Sichuan Zhuqin

Home Culture 2019-06-16

Sichuan Zhuqin

Sichuan Zhuqin is an ancient traditional opera. The performers hold fishing drums and rap stories. The original name is Mingqin. Because its accompaniment instrument is a bamboo drum drum, it is also known as "fishing drum and Taoqin" and "Taoqin". At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, it had its present name. It is popular in Sichuan. The bamboo instrument is 3 feet long and 2 inches in diameter, and one end is covered with fish skin or pig * s small intestine. The actors hold the bamboo piano obliquely and beat the bottom of the bamboo tube with their fingertips; the other holds two bamboo tube boards with small copper bells at the top. When the tube boards collide, the bell sounds and the rhythm is strong. The aria can be divided into neutral tune and dulcimer tune.

On June 7, 2008, the Sichuan Bamboo Qin jointly declared by Chongqing Three Gorges Quyi Troupe and Chengdu Art Theatre in Sichuan Province was selected into the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.

Heritage serial number: 769 V-76.

historical origin

In the early Qing Dynasty, Taoists from some towns and docks in Sichuan flowed between streets and alleys, holding fishing drums and simple boards, singing programs like 24 filial piety, singing "Xuanmen Tune" and "Nantong Tune". During the Guangxu period, non-Taoist performers began to sing. They entered the tea house and restaurant from the street. They were called Tao Qing, and they mostly sang opera stories. Later, because its main musical instrument was a bamboo tube about 3 feet long and about 2 inches thick in diameter, it was made of fish skin (or pig's small intestine membrane) and struck with fingers to produce a crisp sound. In the early years of the Republic of China, Liangshan, Sichuan, held a bamboo-piano congress. After commenting, commenting and commenting board, three and a half bamboo-pianos were selected, namely, Du Chenghui, Sun Chengde, Zhao Gaofeng and Liang Peiran. The conference expanded the influence of Zhuqin among the masses. Around 1925, Jinchun Tea House in Chengdu and Daguan Tea Garden in Chongqing became fixed libraries for singing bamboo piano. Since then, the number of libraries has increased, and many famous professional artists have appeared. Since then, Zhuqin has entered a period of prosperity.

Art School

Sichuan Zhuqin has two major schools: Yangqin tune and Zhonghe tune. The former is also called Chengdu school. Jia Shusan, the founder of the former, absorbs the tune of Sichuan Yangqin, enriches the tune, is euphemistic and meticulous, and has a mellow flavor. The representative of Zhonghe tune is Wu Yutang of Chongqing, whose tune is simple and deep, rough and powerful. Sit and sing for one person. Also known as Daoqin or Daoqing. In the early Qing Dynasty, it was a popular form of Musical Singing in Chengdu. It began with Taoism's exhortation to the good, and its tune was "Xuanmen Tune" and "Southern Tune". During Guangxu's reign, folk artists used it to rewrite historical stories such as The Chronicles of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. The use of musical instruments is a bamboo tube about 1 meters long and 6.6 centimeters in diameter. One end is covered with pig's heart protecting oil skin (now with small intestine), then two pieces of bamboo pieces, 1.7 meters long, plus a bell ring accompaniment or self singing. In the early years of the Republic of China, it was called Zhuqin. The forms of singing are "group singing" and "solo singing". "Group Singing" is a group of five people sitting and singing. In 1953, the first Southwest Opera Tune was performed by Yang Qingwen, a famous bamboo and Piano artist, who changed the sitting "group singing" into a standing singing solo. The "provincial tune" of bamboo piano is also known as "Da tune" and "Shanghe tune", which is popular in Chengdu area. Jia Shusan, a well-known old bamboo piano artist, integrated Sichuan Opera, Yangqin and bamboo piano to create a "Jia School" bamboo piano. "Jia School" Zhuqin is good at speaking different dialects, describing different characters, with round and subtle characters. Playing the piano can produce the voice of thousands of troops and horses, which seems to have a magnificent momentum. The repertoire is represented by Lvbu in World War III and Huarong Dao.

Bamboo piano has two major art schools: Yangqin tune and Zhonghe tune. The tune of Yangqin is also known as "Chengdu School". Its founder Jia Shusan absorbs the tunes of Sichuan Yangqin to enrich his singing. He is famous for his euphemism, meticulousness, mellow charm and good portrayal of characters. The representative of Zhonghe Diao is Wu Yutang of Chongqing, whose singing is simple and deep, rough and powerful. Zhuqin sings in prose and rhyme. First-person endorsement is the main body, and third-person narrative is the supplement. Talking about characters and stories, writing human figures, Lyric scenery, narrative, lively and flexible. A common form of performance is sitting and singing alone. From time to time, the singer imitates the roles, expresses the different characters'manner and inner activities with different voices, tones and emotions; from time to time, as a singer, he describes the context of plot development, describes the objective environment, and comments on the characters and events in the book lyrics to show the singer's ideological tendency and love and hate feelings. Bamboo piano repertoire, in addition to the long "Three Kingdoms" and "Countries", there are short and medium "Pipa Ji", "Qimei Case", "White Snake Biography", "Hua Mulan", "Xunyang River", "Fisherman's Cijian" and so on.

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the traditional programs of bamboo piano have been collected and sorted out, with the publication of "Selected Songs of Jia Shu Sanzhuqin".

artistic characteristics

Accompanied instruments

Sichuan bamboo piano is also known as "Tao Qing", because its accompanying instrument is a bamboo drum drum, so it is also known as "fishing drum and Tao qin" or "Tao qin". The bamboo instrument is 3 feet long and 2 inches in diameter, and one end is covered with fish skin or pig * s small intestine. During the performance, the performers hold the bamboo piano obliquely and beat the bottom of the bamboo barrel with their fingertips; the other holds two bamboo barrel boards, the upper end of which is tied with a small copper bell. When the barrel boards collide, the bell ringing board rings, giving out a clear and crisp rhyme. The origin of Taoist sentiment, according to relevant literature records, is in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, Sichuan's urban and rural areas often have Yunyou Taoist, with "Taoist sentiment" way of singing opera, good lyrics, such as "Twenty-four Filial Piety" and so on, singing with Xuanmen tune and southern tone. In the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, folk artists began to imitate Yunyou Taoist priests to sing Taoist sentiments, and gradually formed a popular folk art form.

Sichuan Daoqing is divided into two schools: Yangqin and Zhonghe. The former is also called Chengdu School. Jia Shusan, the founder of the former, has widely absorbed the advantages of Sichuan Yangqin tunes. After improvement, he has formed the singing characteristics of rich aria, delicate performance and mellow charm. Because Tao Qing used a lot of Yangqin's performance skills for reference, it caused the opposition of Sichuan Yangqin artists in Chengdu at that time. After Zhou Xiaohuai, who was then the Tao Tai of Sichuan Patrol Police, intervened and mediated, the conflict ended, and began to call Tao Qing "Zhuqin". Wu Yutang in Chongqing is the representative of river tune in Taoism. His singing style is simple and deep, rough and full of momentum. The singing form of Taoist sentiment is usually sitting and singing by one person. In addition to the long Three Kingdoms and Countries, there are also short and medium-length plays such as Pipa Records, Hydraulic Beauty Case, Biography of White Snake and Mulan, mostly based on Chinese historical stories and folklore.

Quyi Form

In the course of its development, Tao Qing, a unique form of folk opera, experienced many climaxes and exchanges among schools.

In 1910, initiated by Cai Juezhi, Deng Qingshan and Li Chunshan, it was the first time to hold a sitting singing of bamboo piano at Qingyin Pavilion Tea Garden in Zhulin Lane, Chengdu. During the three years of the Republic of China (1914 A.D.), Sichuan bamboo-piano artists gathered in Liangshan (now Liangping County, Chongqing) to hold a large-scale provincial bamboo-piano competition, in which more than 100 artists and playmates participated. Since the Bamboo and Qin International Meeting, a number of influential bamboo and Qin artists have sprung up all over Sichuan. In the eighth year of the Republic of China (A.D. 1919), Cai Juezhi, a famous performer of Chengdu Bamboo-piano, arrived in Chongqing all the way. He exchanged with Zhao Gaofeng, a famous bamboo-piano artist in Zhonghe Diao at that time, which became a good story in the art circle for a while.

Major Artists

The most prominent and successful artist in the history of bamboo piano singing is Jia Shusan of Chengdu. His main achievement is to absorb the singing skills of the dulcimer into the bamboo piano, and create a rich and colorful "colorful tune" to become a famous "master of bamboo piano". Xiao Ping, a writer, once described Jia Shusan singing bamboo piano at Jinchun Tea House in Genjiekou, Dongcheng, Chengdu in his book "On the Ground of Chengdu": "Hundreds of people held their breath and looked up at Jia blind (because Jia Shusan was blind from childhood, so most of the audience kindly called him Jia blind). A man sits quietly in the middle of the stage, standing up quietly, like a millennium stump or a bronze bell in a temple. In a moment of concentration, Jia Xianzi picked up the fishing barrel and the barrel board beside him and gently brushed them in his arms. With the dexterous movement of his fingers, a bamboo barrel and two pieces of bamboo made a wonderful sound, as if five tones and twelve strings had been mobilized together. Inside a large bookstore, there was a sudden silence. Just after the prelude, Jia Xianzi's throat was light and comfortable, and he should sing beautiful words with the sonorous music. It was really crisp words, as if full of pearls were rolling. Audiences can't understand why Mr. Zhuqin, dressed in long gowns and wrinkled with vicissitudes of life on his forehead, has so much emotion and so touching power.

Mr. Li Sizhen and Mr. Mattingson, who had listened to Jia Shusanzhuqin on the spot, recalled in the article: "When the blind man sings"Li Ling Goodbye", he only has to change his tune, and the tune is melodious, seven folds and eight folds, changing constantly, and singing higher and higher. At that time, the singing and the piano sounds are hard to understand. But in my ears, I hear the wind roaring, the snow and mist flying, Hu Feng alarms, and the horses whining sadly. Then there was another sob, desolate, sad voice. When singing "Three Englishes Against Lv Bu", Zhang Fei whipped, Guan Yu knife chopped, Liu Bei sword stabbed, Lv Bufang sky painting halberd fluttered up and down, left and right shielded, killing smoke and dust billowing, flag hunting. Horses whine, horns whine, swords clang, killing sounds. A thin blind man in the middle of the stage, with only one or two bamboo wares and a throat, brought thousands of troops and horses to the audience, singing and playing the piano, and applause from the audience for a long time.

Traditional repertoire

There are more than 300 traditional songs, mostly the stories of the Three Kingdoms. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the traditional singing books, singing, acting and accompaniment of bamboo were processed and compiled. A number of new tracks reflecting the real life were written and performed, such as Yang Qingwen * s "pig driver" by Chengdu folk troupe and "Legend of Hua Ziliang" sung by Wan Guo County quyi troupe. In addition to the long "Three Kingdoms" and "Countries", there are also short and medium-length "Pipa Records", "Hydraulic Beauty Case", "White Snake Biography", "Mulan" and so on. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the songs of Sichuan Bamboo Qin were collected and sorted out, and the "Selected Songs of Jia Shu Sanzhu Qin" was published.

Inheritance Significance

According to relevant data, in the 1940s, Siemenhua, a graduate of the Institute of Oriental Literature of London University, and Ma Yuelan, a Swede, both went to various theaters and bookstores to record Jia Shusan's live singing while studying Yuanqu and Chinese literary language at Chengdu Huaxi University (according to the Playful Weekly of 1949). Now Mr. Ma Yuelan is still alive, and is one of the judges of the Nobel Prize for Literature. However, Jia Shusan, a famous player in Rongcheng and even in the field of Chinese opera and art, has long been dead. I wonder whether those precious recordings still exist in the world.

New themes and new places of performance have changed the singing form and style of Sichuan bamboo piano accordingly. Besides the traditional sitting singing, standing singing and walking singing, and with the help of body, limbs, facial expressions and other auxiliary forms, increase the artistic expression of bamboo piano. In terms of singing and accompaniment, some innovations have also been made, adding the atmosphere of the times and folk orchestra accompaniment and other forms, so that the ancient Taoist art has gained a new life.

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