Sankong Tourist Area in the Old City of the Ming Dynasty

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Sankong Tourist Area in the Old City of the Ming Dynasty

Qufuming Old City Tourist Area in Jining: World Cultural Heritage, one of the three holy cities in the world, national AAAAA-level tourist attractions, National Scenic spots, national key cultural relics protection units, and Beijing Palace Museum, Chengde Summer Resort as China's three major ancient buildings.

Qufuming Old Town Tourist Area of Jining is located in Jingxuan West Road, Qufu City, Jining, Shandong Province. It relies on Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and Confucius Forest in Qufu.

Confucius Temple, built in 478 B.C., has been expanding since then. It covers 327 hectares of ancient buildings. It is one of the three largest ancient buildings in China. It occupies an important position in the world architectural history and is known as the second stele forest in China.

The Confucian government, also known as the "Yansheng Gongfu", was built in the Song Dynasty. It is the residence of Confucius'descendants. It is adjacent to the Confucius Temple in the West and covers an area of about 16 hectares. After the rebuilding of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty, it became the noble residence next only to the Palace Museum in Beijing, known as "the first in the world".

Confucius Lin, also known as "the most sacred forest", is the graveyard of Confucius and his descendants, with more than 100,000 graves, covering more than 3,000 mu. It is the largest, longest lasting and most complete clan tombs and artificial gardens in China. It is an ancient man-made gardens and also a natural botanical garden.

"Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and Confucius Lin" are not only symbols and symbols of ancient China's worship of Confucianism, but also important objects for the study of Chinese history, culture and art.

geographical position

Its geographical location is in the old Confucius Hill, now Nishan Town, Qufu City, Jining City, Shandong Province.

Development and Construction

The tourist area of Qufuming Old Town (Sankong) in Jining mainly includes the scenic spots of Qufu Sankong, which refers to Confucian Temple, Confucian Mansion and Confucian Forest.

Confucius Temple, which was built in 478 B.C. and expanded continuously, has become an ancient building complex covering 327 hectares, including three palaces, one pavilion, one altar, three temples, two luxuries, two halls, two Zhais, seventeen pavilions and fifty-four gates. It is a city of palaces with magnificent momentum and huge monuments.

Confucius Mansion, built in the Song Dynasty, is the residence of Confucius'descendants. It is adjacent to Confucius Temple in the West and covers an area of about 16 hectares. It has nine courtyards, 463 halls, halls, buildings and Xuan, formerly known as Yanshenggong Mansion. Confucius, also known as the "most sacred forest", is a special cemetery for Confucius and his family. It is also the longest family cemetery in the world. The forest wall is 7 kilometers long and contains more than 20,000 ancient trees. It is an ancient man-made garden.

Confucius is a national key cultural relic protection unit, also known as the most sacred forest. Confucius is the graveyard of Confucius and his descendants. Located in the north of Qufu City, it covers an area of more than 3000 mu. It is the largest, longest lasting and most complete preservation of clan tombs and artificial gardens in China.

Major attractions

Confucian Temple

The plane of the temple is rectangular, covering 140,000 square meters and 0.7 kilometers in length from north to south. The whole Confucian temple complex runs through the central axis, symmetrical left and right, and has a rigorous layout. There are nine courtyards in front of it. There are Wuxing Gate, Shengshimen Gate, Hongdao Gate, Dazhong Gate, Tongwenmen Gate, Kuiwenge Pavilion and Thirteen Royal Stele Pavilions. From the Great Sacred Gate, the buildings are divided into three roads: Dacheng Gate, Apricot Almond altar, Dacheng Hall, Bedroom, Temple of Sacred Relics and Lianglu, which are sacrificed to Confucius, the ancestors and sages respectively Places; the east road is the sacred gate, the poetry hall, the old well, Lubi, the sacred ci, the family temple and so on, mostly the place to sacrifice the ancestors of the five generations of Confucius; the west road is the sacrificial gate, the golden silk hall, the sacred king hall, the bedroom and other buildings, which are places to sacrifice Confucius'parents. The Temple consists of five halls, one ancestral hall, one pavilion, one altar, two halls, seventeen stele pavilions and fifty-three gates. There are 466 halls and luxuries built in the Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing and Republic periods. The most famous buildings in the Confucian temple are: Hang Xingmen, Ermen, Kui Wenge, Xingtan, Dacheng Hall, Bedroom Hall, Sacred Site Hall, Poetry Hall, etc.

Dacheng Hall

Dacheng Hall is the main building of Confucius Temple. It has nine broad faces, five deep entries, 32 meters high, 54 meters long, 34 meters deep, nine ridges with double eaves, yellow tiles, flying colors, staggered arches, carved beams, painted buildings, circular corridors, magnificent. There are 28 stone pillars on the eaves, which are 5.98 meters high and 0.81 meters in diameter. Eighteen pillars on the two hills and the back eaves are shallowly carved with cloud dragon patterns. Each pillar has seventy-two dragons. The ten pillars on the front eaves are deeply relieved with cloud dragon patterns. Each pillar has two dragons flying in pairs, coiling and rising, which seems to be coming out of the wall and exquisite. Inside the palace, ten giant plaques and three couplets of couplets, such as the "Teacher's Table for All Ages", are all handwritten by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. In the middle of the temple, there are statues of Confucius, seventy-two disciples and statues of Confucian sages of all ages. Important Confucian sacrifices to emperors of all dynasties were held in the hall. His Royal Highness is a huge stone platform of Xumi, which is 2 meters high and covers an area of 1836 square meters. The terrace in front of the temple is spacious, and the "Bayou Dance" of the old sacrificial holes is held here.

Lattice star gate

The Weixing Gate is the gate of the Confucian Temple. Ancient legend has it that the Star of Ancient China is a literary star in the sky, so the name implies that there are many talented people in the country. Therefore, when ancient emperors sacrificed to heaven, they first sacrificed the Star of Ancient China, and the specifications of sacrificing Confucius were similar to those of sacrificing to heaven. Founded in the nineteenth year of the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty (1754 A.D.), Wuxing Gate has six couplets and four pillars, iron beams and stone pillars. The stone drum clip under the pillar makes the architectural style stable and dignified.

Saint gate

Two doors, also known as Shengshi Gate, are the same as the city gate. There are three doors and holes. There are reliefs of the Ming Dynasty Erlong Play Pearls in the front and back of the Shi Majesty Royal Road. The dragon in the picture flies over the river and falls into the sea, sprays clouds and spits fog, and has extraordinary momentum. Sacred Time Gate was built in Ming Dynasty. Its eaves and arches were covered with green glazed tiles. In front of the gate, the Han Baiyufang, the Ming Taihe Yuanqi Fang, praised Confucius as heaven and earth. There is a wooden Workshop on both sides of the door. The two houses are of the same shape. On the top are archways, three four columns, dense arches, warped eaves, and stone lions and statues of Tianlu.

Kuiwen Ge

Kui Wen Pavilion is located in the middle of the Confucian Temple, which is a pavilion for collecting books. In ancient China, Kuixing was one of the twenty-eight stars. The cabinet was built in the second year of the Song Dynasty (1018 AD) and rebuilt in the nineteenth year of the Ming Dynasty (1483 AD). Kuiwenge triple eaves, four dome arches, seven wide, five deep, 30 meters long, 17.62 meters wide and 23.35 meters high. The interior of the pavilion has two layers of pavilion, with a dark layer in the middle. The structure is unique and the craft is exquisite. The upper layer is a place for collecting scriptures and inks from emperors of all dynasties. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, a special staff of Kui Wen Ge's seven-item ancient books and records was set up to manage them. The lower layer is a place for collecting incense silk needed by emperors in sacrificing Confucius. This library is one of the most famous wooden structures in China.

Almond altar

The apricot altar of the Confucian temple is traditionally the place where Confucius taught, in the middle of the courtyard in front of the Dacheng Hall. In the second year of Tiansheng in the Northern Song Dynasty (1024 A.D.), an altar was built here. Around the altar, apricots were planted, named the altar of apricots, to commemorate the historical stories of Confucius'lectures on the altar of apricots. In the Jin Dynasty, pavilions were built on the altar. The two-character stone tablet of the seal book of Huaiying, a scholar party, was erected on the pavilion. In the third year of Longqing Ming Dynasty (1569 AD), the apricot altar was rebuilt, which is today's apricot altar. The apricot altar is a square pavilion with double eaves, hilltops resting on all sides, cross ridges, two layers of Huangwa eaves and double dome arches. The algae wells in the pavilion are exquisitely carved and painted with golden dragons. A poet once described the scenery of the apricot altar with wonderful sentences. "The apricot altar is unique for its early spring and its flowers are old and red every year." The apricot trees around the pavilion are flourishing and full of vitality.

In the temple, there are more than 2,000 inscriptions in the past dynasties since the Han Dynasty, including genuine grass, official seal and all kinds of body, especially the inscriptions in the Han, Wei and Six Dynasties.

Confucius Mansion

door

Confucius is situated in the center of Qufu City, facing a large pink wall with a round stone lion and a male lion more than 2 meters high on both sides of the front door. The Red-Edged black door is inlaid with a curvy pavement, and the blue-bottomed gold inscription "Sacred Palace" plaque hangs high above the middle of the door, which is traditionally handed down as Yan Song's handwriting of the Ming Dynasty. On both sides of the door, there is a pair of couplets hanging on the pillars: the government of Guoxian Xiuan Anfu Honorable, the same day and the old articles about moral saints. This couplet is handwritten by Ji Yun of the Qing Dynasty. Wenjiazimei vividly illustrates the prominent position of Confucian government in feudal society. This pair of couplets is arrogant. What makes people think deeply is the rich character of "An Fu Zun Honor" in the couplet above, and the chapter of "Article Morality" in the next couplet. From the picture above, we can see that the word "Fu" is a little less, and the word "Zhang" is a little more. It means that the position of a Saint official is listed in one article, the fields are thousands of acres, and the natural wealth is no top; Confucius and his doctrine "Virtue, Heaven and Earth, Tao crown" are ancient and modern. The "ritual and music system" of the sage's family can coexist with the heaven and the earth, and the sun and the moon shine together.

Passing through the first narrow courtyard is the second gate of Confucius Road, commonly known as the Second Gate. The gate was built in the Ming Dynasty. The gate lintel was hanging high in the Ming Dynasty poets, officials, scholars of Wenyuange University Li Dongyang handwritten "Sage's Gate" plaque. There were valves to read and support it, and the pillars were held by stone drums. There is one armpit door and one ear room on the left and right of the main door. In feudal society, only the armpit door was used in peacetime, but the main door was not opened to show solemnity.

Entering the gate of saints, there is a small, exquisite and unique screen door, which was built in the 16th year of Hongzhi in the Ming Dynasty (1503). The door is made of wood. It is not connected with the wall around. It is similar to the screen door in the independent courtyard. The screen door is covered with grey tile. Menmei is known as "Chongguangmen" because of the plaque of "Gift Chongguangmen" promulgated by Shizong's relatives. Under the four columns of the door, there are stone drums, which support the painted roof. There are four pendulous wooden carvings with gold buds at the front and back, so it is also called "pendulum flower door". It has great research value in construction technology. In the past, Chongguangmen was usually closed, and the cannon was fired only when the Confucian government ceremonies, the emperor's fortune, the imperial edicts and the rites of sacrificing Confucius were read out.

Chongguangmen is also called "plug door" because it separates the front yard from the back yard in the independent courtyard. It is said that such a siege is generally not eligible for the establishment of the official family, only the "Bangjun" can enjoy the honor, so "Bangjun tree siege" is recorded in the Analects of Confucius. The Eastern and Western halls on both sides of Chongguang Gate are six halls set up by the Confucian government in imitation of the "six departments" of the feudal dynasty.

Internal residence

In order to keep in touch with the outside world, there are two kinds of special messengers at the door of the house. One is called messenger. The other is called messenger. There are more than a dozen people on duty in the ear room beside the door. They are on duty at any time to communicate outward and inward. On the west side of the door, there is a special water trough outside the wall - stone flow. It is stipulated in the mansion that water carriers should not enter the house, but only pour water into the partition wall of the trough to flow into the house.

hall

Overweight Guangmen, there is a platform in the courtyard, the original sundial and other objects on the platform, followed by the spacious main hall, namely the Confucian Hall. This is the place where Yan Sheng Gong read out the decree to receive officials, Shen Yu Family's legal regulations, tried major cases, and held ceremonies for festivals and birthday. There are 5 halls, 3 meditations and grey tiles hanging on the top of the mountain. Under the eaves with a bucket of two liters of intersecting hemp leaf dome arch, hemp leaf head to the front, seat Dou Dou, with the style of the Ming Dynasty. In the center of the lobby, there is a picture of Liuyun and Babao Warm Pavilion. The Taishi chair in the middle is covered with a striped tiger skin. In front of the chair, there are four treasures, printing boxes and signature boxes in the study.

In the middle of the lobby hangs a plaque of "commanding the ancestor's surname" engraved with the decree of the Qing Dynasty's ancestor Shunzhi for six years (1649 A.D.). It is necessary to derive the "commanding the ancestor's surname, supervising and inspiring the ancestor, applying the religious rules, making every person obey the propriety and have no imperial gate", and stipulating various privileges of the descendant prince in the Confucian family. Since the Tang Dynasty, the court has stipulated that Qufu County decree should be held concurrently by Yan Shenggong. After the Ming Dynasty, it has stipulated that Yan Shenggong should be appointed concurrently by the Confucian clan.

On both sides and back of the hall, there are ceremonial guards of honor. For example, Golden Melon, Chaotian Stirrup, Qugun, Sparrow Gun, Gun, Genggu, Cloud Brand, Dragon Banner, Fengqi, Tiger Banner, Umbrella, Fan and other red-bottom gold official titles symbolizing their titles and privileges, such as "Heritage of Saint Gong", "Doctor Guanglu Temple", "Appreciation of Two-eyed Flowers", "Riding Horse in the Forbidden City", "Pursuit of Inspecting the School of Shandong Province", etc., are available whenever Yansheng goes out. Man-in-charge to demonstrate severely.

After the lobby, there is a corridor connected with the two halls, which are in the shape of "Gong". In the corridor there is a large long red lacquer stool called "Gelao stool". According to legend, when Yan Song, the Minister of power in the Ming Dynasty, was impeached and about to be convicted, he came to the Confucian Palace to ask his grandson-in-law Yan Shenggong to speak to the emperor, but the master of the Confucian Palace refused. This stool was the object of Yange's waiting.

Two hall

It is also called the back hall, where Yan Sheng Gong meets with bureaucrats of more than four grades and is entrusted by the emperor to take examinations for the imperial court in the year of etiquette and learning, and where children are born, there are plaques of "Qincheng Shengxu" and "Poetry, Book, Ritual and Music" hanging in the middle of the room, with several stone tablets on both sides. Among them, the "longevity" inscriptions, the "nine peaches" and the "pine crane" inscribed by Empress Dowager Cixi in her handwriting were rewarded in the 20th year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty (AD 1894) when Confucius Lingyi, the Sheng Gong, and his mother and wife went to Beijing to celebrate the birthday of Cixi. Between the ends of the second hall, the East is the Apocalypse hall and the west is the accompanying official hall.

Three Hall

After the second hall, there was a small courtyard with two tall and upright cypress trees on both sides. In the six stone basins, there was a weird Taihu stone in the north of the courtyard, namely, three halls. Santang is also called the withdrawal hall, where Yanshenggong meets officials with more than four grades, and where they handle disputes within the family and punish servants in the government. Each of the East and west parts of the courtyard has its own access to the courtyard. The east part of the courtyard is the registry, which is in charge of the government's acre deeds, and the company part is in charge of the government's general finance and finance; the west part is the library, which is the government's library archives.

After the three halls, it is the interior part of the Confucian mansion, also known as the interior house. There is a closed door - the inner house door is separated from the outside world. This door is well guarded and no outsider is allowed to enter without permission. The emperor of the Qing Dynasty gave three pairs of weapons, tiger-tailed stick, swallow-wing boring and Golden-headed jade stick, which were held by the gatekeeper and stood in front of the door. Those who did not obey the orders were punished severely.

Anterior chamber

Facing the north of the corrupt wall is the main hall with seven rooms, called Front Upper Room. This is the living room where the master of Confucian mansion receives relatives and close tribes, and also the main place where they hold family banquets and wedding and funeral ceremonies. There is a lush ten-mile fragrant tree on both sides of the courtyard. Whenever spring and summer meet, white flowers emit fragrance. There is a big platform in front of the house, and four stone drums with noses on the four corners. They are the footstones of the curtain when the Opera Troupe in the mansion sang. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Confucian mansion had dozens of opera troupes. The master gave orders and immediately started Gong singing and opera. In the front room, there is a bright bright room with a plaque of "Hongkai Ciyu" hanging in the middle. Above the hall, there is a "Shou" written by Cixi himself.

The interior furniture is exquisite, the cultural relics and antiques are dazzling. On the East side, there are Jinggen beds and chairs given to Confucius by Emperor Qianlong. On the table are the original decrees of the emperor Tongzhi. There are bright colors, simple patterns of the Ming Dynasty "cloisonne". There is a large set of Manchu and Chinese tableware on the middle table between the tips, totaling 404 pieces. There are deer, duck and fish carved on the utensils, which can be served according to their shape. There are up to 190 dishes at a meal. For a long time, Confucian cuisine has formed a delicate and unique dish - Confucian cuisine. Various dishes are exquisitely made and elegantly named, such as Hydrangea Fin, Pearl Sea Cucumber, Immortal Duck, Ginkgo biloba, Yubi Shrimp and other famous dishes, with excellent color, fragrance, taste and shape. There are four treasures of the study on the table and Confucian classics and Confucian genealogy on the bookshelf. On the East and west sides of the front courtyard, there are five auxiliary rooms, which are the internal storehouses and accounting rooms for the collection of daily rituals by the Confucian government.

Front hall

Through the front room, through a low door, they entered the front lobby. In the courtyard, the pines are tall and straight, and the fish ponds are parallel to the East and west. They are quiet and elegant and have a great sense of moving. The front lobby is seven two-storey pavilions, and the interior furnishings remain the same as before. There is a copper heating stove in the middle, which is used for heating at that time. In the "Duobao Pavilion" in the east, there are Phoenix crowns, ginseng, coral, Ganoderma lucidum, jade carvings, dental carvings and so on. The inner suite is the bedroom of Dow's wife, Confucius'seventy-sixth generation grandson and Yansheng Gong Kong Lingyi, and the inner one is the bedroom of Confucius Lingyi's two daughters. When Sun Decheng, the seventy-seventh generation, was 14 years old, the banner "The heart of a saint is like a pearl in the deep, and the heart of an ordinary person is like a ladle in the water" was hanging on the wall intact.

Rear hall building

After that, we embrace the building and enter the backyard. The back hall is seven buildings with two-storey front corridor and three auxiliary buildings with two-storey front corridor on both sides of the East and west. The backyard building is the residence of Confucius'seventy-seventh generation grandson and Yansheng Gong Kong Decheng.

In the hall, there are articles for Kong's marriage, as well as calligraphy, paintings and gifts given by friends at that time. Dongli Room was the reception room at that time. It was furnished with Chinese and Western furniture. The interior suite was the bedroom of Kong Decheng and his wife Sun Qifang. On the East wall, there are pictures of Mr. and Mrs. Kong Decheng and their children in the frame. On the west side of the emperor's building, there are two bedrooms of Mrs. Kong Decheng's wet nurse. The building in the courtyard was the place where needlework was done in the mansion at that time, and the West building was the house where the relatives of the inmates were entertained. There is also a building on the west side of the back hall building, which is the place where Yanshenggong burns incense and worships Buddha. There are five main rooms after the back hall building, called the last five, formerly known as Zaohaixuan, which was originally the place where Yanshenggong studied and became a maid's residence in the late Qing Dynasty.

Back garden

Kongfu Garden is located in the last part of Kongfu Jiujin Courtyard, covering more than 50 mu. Although the garden is not wide, it has rockery, pond water, bamboo forest, stone island, pavilion, water pavilion, flower dock, Quqiao, incense altar, living room and so on. In the 1940s, I visited the garden rockery. I remember that the garden rockery is located in the southeast of the garden. It is composed of strange rocks and rocks from all over the country. According to the mountain situation, there are distant mountains and near waters, different peaks and low mountains, dark valleys of silk rocks, winding and winding, strange peaks in caves, if hidden, small paths of sheep intestines, step by step, flowers and trees are sparse from the bottom of the mountain to the top of the mountain. Landscapers have unique ingenuity, in order to make the rockery spray beads, especially at the edge of the mountain Qiaopu Taihu stone, usually spring drops, rainy waterfalls fly, the beauty of the scenery is like a fairyland.

Confucius Garden is also known as Tieshan Garden. In fact, there is no iron mountain in Tieshan Garden, only a few iron ores in the northwest corner of the garden which resemble a mountain peak. Kong Qingrong, who moved in during the reinvention of the garden during the Qing and Jiaqing Dynasties, said that Tian Jiangshen Third Ring Road helped him to build the garden. He himself also claimed to be the owner of the Tieshan Garden.

The garden was built in the 16th year of Hongzhi in the Ming Dynasty (1503 AD). It was designed by supervisors of Li Dongyang, Changsha, when it was rebuilt and expanded to the Confucian government. Li Dongyang was Prince Taifu, Official Shangshu, Bachelor of Huagaidian University and President of National History. Why did he design it personally? Because Li Dongyang's daughter married Confucius'sixty-second generation grandson, Yansheng Gong Kong Wenshao, and became a princess of Pingong. For his daughter, he worked so hard to build a garden. After the construction of Confucius Mansion and Temple, Li Dongyang wrote poems and Fu four times, and wrote inscriptions on tablets to remember the grand occasion. After this construction, in the Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty, Yan Song took the place of Li Dongyang. He was also the prince, the official, the scholar of Huagaidian University and the president of national history. He was the Prime Minister of the dynasty. He also took a fancy to Confucius and married his granddaughter to Confucius'sixty-fourth generation grandson, who was a lady of the first grade. Yan Song also helped Yan Shenggong to expand and renovate Confucian mansion and gardens, moved strange rocks and rocks from famous mountains and transplanted famous flowers and plants from gardens around the country, which made the garden more impressive. He Aodai Yansong.

From Li Dongyang, Yan Song to Emperor Qianlong, the Confucian Garden underwent three major repairs, including medium and minor repairs. As a result, the garden grew larger and occupied more than 10 mu. Among them are mountains, waters, forests, Quqiao, flower docks, water pavilions, fountains, as well as water islands, cool flower halls, stone altars worshiping gods of flowers, balconies admiring the moon, altars burning incense to read. There is also a nearly 400-year-old "five gentlemen cypress", a tree with five branches and a middle-aged Sophora tree, so it is also known as "five cypress holding sophora". There are poems praised that: five trunks with branches and leaves, Lingling can withstand winter. Sound suspicion, tiger and leopard, form and desire turn into dragon. Curved paths shade the summer, and high Sophora trees become thicker. Natural gentleman, Heaodai Yansong.

Kong Lin

Wangu Changchun Square

Located on the forest road in Confucius, the stone structure, six columns and five floors, and the four words "Wangu Changchun" in the roof of Ludian Hall were inscribed at the beginning of Wanli 22 (1594) in Ming Dynasty. It is 22.71 meters long and 7.96 meters wide. During the reinvention and reinforcement period of Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty. There are exquisite patterns of Panlong, Wufeng, Kirin, horse, zebra deer, tuanhua and Xiangyun carved on the Stone Square. They are magnificent and beautiful in shape.

Konglin Gate (Zhishenglin Square)

Kong Zhisheng Linmen was built from Yuan Dynasty to Shun Dynasty (1331). Its archway was added to Yongle in Ming Dynasty (1424). It was renamed "Zhishenglin" in Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty. Located in the north of Changchun Fang, Wangu, in front of Dalin Gate. Built in the mid-Ming Dynasty, it was rebuilt in the reign of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty. Wooden structure, four pillars, three floors, green tile roof, 11.35 meters long, 4.40 meters wide, the Fangming floor carved with the words "most sacred forest". There is a pair of stone lions carved in 1634 in Chongzhen, Ming Dynasty. Two doors in Kong Lin

The Shinto is about 400 meters long. The Shinto is lined with cypress and cypress on both sides, surrounded by red walls. At the end of the Shinto, there are two doors of Confucius and two stone inscriptions on the forehead of the door, the "Most Sacred Forest Square".

Two doors in Kong Lin

It was built in the 10th year of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty (1732).

Confucius tomb

Confucius was born in 551 B.C. and died in 479 B.C. at the age of 73, where he was buried.

Confucius Tomb is located in the south-central part of Confucius Forest, 30 meters east-west, 28 meters north-south and 5 meters high. Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone Stone The inscription "Xuan Sheng Tomb" in front of the inscription "Dacheng to Shengwen Xuan Wang Tomb" and the inscription "Xuan Sheng Tomb" in the back of the inscription. There are stone sacrifices, wine pools, stone worshippers and brick flower lattice walls in front of the inscription. There are two stone tablets in front of the tomb, which were erected in the eighth year of Ming Dynasty orthodoxy (1443), Huang Yangzheng's book, and Confucius'fiftieth generation Sun Yansheng, Confucius' Yuan, three years after Yuan Nai Mazhen (1244). The Tomb of Confucius is the tomb of Confucius carp in the East and the tomb of his grandson Confucius in the south. The layout of the tomb is called carrying children and holding grandchildren.

Zigong Zhikai

After Confucius'death, the disciples brought their native tree species and planted them around Confucius' tomb. There were many kinds of trees in Confucius'forest. The Kaishu planted by Zigong died in the Ming Dynasty, but only trees remained.

Kong Linzhuang, later generations erected monuments and pavilions to mark the commemoration.

Enjoy Hall

Situated behind the tomb gate, in front of Confucius'tomb. Five nine purlin Xieshan Huangwa roof, front corridor, 24.18 meters long, 13.18 meters wide. The Ming Hongzhi Decade (1494) was founded, the Ming Wanli 22 years (1594), the Qing Yongzheng 9 years (1731), and the reconstruction in 1977. In the palace, there is a handwritten inscription by Emperor Hongli of the Qing Dynasty, "The Tablet of Admonishing Confucius and Linbing Liquor".

There are four pairs of stone carvings beside Yongdao in the Hall of Enjoyment. They are called Huabiao, Wenbao, Jiaodou and Weng Zhong. Huabiao is a stone pillar in front of the tomb, also known as a watchdog; Wenbao, like a leopard, spraying fire under its armpit, gentle and kind, is used to guard the tomb; Jiaodong, also an imaginary monster, is said to be traveling 18,000 miles a day, with four languages, and distant events outside the Ming Dynasty; Weng Zhong, a stone figure, passed down as the Qin Dynasty's parrot general, Weizhen Frontier Fortress, later symmetrical, sculpture and Wu statues, both called Weng Zhong, to guard the tomb. Two pairs of stone beasts were carved in the reign of Xuanhe in Song Dynasty. Weng Zhong was carved in the reign of Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty. On the front of Yongdao is the Hall of Enjoyment, which has five halls, five halls wide, the top of Huangwaxie Mountain, the front and rear corridor wooden frame, and the heavy five-step duoquan under the eaves. In the palace, there are some poems and sentences in the Qing Emperor Hongli's handwritten "Observing Confucius, Linbing and Liquor Monument", such as "the teachings have lasted for a long time, and Mount Tai has not declined at last". During the War of Liberation, Commander Zhu De held military meetings in this hall.

Tomb of Confucius Lingyi

It is located on the east side of Lin Lu in the northeast of Konglin. It is 13.00 meters east-west, 9.00 meters north-south and 2.80 meters high. It is a medium-sized grave. The seal book of the stone tablet in front of the tomb is "The Tomb of Mr. Yanting in Confucius'76th-generation Sun Yiyan's Sacred Cemetery". Stele carving wheat ear forehead, Longbian, stone carving for the case, stone tripod, silk pond, wine pool each one. Kong Shangren's Tomb

Walking eastward along Huanlin Road, in the northeast direction of Confucius Forest, after passing Shifang, a huge monument was erected beside the road, which read "The Tomb of Mr. Wai Lang Dongtang, a member of Guangdong Qing officials in Fengzhi Doctor's household". This is the tombstone of Kong Shangren, a famous playwright and author of Peach Blossom Fan in the early Qing Dynasty.

Kong Shangren's tomb is about 150 meters away from the north wall of the forest, 8.43 meters east-west, 7.70 meters north-south and 3.13 meters high. It is a medium-sized grave. The stone tablet in front of the tomb is rounded and carved with two dragons playing pearls. The inscription is "The Tomb of Mr. Wai Lang Dongtang, a member of Guangdong Qingli Department of Fengdu Doctor's Family". In the thirteenth year of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty (1735), the stone was erected in April. There was a stone confession in front of the tomb.

From here to the west, there is a tomb group written in the book "Luyin Praise De". Confucius'descendants, Confucius Qian, Confucius Zeus, Confucius Biao, Confucius Pao and so on, are buried here. Since the Han Dynasty tombs westbound, there are Ming tombs, where the tombs are dotted with numerous steles and stone animals in groups. The steles written by Li Dongyang and Yan Song, the famous calligraphers of the Ming Dynasty, stand among them.

Yu Shifang

A memorial archway for the daughter of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. Chuan Qianlong's daughter had a black mole on her face. The fortune teller said, "The Lord has a disaster all his life. He must marry a blessed person to avoid it." It was argued in the DPRK that only the saints'descendants were the most appropriate. Because Manchu and Han Dynasty were not allowed to intermarry, Qianlong allowed his daughter to marry the Confucian family after Minzhong. This workshop is in memory of Yu Shi.

The forest of steles, tablet forest

According to statistics, since the Han Dynasty, the Confucian forests have been renovated 13 times, planted 5 times and expanded 3 times. The wall around Konglin is 7.25 kilometers long, 3 meters high and 5 meters thick. The total area of the wall is 2 square kilometers. As a clan cemetery, the porous forest is larger than Qufu City. It has been buried for more than 2000 years without interruption. Here we can study the burial of the Spring and Autumn Period and the tombs of the Qin and Han Dynasties, as well as the development of politics, economy and culture and the evolution of funeral customs in the past dynasties. In 1961, the State Council promulgated it as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. "Tombs are thousands of years old, forests are deep and cold in May." There are more than 100,000 trees in the Confucian forest. Legend has it that after Confucius'death, "disciples each planted with quadrangular and exotic trees, so there are many different trees. The Lu people have been unable to name them from generation to generation." Today, some trees in the Confucian forest can not be named by people. Among them, cypress, birch, oak, elm, locust, regular script, plain, maple, poplar, willow, sandalwood, privet, five flavors, cherry blossoms and other big trees, with intertwined roots and luxuriant branches; wild chrysanthemum, Pinellia ternata, bupleurum, Prince ginseng, Ganoderma lucidum and hundreds of other plants also compete for glory in accordance with the times. Kong Lin is a natural botanical garden. There is no way to see the broken stele in the deep tree. In the Confucian forest covered by ten thousand trees, stone tablets are like forests and stone rituals are in groups. Apart from a number of famous Han monuments, they have been moved into the Confucian Temple. Therefore, Confucius Lin is also called a veritable stele forest. Shinto

Out of Qufu City Gate to the north, you can see two rows of warehouses, cypress and cypress, such as dragons, standing in the middle of the road, which is the Confucian Shinto. There stands a Changchun Square in the Tao. This is an exquisitely carved stone workshop with six stone pillars supported by 12 stone lions with different looks crouching on both sides. The four characters "Wangu Changchun" in Fangzhong were inscribed at the beginning of the 22nd year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1594). However, during the reign of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty, the inscription "Fengwen Renovation in July of the 10th year of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty" was inscribed on the Fang. There are Panlong, Wufeng, Kirin, horse, zebra deer, tuanhua and Xiangyun carved on the Stone Square, and Erlong opera pearl carved in the middle, accompanied by Danfeng Chaoyang decoration. The whole Stone Square is magnificent and beautiful in shape.

There is a green tile Pavilion on both sides of the square and a big stone tablet in the pavilion. In 1594, Zheng Rubi, a bureaucrat of the Ming Dynasty, and Lian Biao, set up in the east of Wanli, inscribed the ten characters of Confucius'Shinto, the most saintly teacher of Dacheng, and in the west, the two men set up the monument of "rebuilding forest temples in Queli" the following year. Both tablets are very tall, with carved patterns on the head and vivid tortoise skin under them.

Sushui Bridge

From the west to the Saint Lin Men, the road is about 200 meters ahead. There is a stone square carved with Yunlong dragons to ward off evil spirits in the north of the road. The two sides of the square are inscribed with the words "Sushui Bridge". The north side is inscribed with Kong Wenshaoli, the second year of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty, and the south side is inscribed with Yongzheng Decade. In Fangbei, an arch bridge with a high uplift was erected over the Sushui River.

Sushui was an ancient river, which merged with Sishui and was divided into two rivers in the north of Qufu. In the Spring and Autumn Period, Confucius gave lectures between Shusi and later Confucianism. However, in order to commemorate Confucius, later generations referred to the moat of the State of Lu as the Shushui River, and built exquisite fangs and bridges. There are four square courtyards on the north and east side of the bridge. They are called Sitang, Tangguang and East-West Chambers. They are the places where the worshippers dressed when they sacrificed Confucius. The interior walls are inlaid with a large number of stone tablets praised by later scholars for Confucius Lin, such as "Phoenix sometimes gathers Jiashu, every bird dares not nest in the deep forest", "thorns do not grow in the field, the nest is long to avoid Kailin wind" and so on. Another small courtyard adjacent to the east of the courtyard, inscribed on the forehead of the door the word "Shenxue", was the place where livestock were slaughtered at the time of sacrificing Confucius.

Zigonglu Tomb

The three Westinghouses in the west of Confucius'tomb are the tombs of Zigonglu. After Confucius'death, all the disciples guarded the tomb for three years, and then they went away. The only son, Gong, was here for another three years. In memory of this event, later generations built three houses and erected a monument entitled "Zigonglu Cemetery". After enjoying the hall, there is another Square Pavilion with grey tiles and spires, called "Kaiting". Inside the pavilion, an ancient regular script tree is engraved on the stone tablet, which is a copy of Zigong Hand-planted Regular script on the south side of the pavilion. Legend has it that after Zigong came to mourning, he planted a seedling of regular trees beside his teacher's tomb and then became a big tree. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, thunder and fire burned to death, and later generations carved dry images on stones.

There are three stone pavilions with four corners in the north of Kaiting. The stone pavilion with green tiles in the north is built to commemorate Zhao Heng's sacrifice to Confucius. The two stone pavilions with yellow tiles in the middle and South are built to commemorate Xuan Ye, Emperor of Qing Dynasty, and Hongli's sacrifice to Confucius. The three pavilions are the places where the Yellow Emperor worshiped and parked. There are still stone tablets in the pavilion at that time.

Bian Que's Medical Practice Map

The picture of Bian Que practicing medicine is taken from the stone portrait of Qufu Han Dynasty, in which Bian Que is the head of a bird. This shows that when people cherish the memory of a generation of divine doctors, according to the word "Bian Que", their myth has become a "magpie" that spares no effort, travels all over the world and leaves Gospel for people everywhere.

Bian Que's footprint covers most of China. His excellent medical skills not only benefited the time, but also the scientific theory of traditional Chinese medicine that he summarized. Those who have seen him will certainly not regard him as a bird; those who have only heard his name but have not seen his appearance, especially the people behind him, can be fully understood when they remember the divine doctor and deify him as a "bird" according to the traditional cultural accumulation.

The Carved Stone Book of Confucius'Cemetery

The stone inscriptions of Confucius'grave altar are 19.5 cm in length and 25.5 cm in breadth, which are the rubbings of the Qing Dynasty. Ink pages, three openings and two openings and half posts, Huang Yi Jianzhong, inscriptions and postscripts and Jun "Komatsu's Golden Stone" and "Han Studio" seal. This volume includes the characters of Kuang Qiqing's grave and Shanggu Fuqing's grave. The stone carvings were taken in Xinmang for two years (7 years). The inscriptions on the stone bear in mind the sacrifices made by the prime ministers of Hanshanggu County and Kuangqi County. Seal book is ancient and elegant, Kang Youwei's "Guangyizhou Shuanghuan" cloud: "The body is flat, the pen is dense. Stone Existing Exhibition Hall of Han and Wei Stele Inscriptions in Qufu, Shandong Province. This stone series is one of the earliest carvings found in China. Although there were records in the Song Dynasty, there were no rubbings of the Song Dynasty. Character inscriptions in the deep stone, small and not easy to expand, rubbings are not refined, Mingtuo and Qing Tuo are no big difference. The handwriting style of Han Seal Seals is few and extensive. Its official years and months can also be used as data, which is of great historical research value.

Nishan Inkstone

Nishan Inkstone is named for its material from Nishan, the birthplace of Confucius. In the county chronicles of Qianlong period, there were records of the production of Nishan inkstones. Nishan inkstone is orange in color, with dense and uneven black dumpling patterns, exquisite stone surface, caressing life and moisturizing. Making inkstone, under the ink, good ink, long-term use. Nishan inkstone is simple and generous, one side of the inkstone, ingenious use of nature, a little embellishment, full of interest. Du flower inkstone, stone brown, all over the blue and black Du pattern, using the natural shape of stone, Kaimotang ink pool, Inkstone Du pattern into relief, forming a unique artistic shape. In 1976, Qufu Arts and Crafts Factory found this kind of inkstone again under Wuzhifeng in Nishan, so it continued to produce with new technology. In 1978, Nishan Inkstone, as a kind of direct inkstone, was exhibited at Beijing Inkstone Reporting Exhibition. In 1980, Nissan Inkstone went to Tokyo and Osaka in Japan for exhibition.

Tourist guide

Address: No. 9 Jingxuan West Road, Qufu City, Jining, Shandong Province

Public Transportation: There are four main bus lines in Qufu City: 1, 2, 5 and 6. Five bus lines from bus station (railway station) can go directly to Confucius Liuyicheng, Luguosheng, Lunyu Stele Garden and other scenic spots. Bus No. 1 can reach Qufu Bus Station (Railway Station), as well as Confucius Mansion, Confucius Temple, Confucius Forest, Yanmiao and other scenic spots. Tourist special line: Qufu Bus Station has opened the tourist special line buses of various scenic spots in Qufu area, including 12 tourist special lines from Qufu to Nishan, Shimen Mountain and Shaohaoling.

Self-driving: Qufu Bus Station is located at No. 1 Jingxuan East Road in the center of Qufu City, north of National Highway 327. Confucius Mansion, Confucius Temple and Confucius Forest lie in the north, Qufu Science and Technology City in the East and Shengfu Commerce and Trade City in the west. There are long-distance cars to Shandong Province and a few long-distance cars to Beijing and Xinxiang, Henan Province.

Tourist Guide Ticket Information

Address: No. 9 Jingxuan West Road, Qufu City, Jining, Shandong Province

1. "Three Holes" Joint Ticket: Ticket Price: 150 yuan/sheet

2. Confucius Temple Single Ticket: Ticket Price: 90 yuan/sheet

3. Confucian Government Bill: Ticket Price: 60 yuan/sheet

4. Kong Lin single ticket: fare: 40 yuan per ticket

5. Ticket price of Nishan Confucius Temple Scenic Spot (Nishan Academy, Confucius Cave): 50 yuan/sheet

6. Yanmiao Cultural Relics Scenic Spot: Ticket Price: 50 yuan/sheet

7. Zhou Gongmiao Cultural Relics Scenic Spot: Ticket Price: 50 yuan/sheet

8. Shouqiu-Shaohaoling Scenic Spot: Ticket Price: 50 yuan/sheet

9. Meng Mulin Cultural Relics Scenic Spot: Ticket Price: 30 yuan/sheet

Ticket Purchase Notes

1. Please queue up to buy tickets consciously. Check the tickets and payment face to face. The tickets have been sold. No refund or exchange is allowed.

2. Older people: elderly people over 70 years of age (including 70 years of age) and retired cadres holding the "cadres'retirement certificate" shall enter the park free of tickets with their valid certificates. Older people aged 60 to 69 buy half-price tickets with their valid ID cards.

3. Teenagers: Children under 6 years of age (including 6 years of age) or under 1.4 meters of height are allowed to enter the kindergarten without tickets, minors between 6 and 18 years of age (including 18 years of age), students with full-time undergraduate degree or below, purchase half-price tickets with their valid ID cards or student cards (excluding night university, TV university, adult education, continuing education, distance education, short-term training, foreign students, etc.).

Adolescents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan buy half-price tickets with valid Hong Kong-Macao Resident Pass to Mainland, Taiwan Resident Pass to Mainland or Student Pass.

4. Active servicemen and disabled persons: active servicemen enter the park with their valid soldier's certificate, sergeant's certificate, officer's certificate or retirement certificate; disabled persons enter the park with their valid disability certificate.

5. Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and Confucius Forest are valid on the same day of joint ticket sale in the morning and on the next day of sale in the afternoon. The single ticket of Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and Confucius Forest is valid on the day of sale.

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