in Chengdu, Sichuan in 1925. At the age of 7, he learned to sing Sichuan Qingyin, and at the age of 12, he sang in the bookstore teahouse, which was praised by the audience. After the 1950s, he worked in Chengdu Quyi Troupe and engaged in Sichuan Qingyin singing. She is good at singing songs such as Embroidered Lotus Bag, Qiujiang, Nuns Downhill. In 1957, she participated in the 6th World Youth Festival in Moscow, singing "Little Kite Flying" and "Yi'e Lang" and won the gold medal. Her voice is clear and crisp, her singing is soft and beautiful, kind and euphemistic, and her description of the content of the repertoire is exquisite and full of life interest. She developed the "Ha-ha tune" created by her predecessors into a unique "Ha-ha tune" and formed a unique singing style, such as the "Ha-ha tune" used in "Cuckoo Gutter", which left a deep impression on people.
Cheng Yongling was born in Jiangjin, Sichuan in 1947. In 1958, he studied in the Quyi Class of Chengdu Drama School. He was a teacher of Li Yueqiu. After graduation, he went to the Chengdu Quyi Troupe to sing voiceless music. She is good at singing minor tunes. Her timbre is sweet, fresh and beautiful. She not only keeps Li Yueqiu's style, but also has her own characteristics. She went to Yugoslavia to attend the International Arts Festival and performed in Austria, and was warmly welcomed.
Ling was appointed head of Chengdu Quyi Troupe in 1987. Cheng Yongling has been awarded the title of "Advanced Worker of the National Cultural System" by the Ministry of Personnel and the Ministry of Culture, and "Outstanding Youth" and "Red Flag-bearer of March Eighth" by the youth and women's organizations of provinces and municipalities. She has been elected Vice-Chairman of the Chinese Opera Association, Vice-Chairman of the Sichuan Wenlian Federation, Member of the Sichuan Political Consultative Conference and Honorary Chairman of the Sichuan Opera Association.