Shaoxing Pinghu Tune

Home Culture 2019-06-14

Shaoxing Pinghu Tune

Shaoxing Pinghu Diao, also known as "Yuejun Nanci", or "Shaoxing Pinghu Diao" for short, is a popular form of folk art in Shaoxing and its surrounding areas in Zhejiang Province. It is said that this kind of folk art originated in the early Ming Dynasty and took shape in the early Qing Dynasty.

Shaoxing Pinghu Dialect is elegant in language, beautiful in melody, rich in melody and unique in style, with strong literariness, music and artistry. Traditional programs include Ganluo Ji, Guyu Cup and Pisces Fall.

On May 20, 2006, the "Shaoxing Pinghu Diao" declared by Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists, project number V-17.

Historical Evolution

Background Origin

There are different opinions on the origin of the Pinghu Diao in Shaoxing, which has been handed down from generation to generation, or can be seen in the records. In the oral legends of the artists of Pinghu Diao in Shaoxing, there are several statements as follows: First, the author thinks that "Jianhu in Shaoxing, also known as Pinghu, is called Pinghu Diao" for this kind of rap and singing art. It seems that Pinghu tune is regarded as a native rap art of Shaoxing, but there is no such saying that Pinghu tune is transmitted to the south of the Yangtze River. Mr. Zhou Zuoren said: Pinghu Diao "or from Huzhou," which is not in line with this. Secondly, it holds that "Pinghu Diao was originally called"Peaceful Harmony"because its melodious music is so gentle that it is called"Peaceful Harmony". In Shaoxing dialect, "lake" and "harmony" belong to two rhymes, which can not be changed. Thirdly, it holds that the name of Pinghu Diao is derived from the poem "Appreciating the Moon in Pinghu" sung by Pinghu Diao. In the name of a festival poem of "Appreciating the Moon in Pinghu", it is also taken for granted that Shaoxing Pinghu Dialect is mainly composed of four books. Maybe there are other legends, not to mention.

Seen in articles and writings, there are: First, Chen Ruheng's Talking History contains: "Pinghu Diao is called Pinghu Diao. It is said that hundreds of years ago, maybe in the early Ming Dynasty, there were two scholars named Pinghu and Hu in Shaoxing. Because of their merits and fames, they were determined to be enterprising, so they were used as the spirit of eight-part articles to write popular folk art, which resulted in the creation of Pinghu." In fact, this is also a legend. It is hard to say that Pinghu is a native rapper of Shaoxing. Second, in the year of the Republic of China (1939), ShangHai Dadong Publishing House's Drama Monthly, Volume 2, Volume 3, contained Thorn Gong's Yue Opera Miscellaneous Talks. The article holds that "since the Qingping tune of the Tang Dynasty spread across the border, Yue people have made other sounds, creating a seven-character drama that resembles a song but not a song, i.e. the current Yue Xing Ping tune, elegant and elegant, and peaceful in tone, which is the essence of the It is also misunderstood from the word "flat tone", which is difficult to confirm.

It was Mr. Zhou Zuoren who really explained the origin of Shaoxing Pinghu Tune. Zhou Zuoren pointed out in his article Hu Xiaoer II, according to the records of Yuejun Southern Ci in Shanyin Lv Shanbao's Six Red Poetry Tales and Ye Tengxiang's Shanren Magazine, that "the so-called Southern Ci Gai in this case is the Pinghu Diao in Yuezhong, also known as Pinghu Diao, or someone from Huzhou." Singers were not professional, mostly ordinary people or lazy people of their children's travels. They were close to Beijing's children's books. They were known as Mr. Ping Tiao. Recruiters should be quite respectful, and their diet should be clean. At that time, there were many people who were good at this skill, but none of them were as famous as others. Hu Xiucai was the only one. Hu Xiucai is "Hu Siyuan Xiucai Literary Collection".


This tune was originated in the early Ming Dynasty and prevailed in the early Qing Dynasty. During the reign of Qianlong (1736-1795), Shaoxing had Pinghu tune, known as "Yuejun Nanci", and Hu Siyuan, a master of Pinghu tune, which could stand in line with Liu Jingting and Su Kunsheng, who were famous musicians of that time. Shanyin Lv Shanbao's "Six Red Poetry Tales" said: "Southern Ci and Northern Guer Ci are only enough to entertain village couples and children. If there are few people with knowledge, they disdain to listen, so skilled people, no elegant people. Huiji Hu Siyuan's collection of talented writings, Yougong rhymes, a little longer, that is, good at singing Southern Ci and clicking on old editions, are all excellent writings. Among the famous Manchu scholar-bureaucrats, they can be said to stand side by side with Liu Jingting's storytelling and Su Kunsheng's Kunqu Opera. Ye Tengxiang's "Zheng Zhi Shanren Magazine" also said: "Hu Xiao-2, a scholar in a magazine, is uninhibited; he is good at decoration, good at humor, and is skilled in writing. Its voice is softer and crisper, such as singing gorgeous words, can make people drunk; singing sad books, can make people cry, for Yuejun Nanci first... Hu Xiaoernan's Ci poems are the most respectable for people to celebrate their birthday, marry and have children. There are not enough actors to perform.

By the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, Shaoxing Pingtiao artists were most famous for Zhou Dunfu, and they were unique in singing. Pingtiao artists were called "Dunqiang" in the world of Pingtiao, and their younger brother Shenfu was also a famous artist. After Dunfu's death, Aunt Xia inherited her father's career and went out to sing for fear that her performance might be slightly inferior to her father's. Later than Dunfu, the propagators of the flat tone are Shan Zaoting, Zhao Bolan and so on. Later, Pan Pinkun, Shan Longqing and so on. The period of the Republic of China was the peak period, and it was one of the Southern Ci songs. After the ten years of the Republic of China (1921), the famous artists of Pinghu Dialogue included Father History, Liu Bin, Wang Zhaosheng and so on. Shaoxing Pinghu Dialect is a kind of sitting and singing literature and art. No matter how many people participate in the performance, only one person plays three strings while the rest are assisted by musical instruments. In the old days, singers and appreciators were mostly upper-class social figures, no professional artists, singing range was very small, coupled with high and few songs, the audience was extremely limited, and began to decline in the 1940s.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the East China Academy of Traditional Opera and the Central Academy of Traditional Opera sent people to investigate the Pinghu Dialogue in Shaoxing. The Silhouette Bureau of Pinghu Dialogue in Wenshaoxing, Zhejiang Province, and the Zhejiang Mass Art Museum also conducted audio interviews. In 1953, at the invitation of East China Opera Research Institute, Shi Shifu and Qian Dake went to Shanghai to hold "Shaoxing Pinghua Appreciation Conference", and produced records "Zeng Ji Li Hua Rainy Day" and "Single-knife Meeting". In 1963, the former Shaoxing Quyi Troupe set up a "flat tune group" to train trainees, taught by Qian Dake and others, and performed business performances. After the "Cultural Revolution" began, the flat-tune singing group disintegrated, and most of the older generation of artists died. Later scholars also changed careers, and there were no professional singers. In 2006, Pinghu Lake in Shaoxing was selected as the first national "non-heritage" list. Later, Zheng Guanfu and Wang Yuying were recommended as successors of the national "non-legacy" project of Pinghu Water Transfer Project in Shaoxing.

Epidemic areas

Shaoxing Pinghu Diao is popular in Shaoxing, Hangzhou, Jiaxing and Huzhou of Zhejiang Province.

Inheritance and Protection

Current situation of circulation

By 2002, according to the census, Sun Shunhua, Wang Yuying, Zheng Guanfu, Wang Jiabao, Shenlin, Lin Yingqing, Fu Yaoying, Peng Qiuhong, Xu Xianping and Zhou Junda were also able to sing Shaoxing Pinghu Dialect. Most of them had changed their professions and Pinghu Dialect performances had been interrupted for more than 20 years. Six of them, Wang Yuying, Zheng Guanfu, Wang Jiabao, Shenlin, Lin Yingqing and Fu Yaoying, were graduates of the Pinghu Diversion Training Course in the 1960s. They had performed professional performances, but they are all over 60 years old.

The rapid development of modern society has made a great impact on the survival and continuing development of traditional culture, and so has Quyi. Modern media means are various, modern people's cultural life is rich and colorful. Fast food culture brought by modern media such as TV, film and Internet gradually replaces traditional culture. Fast pace and noisy life make more and more people unable to appreciate the slow melody of Pinghu tune. Quyi enthusiasts and enthusiasts have decreased dramatically, the participation of the public has become smaller and smaller, and the audience's decline has made its market shrinking, so that the spreading area has been shrinking, and the inheritance vein has been faulted or even disappeared. Under this background, Pinghu Water Transfer Project is becoming more and more endangered, and its survival and inheritance are in great crisis.

protective measures

At the end of 2004, Shaoxing Museum of Mass Art carried out multi-channel and multi-form protection work in order to rescue Pinghu Diao, an ancient song. Collect relevant information about Pinghu Dialogue, record-making, new works, adult training courses and children training courses, etc.

In June 2006, Shaoxing Museum of Mass Art reopened the second adult training course of Pinghu Transfer Project in order to carry out protection work and train inheritance team. At the same time, the research and protection work of Pinghu Dialogue was carried out jointly with the Music College of Shaoxing University of Arts and Sciences, the teaching and Research Department of Shaoxing Education Bureau, Shaoxing Art School, Luxun Primary School, Tashan Central Primary School and Chexue Primary School.

In June 2007, a special concert of Pinghu Dialogue was solemnly launched on the second National "Cultural Heritage Day" to show the achievements of protection work to the society.

representative figure

Zheng Guanfu, male, Han, born in 1945 in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. Zheng Guanfu was admitted to Shaoxing Quyi Training Course in 1961. He was taught by Hu Shaozu and Qian Dake, famous artists of Pinghu Dialogue in Shaoxing. Zheng Guanfu's singing features are clear and precise, clear and crisp voice, sound luck and Shaoxing local language can be closely combined, can line tone, singing style is unique; at the same time, he said that the expressive power is clear and natural, rhythm is smooth; the three-string playing is also very flexible and natural, inheriting the elegant ancient style of Shaoxing Pinghu. Its representative bibliographies include The Legend of White Snake, Folding Gui Pavilion and so on; the traditional festival poems Zeng Ji Li Hua Rainy Day, Single-knife Meeting, etc. His self-compiled and self-performed long bibliography of Pinghu Diao in Shaoxing, Qin Xianglian and Two Tolerances in Suzhou, etc., also have considerable influence. Zheng Guanfu has been engaged in the creation of new musical works for a long time. Many of his works have won prizes in provincial opera tunes, performances and competitions. Zheng Guanfu has been traveling to various primary and secondary school heritage bases, in order to rescue, protect and inherit the ancient Shaoxing Pinghu tune, spare no effort to teach skills. In February 2008, Zheng Guanfu was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects.

Wang Yuying, female, Han nationality, born in 1945 in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. In 1961, Wang Yuying was admitted to Shaoxing Quyi Training Course. She was taught by famous Shaoxing Pinghu Dialogue artists Hu Shaozu and Qian Dake. She inherited the tradition of Pinghu Dialect in Shaoxing. She was familiar with the rhythm of ancient poems and lyrics, and was elegant in singing sentences and dictionaries. Wang Yuying's singing is elegant and graceful, mellow and natural. She is good at playing pipa. She has unique artistic style and charm of Shaoxing Pinghu Tune in solo singing or singing accompaniment for others. The traditional bibliographies of Pinghu Dialect in Shaoxing are White Snake Biography, Pearl Tower and Fisherman's Music; the traditional festival poems Zeng Ji Li Hua Rainy Day, Zhaojun Out of Fortress, Xigong Complaint and Spring Happy, etc. Since the mid-1980s, Wang Yuying has done a lot of work in recording, excavating and sorting out the ancient Pinghu tuning tunes in Shaoxing, leaving valuable artistic materials for the audio and video of traditional music catalogues. After the 21st century, with the help of Shaoxing Museum of Mass Art, the training of Shaoxing Pinghu Tuning Adult Class and Children Class was conducted. In cooperation with Che Mingru Primary School in Mashan Town, we teach students Shaoxing Pinghu Diao, which has also become the teaching and inheritance base of Shaoxing Pinghu Diao. In February 2008, Wang Yuying was selected as the representative successor of the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects.

Selected as a non-survivor

On May 20, 2006, the "Shaoxing Pinghu Diao" declared by Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.

The Value of Quyi

Pinghu tune is elegant, melodious, unique, with strong literariness, musicality and artistry. It is the inheritance and development of Jiangnan folk song art in Shaoxing in Ming and Qing Dynasties. It plays an important role in cultivating and improving the cultural literacy of the people in the region.

Honorary recognition

In June 2004, Shaoxing Museum of Mass Art's newly created Pinghu Dialect "Autumn Jin Song" won the gold prize for performance and silver prize for creation in the provincial drama creation contest.

In May 2007, Shaoxing Pinghu Dialect Baixue Yiyin was created and rehearsed by Shaoxing Museum of Mass Art and performed by five successors of Pinghu Dialect. It won the first prize of performance in the Third New Quyi Competition of Zhejiang Province and the National "Stars Award" Selection Competition.

In November 2007, at the 14th National "Stars Award" Quyi Final of the 8th China Art Festival, Bai Xue Yi Yin was awarded the "Stars Award" and the "Stars Award" for creation.