Shangdang Bayin Club
Shangdang Bayin Club is a kind of traditional folk wind and percussion music, which is widely spread in Changzhi and Jincheng in southeastern Shanxi Province.
On May 20, 2006, the Shangdang Bayin Conference was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.
The eight-tone concert's blowing and beating instruments are mainly the sonar, sheng, mouthpiece and dumb cavity of the blowing type; the high-pitched hu, the middle-pitched hu, the old hu, the banhu, the erhu, the Yangqin and the second string of the playing type; the old drum, the same drum, the flat drum, the palm, the gong and the bang of the percussion type.
Shangdang Bayin Society was formed and developed in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, and matured and flourished in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. After 1949, the eight-tone Club organizations in Jincheng became more popular and flourishing. During the Cultural Revolution, the Eight Tones Concert was banned and almost declined. After 1980, the Eight Tones Society revived and flourished again.
During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, music had made considerable achievements. The well-known Qin-Zhao Mianchi Club and the King of Qin wanted Zhao Wang to "strike the arrow" for fun. Folk songs and music were also popular in the three Jin Dynasties of Zhao, Wei and Han. When Zhao, Wei and Han interacted with various princes, rites and music were also handed down. Such a wide range of music exchanges have certain social conditions and social impact on the emergence of folk music in Shangdang area.
By the time of Qin and Han Dynasty, China was first-class, powerful, emperors made music and worshipped Buddha in the mountains. Therefore, court music and temple music coexisted and absorbed each other, enriched and developed themselves. The drum and percussion music in the Han Dynasty was ensemble music mainly composed of percussion and wind instruments. Then it was introduced into the Han Dynasty, processed by the court and used by the Royal family, which became the "imperial door advocacy". Jin Cuibao's Annotation of Ancient and Modern says, "Hanle music is advocated by Huangmen, so the emperor is feasting and entertaining all the ministers". At that time, the feudal rulers attached great importance to advocacy music, which was used exclusively by the Royal family, and later regarded it as a special gift for their subordinates. With the gradual expansion of the scope of gifts, it naturally opened the channels from the official to the civilian, so later there was the folk advocacy music, and there were advocacy music for the worship of gods, wedding and funeral ceremonies. These facts will spread the drumming music among the people, which are recorded in many historical books. From the characteristics of drumming music, such as drums, horns and wind instruments, warm and unrestrained rhythm and loud and magnificent sound, it can be said that the Shangdang Eight Music Concert absorbed the performance form and music characteristics of the drumming music. It also plays a direct role in the initiation and development of the Shangdang Eight Music Concert.
The performance of music and dance in Tang Dynasty can be divided into "Zheng", "San", "Ya", "Zheng" music is the music of official etiquette (also known as "Ya"), and "San" music is the folk music (that is, popular music). There are records in Bai Juyi's New Yuefu and Libu Ji. Tang Xuanzong Li Longji is a master of rhythm and drummer beater. When he succeeded Linzi King, there was a class of Sanyue in the palace, and he advocated folk music vigorously when he was in Luzhou. According to Volume 39 of Lu'an Fuzhi, "In Tang Dynasty, the folk returned the capital master system from Luzhou to Beijing by Yuan Zong". In the first year of Jinglong Tang Dynasty (707 AD) and the eleventh year of Kaiyuan (723 AD), Li Longji returned to Luzhou, where the people met with drums, music and dance. From this point of view, the performance of "blowing" can be the embryonic form of blowing.
During the Song and Jin Dynasties, folk music was more prosperous and exquisite in Shangdang area, and its compatibility was similar to the present eight-tone festival. The fresco "balcony" performance map of Daxiong Palace in Kaihua Temple, Gaoping Xili Men Erxian Temple, Song Dynasty stone carving "Team Drama" and many dance buildings (music buildings) in Shangdang area during Song and Jin Dynasties are enough to show that the grand performance of music in that year was extraordinary, and it is also a complete performance of the conditions for the emergence of the Eight Tone Festival.
Folk music and dance rap art has begun to take shape in the Han, Tang and Song and Yuan Dynasties. It also exerted a great influence on court music and drama rap art at that time. Confucius Sanchuan (Zezhou people), an artist in the Northern Song Dynasty, initiated the "Zhugong Tune".
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it should be the formation period of the Eight-tone Festival. At that time, there were various kinds of folk music, and musicians were more active. During the period of the Republic of China, there were 170 families in Jincheng alone. The story of Qilu Lantern written by Li Luyuan is based on Jiaqing in Ming Dynasty. It is actually Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty. It was written in the forty-second year of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1777). In the book, there is a record of the performance of "Longxi Opera in Zezhou Prefecture of Shanxi Province" in Kaifeng, Henan Province. In order to meet the needs of Shangdang area, the bronze instrument production workshop in southwestern Changzi County was founded in the early Qing Dynasty, and now has a history of at least 600 years.
Through the above analysis, Shangdang Bayin will be formed after more than a thousand years of polishing, melting and perfection. It is credible to define it in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty.
The specific artistic features of Shangdang Bayin Club include the following two aspects:
The Shangdang Eight Tones Club also plays in the performance. It is very exciting. Its blowing can be either "Wen Blow" or "Wu Blow". "Wen Feng" is a common playing, which can be a folk minor, a famous song, or a famous aria, or a whole play (including different lines of speech). By blowing, playing cards and old Mi (whistle), the player can make people listen to a full and colorful sound from beginning to end, and give them auditory satisfaction. "Wupu" is not only good at blowing, but also has to show kungfu. If you bite a pickaxe, the two ends of the knife are buckets full of clean water, vases or bowls full of water. At this time, you have to play two suonas through your nostrils, some of them blow a suona through your nostrils, but there is a thin stick with thick chopsticks on the bowl. There is an iron needle on the top, and a ceramic dish on the needle. In order to make the audience see more clearly, the performer stands on the table specially, the audience really appreciates it. Already. This kind of stunning activity is usually based on "musicians", of course, there are also good eight-tone clubs. In a word, it is very important to have a few good styles in the whole industry for the eight-tone festival. It is the most exciting and brilliant part of the music class. The drummer uses his superb fighting skills, such as light hitting, continuous hitting, heavy rolling, edge hitting, scraping drum nails, drum playing, flower hitting and so on, to produce all kinds of drum music timbre. The gongs and hairpins in percussion music not only sound loud, but also flicker up and down the golden percussion light, the performers follow the mood or sit or stand or jump, and have a certain appearance posture, to the climax, they throw the instruments in their hands to the high altitude, and can catch up with the next beat, which is also the place to watch (listen) applause and applause.
The form of beating and whirling in the Eight Tones Club not only enables the audience to appreciate the high art of blowing and beating, but also provides a chance for the performers of civil and military performances to set off each other and adjust each other at a slight rate.
In the process of its development and formation, the eight party music club of Shangdang has fused the music essence of court, temple, opera, folk song and Xiaoqu, forming its unique easy-going atmosphere and good foundation, and adapting to the music characteristics. No matter what kind of music, if you introduce a little processing, change the mode, change the instrument, you will feel reasonable rhyme, and constantly enrich and develop yourself. The musicians of the past dynasties have strictly grasped the principle that no matter what kind of music is introduced, the first priority is to strengthen the unique musical characteristics of "high-spirited, exciting and enthusiastic". This not only enables it to play constantly new, timely, full of vitality and vitality, but also provides an excellent opportunity for the continuous increase and innovation of its musical instruments. In the Eight Tones Club, besides the original instruments, brass wind and modern electro-acoustic instruments have been brought into their own musical instrument team. A band, there are more than a dozen to twenty or thirty people, a large-scale band has more than a hundred or several hundred people, the music level is clear, grand momentum, spectacular scenes.
Shangdang Bayin will be listed as the first batch of China's intangible cultural heritage
Category: Folk Music
Declaration area or unit: Jincheng City, Shanxi Province
The main performance venues of Shangdang Bayin Fair are ancient temple fair, Festival celebration, Street stage sitting blow, wedding, funeral and marriage performances, etc. The eight-tone concert's blowing and beating instruments are mainly the sonar, sheng, mouthpiece and dumb cavity of the blowing type; the high-pitched hu, the middle-pitched hu, the old hu, the banhu, the erhu, the Yangqin and the second string of the playing type; the old drum, the same drum, the flat drum, the palm, the gong and the bang of the percussion type. There are 31 instrumental Suites such as Da Shifan, Xiao Shifan and Ten Landscapes.
Shangdang Bayin Society was formed and developed in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, and matured and flourished in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. After 1949, the eight-tone Club organizations in Jincheng became more popular and flourishing. During the Cultural Revolution, the Eight Tones Concert was banned and almost declined. After 1980, the Eight Tones Society revived and flourished again. In recent years, at the invitation of the Ministry of Culture, Shangdang Bayin Club has performed in Beijing in Zhongnanhai and the Great Hall of the People. Shangdang Bayin Society also won the gold medal in Shanxi International Gong and Drum Festival and the National "Stars Award" competition.
At present, Shangdang Bayin Festival, mainly composed of non-governmental organizations, has an aging artist and a lack of inheritance. Many valuable artistic things are losing day by day. It is in urgent need of rescue, protection, development and magnificence.
Shangdang Bayin Association is widely spread in six counties (cities and districts) of Jincheng City in southeastern Shanxi Province. Eight-tone Festival is a music group of non-governmental organizations. It mainly uses eight kinds of musical instruments, such as drums, gongs, cymbals, sheng, xiao, flute and pipe.
Thirty-one pieces are Da Shifan, Xiao Shifan and Ten Landscapes.
Luan Drum Music of Shangdang Bayin Club participated in the selection of literary and artistic programs for the opening ceremony of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and won the gold medal of "Four Entry Communities" nationwide.
Shangdang Eight Music Club's "Drunken Taihang" won the 14th National "Stars Award".
Shangdang Bayin Society was formed and developed in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, and matured and flourished in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. After 1949, the eight-tone Club organizations in Jincheng became more popular and flourishing. During the Cultural Revolution, the Eight Tones Concert was banned and almost declined. After 1980, the Eight Tones Society revived and flourished again. At the invitation of the Ministry of Culture, Shangdang Bayin Club performed in Beijing in Zhongnanhai and the Great Hall of the People. Shangdang Bayin Society also won the gold medal in Shanxi International Gong and Drum Festival and the National "Stars Award" competition. Nowadays, in Shangdang area, there are not only eight-tone clubs in almost every village, but also two or three groups in some villages and even eight-tone clubs organized by individuals. They are able to divide and integrate, flexible and adaptable. Moreover, a large number of women's eight-tone clubs have been developed. Their appearance has increased the vitality of the band, and at the same time, they have added new troops to the eight-tone clubs in Shangdang area and the cultural team of the rural masses.
The State attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the Shangdang Bayin Conference was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.