She nationality novel song
She nationality novel song originated from Bailukeng Village, Xinan Town, Xiapu County, Fujian Province. It was adapted and created by She nationality folk singers according to their national living customs and psychological quality. According to the novel songs written by the national heroes, there are Zhong Liangbi, Zhong Jingqi and Blue Tenant King.
On May 20, 2006, she novel songs were listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
History of Development
She novel song originated from Bailukeng Village, Xinan Town, Xiapu County, Fujian Province. Bailukeng is the most densely populated and culturally rich area of She Nationality, which can be called the first village in East Fujian. During the Qing Dynasty, Bailukeng She people attached great importance to their own cultural education and survival and development. They ran private schools, developed commerce, and worked hard to absorb the advanced culture of the Han people. Among the She singers in this area, some literate people who can understand the Han Chapter Novels and Commentary Singing Books adapted them into oral and handwritten Singing Books of She folk songs, and combined with the characteristics of their own national language, re-created them, thus giving birth to the earliest literary and artistic form of "novel songs".
The emergence of novel songs just makes up for the lack of drama in She nationality. She people often use songs to speak for themselves and communicate their feelings. They use songs to talk about things and punish the good and evil. They use songs to spread information to form a set of folk songs custom of going up the mountain to work, receiving visitors, marriage and funeral. In addition to the adaptation of the folk singers of She nationality based on the chapters and stories of the Han nationality, the novel songs have also been re-artistically created according to the national heroes and the living characteristics and psychological qualities of the She nationality, such as Zhong Jingqi, Blue Tingyu, which eulogize the historical heroes of She nationality, and Zhong Liangbi, a folk story against racial discrimination.
As a long story song, novel song is the literary style and cultural carrier created by the She people. Historically, in Bailukeng village, outstanding singers such as Zhong Xueji, Reddo and Zhong Xuehua appeared. Their heyday lasted from the Qingdaoguang period of the late 19th century to the early 20th century to the early Republic of China.
She songs can be divided into four types: narrative songs, novel songs, traditional folk songs and modern folk songs, and according to the emergence of these categories, the history of She nationality is revealed. She folk singers sing to historical or artistic fictional figures both inside and outside the ethnic group, some of which are based on long narrative poems written by the heroes of the ethnic group, such as Zhong Liangbi's Advice against Examination, and some of which are adapted from chapters of novels or commentary singing books of the Han nationality, such as Biography of White Snake .
From the content point of view, the novel songs can be roughly divided into two categories: one is adapted from Han Chapter Fiction, Commentary Book and Folklore Stories, such as Meng Jiangnu's Seeking for a husband, Niulang Zhinu, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, White Snake Biography, Confucius'Past Passes, Granny Biography, Xue Pinggui, Tang Bohu and Eight Beauties. Lou, Qianlong Xiajiang Nan, etc. One is a novel song written on the basis of the deeds of national figures (especially heroes), such as Zhong Liangbi, Lan Ting Yu, Marshal Tian, Zhong Jing Period, etc. . In addition, "She Music Culture" considers that novel songs refer to stories adapted from Han Chapter Novels or Fuzhou commentary and singing books, as well as the life stories of She people themselves, such as "She Gangshan", "Bai He Du Shuang", "Shi Lianhua", "Seeking Xianniang", "Sacrifice Song", "Chuzhou Lighting", "Zhong Jingqi and Lei Wanchun" and so on.
From a formal point of view, the seven-character novel song is a sentence, each four sentences is a unit, called "one", each novel song has at least dozens; there are metrical requirements, one, two and four final words must be used in the same rhyme, similar to the "seven-character" of Chinese metrical poems, but it pays attention to the rhyme of She dialect; although the song books are recorded in Chinese characters, there are often phonetic borrowed words that foreigners can not understand. It shows strong native language characteristics .
One of the most important occasions for singing novel songs is "the couple singing when the visitors come and go". In the old She village, as long as there were native guests coming, there would be a personal song that night. When night falls, people will eat dinner early and gather at the host's house. Singers from the village also meet to challenge the guests. If there is a female guest, the young men in the village must come on the stage to sing, while the young women must come on the stage to sing, usually with the same surname and the same sex. In the courtyard, men and women sit on the left and on the right, with the singers on the periphery. Activity procedures are prescribed, and there are similarities and differences between different She areas. Usually it is necessary for the host to go to the singing hall first. The host singer brings tea to the guests and invites them to sing back and sing to each other. After the invitation for tea, if the guest does not receive the tea late and does not respond to the right, the host will adopt the agitation method, singing songs that can stimulate the customer's self-esteem or wear high hats to the guest, "tease" the guest to achieve the purpose of the song. The guest must wait for the master to sing the preface song "Eight Immortals" or "Wang Fengtou" (also known as "Hornet Head" or "Phoenix Head"), before the guest begins to sing. After the above etiquette has been completed, both the host and the guest enter the substantive couplet song. Generally, the main singer sings one song and the guest sings one disc song, and there is also one song for each of them. The content of the song is very rich. Both men and women should sing and answer once, and answer accurately. If one party does not answer accurately, it will be regarded as losing a round, just like the Han couples. Generally, in the first half of the night, the "scattered strips" are short miscellaneous songs, such as tray songs, flower songs, etc. They can also be improvised to compose the tray singing. After the midnight break, after singing "Please Dim Sum Song", the novel songs are usually sung in the second half of the night. In addition to singing some polite and polite songs, almost all of them sing novel songs. This is called "pair of novels", that is to say, to compete for novel songs, to determine the total number of novel songs that can be sung by all parties. When singing a novel song, both the subject and the guest can sing different novel songs, such as The Story of the Lady, The Story of the White Snake, one by one, in turn. They can also sing the same novel song in chorus, one by one, but they can not repeat the same novel song. This is always compared until the other side has no songs to sing and admits defeat. In the morning of the next day, we will sing the song "Send God" and "Send the Maid" (or "Send Lang") to the guests. The guests will sing the song "Thank you" and so on.
"Song Festival and Song Club" is also an important occasion for singing novel songs. Some traditional festivals of She nationality, such as "March 3", "July 7", "September 9" and "Fenglong Festival", will hold grand song festivals. These festivals are also Pange festivals of She nationality. For example, on March 3rd, the She people are also known as "Wu Fan Festival" and "Pai Song Festival". On this day, they made Wufang to commemorate the victory of Lei Wanxing, the national hero of the Tang Dynasty, in fighting against the Tang army. They also worshipped the God of valley to their ancestors. They gathered together to hold a Pansong Festival and competed in the Pansong Hall with the song of "belly talent". There are also many She people will choose to marry on this day, after the wedding ceremony to the dinner party, "the latter half of the night is singing for the happy opera story song, wine song, such as... "White Snake Biography", "Liang Shanbo and Yingtai", "Peony to Lesson", "Liu Hai Cutting firewood", "Three Princesses" and so on , "March 3" Song Festival is a big gathering of She people everywhere. The range of novel songs involved in the pan song is very wide, which also plays a role in inheriting and promoting the development of novel songs. In addition to the "March 3rd" concert, various disc concerts on festivals such as "Dragon Festival", "July 7th", "September 9th" are also important occasions for inheriting and singing novel songs.
Novel song is a kind of long story song. The theme and content are mostly based on the stories of Chinese folk operas and operas, which are different from the daily miscellaneous songs of She nationality. Its basic characteristics are:
1. Strong narrative and storyline;
2. Strict structure and regulations;
3. Apply various techniques to artistic processing of characters.
4. Each piece is composed of many single songs. The structure of the single song is four lines and seven characters in each line. It is similar to the "seven unique" of Chinese metrical poems, and there are dozens of short novel songs.
5. The author's signature is cleverly hidden at the end of the song.
In addition, besides the novel Journey to the West, Legend of White Snake, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai adapted by the folk singers of She nationality according to the chapters of the Han novel or script, the novel songs are also re-artistically created according to the heroes and the characteristics of life and psychological quality of She nationality. They are rich in content, diverse in form, lively in language, harmonious in rhyme and without allusions. Without exaggeration and whitewash, it integrates narration, chanting and lyricism, and is simple and true.
She novel song has been widely recognized by the She people. It is not only the quintessence of She nationality's ballads, but also the most representative form of She nationality's cultural expression and the most distinctive art category in eastern Fujian. Novel songs occupy an important position in the history of She culture and literature, and are a progressive product of the development of She culture.
Among them, Bailukeng novel song occupies a unique position in She culture, which is the essence of She ballad, the highest form of She literature, and the most representative form of She culture. The emergence of novel songs ended the She nationality's history of no drama, and its influence spread to Fujian, Zhejiang and the whole country. The excavation and protection of Bailukeng She's novel songs is an effective bridge and way to maintain the She's culture. Bailukeng Novel Song has gone beyond its own value category and become the cultural heritage of the whole She nationality. Therefore, as a symbol product of the national cultural progress, it has irreplaceability .
The flourishing of novel songs is inseparable from the rise of She intellectuals in the late Qing Dynasty. Among the creative groups, the most famous representative is Zhong Xueji (1856-1924). Driven by him, Bailukeng Village compiles She songs by Zhong Xueyuan, Zhong Caoyu, Lei Shaochun, Zhong Guosheng and other singers. In addition to Bailukeng, Xiapu County also has Qinghao Yantian, Nanmen Mountain in Xinan, Geteng Bay in Shajiang, Qinghuao, Yuyue Mountain in Zhou Yang, Shiba Pier, Shuimu Pit and other places, and many singers have written a large number of novel songs, forming a novel song creation group. In this era, the spiritual and cultural heritage left by this creative group to future generations is the innovation in the form, enrichment in content and expansion in theme of She folk songs. From then on, novel songs have become the representative cultural expression form of She nationality and the unique artistic category of East Fujian.
In the process of creation and dissemination of novel songs, the Funing Sanming Guild Hall is an important base for Zhong Xueji to create novel songs. He used the objective conditions and conveniences provided by the Guild Hall to collect materials extensively, enriched the creation of novel songs and became a generation of song king. At the same time, Sanming Guild Hall is also an important place for spreading She songs. Sanming Guild Hall is the earliest meeting place of She ethnic group in eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang, which integrates ancestor worship, joint clan worship, meeting, activities, food and shelter. During their stay in the house, the She clansmen from all over the country took songs as their pleasure and copied a large number of She songs from Zhong Xueji and Bailukeng, which spread rapidly .
But in the mid-20th century, the tradition of She-song declined, and fewer and fewer young people could sing her-song, leaving only some old people still sticking to it. In Bailukeng Village, a large number of copies of She singers and ancient books used by She Xiucai have been moth-eaten. In fact, the loss and theft of cultural relics began in the 1980s, and a large number of handwritten song books are in a state of self-survival and self-destruction. Zhong Changyao said that in the 21st century, the young people in the village are busy working to earn money and have no intention to learn to sing novel songs. Only the elderly over 50 can sing novel songs in the village .
By 2006, there were 130 copies of She nationality novel songs and oral novel songs. Zhong Changyao, the descendant of the king of songs, not only sang and passed on songs, but also collected folk songs. He collected more than 160 pieces of She songs with more than one million words, and has sorted out more than 500 pieces including novel songs. However, the number of inheritors of novel songs is decreasing, and the creation of novel songs has basically stopped. Relevant rescue and protection work needs to be launched urgently .
As of 2010, Zhong Changyao has published 2 million words of Fujian East She Culture Complete Book and 1 million words of Xiapu She Novels and Songs. He is also preparing to publish a third 3 million words of She Novels and Songs Book. And the village elementary school also opened a special lesson of She nationality novel song, taught by him personally .
Xiapu Minority Middle School and Bailukeng She Primary School have set up a She Novel and Song Learning Institute, which specializes in teaching She minority culture, such as She language, She songs and She dance, to her children. By 2015, more than 240 She students had participated in the training .
In 2000, Ningde City established the She Nationality Folk Song Festival in East Fujian, and held six concerts successively.
In 2004, Ningde organizers made a thorough investigation of the original eco-She folk songs in the whole city, and rescued and filmed "The Special Collection of She Nationality's Original Eco-Folk Songs in Eastern Fujian Province" .
On May 20, 2006, she novel songs were approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list .
In 2008, Xiapu County set up a non-governmental organization "Xiapu County She Culture and Education Research Society" to protect and promote She culture and She ballads. The seminar raises funds through various non-governmental channels, collates She folk songs, organizes songs and carries out the protection of She culture .
In 2009, the list of "the second batch of representative inheritors of provincial intangible cultural heritage projects" in Fujian Province was published. Among them, the inheritors of She novel songs are Zhong Changyao of Xinan Town, Xiapu County, and Lei Hanlin of Xiapu County Minority Middle School.
Funing Sanming Guild Hall, once a place for the creation and dissemination of She novel and song, was listed as a provincial cultural relic protection unit in Fujian in 2010 after a century of ups and downs.