Incense bag is also called odor-tolerant, incense bag, incense bag, incense sauce, Pei Mo. Nowadays people call it purse, toy and dim. It is a folk embroidery handicraft created by ancient Chinese working women.
It is the product of ancient Chinese farming culture marked by men's farming and women's weaving. It is the relic and regeneration of Chinese traditional culture which has remained intact for thousands of years.
The fragrant bag was first called odor. In Quyuan's Li Sao, there were "Hu Jiang Hedge and Pi Zhi Li, which Pi Qiu Lan thought was admired." At that time, the spices were Pi Zhi and Qiu Lan. In the Ming Dynasty, there were still stinky appellations. The traditional sachets in China are made of silk cloth and contain realgar, fumigation and Argyle leaves. When it comes to sachets, they are often accompanied by sachets during the Dragon Boat Festival.
In 2008, it was selected as the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage expansion projects.
Sahet, also known as "sachet" in ancient times, is also known as "wearing curtain", "odor tolerance", "sachet" and "purse". Qingyang is commonly known as "dim" or "play". It is made of colored silk thread embroidered on colored silk with various ancient, magical, broad and profound patterns and decorations, sewed into small embroidery sacs of different shapes and sizes, and filled with the details of the development of Chinese herbal medicine with a variety of strong aromatic odors, so as to make festivals, celebrations and practical life.
Play with ornaments.
Xiangbao has been described in some chapters of the Book of Songs, which indicates that there were Xiangbao as early as about 3000 years ago. The Book of Rites says, "Five collections are called embroidery." The sachet is embroidered with blue, red, yellow, white and black silk threads. Its color is gorgeous. It naturally has the aesthetic function of decorating clothes and enjoying fun. It is also filled with special Chinese herbal medicines and has the functions of eliminating evil spirits and fungi. According to the Book of Rites and Classification, young men and women who worship their parents at dawn and dusk must wear sachets, indicating that sachets also have ritual functions. During the Warring States Period and even in Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties, big men wore sachets in a magnificent manner, and gradually became special products for women and children after Jin Dynasty. In Song Dynasty, the official and historic court clothes began to wear sachets, and etiquette became more prominent. In the Qing Dynasty, sachet became a gift, especially for men and women who loved each other. In modern times, sachet is an effective carrier of traditional culture. It plays an irreplaceable role in interpersonal communication, beautifying the environment, cultivating sentiment and expressing feelings. Send a sachet, convey a friendship, carry a good mood, express a good wish, contains rich cultural connotation and spiritual orientation.
The history of making and wearing sachets can be traced back at least to the Warring States Period. In Quyuan's Lisao, there are "Hu Jiang Hedge and Pi Zhi Lu, which Fang Qiulan thinks highly of." Jiangli, Pizhi and Qiulan are all herbs. He means to be connected. Pei is Pei Mo, which means not only the incense bag, but also the wearing. The full meaning of the sentence is to carry a pestle full of vanilla on your body. This shows that the sachet was an ornament as early as the Warring States Period in which Quzi lived.
In the Book of Rites of the Han Dynasty, there is a cloud: "Men and women who are not crowned... Every cocoon has a bad smell. Smell is fragrant bag, which means that all the minor men and women in Han Dynasty wore fragrant bag.
In the Tang and Song Dynasties, sachets gradually became the exclusive products for ladies and beauties. Male officials began to wear purses. Some officials simply put their purses on their court clothes when they went to court. Of course, at that time, the purse was not exactly the same as the perfume bag. The main contents of the perfume bag were vanilla, while the purse was mainly "handkerchief fine things". This coincides with the handbag "Thousand-year-old sachet" unearthed recently from Shuangta Temple in Huachi County.
By the Qing Dynasty, sachets had become tokens of love. A "disturbance" between Baoyu and Daiyu in the seventeenth chapter of A Dream of Red Mansions was triggered by purse delivery.
Historically, sachets were mostly used as gifts for the Dragon Boat Festival. Their main functions were to pray for good luck and to ward off evil.
Looking at the pattern of sachet, taking the "thousand-year-old sachet" unearthed from Shuangta Temple in Huachi County as an example, the embroidery pattern of distorted plum, lotus and twisted flowers is designed according to the doctrine of Buddhist Pure Land. Its moral is to regard this small sachet as "Western Pure Land", because the distorted plum blossom has been used as the front of Buddha's breast since the Tang Dynasty. Auspicious signs.
More than 800 years ago, Buddhist believers offered this sachet to the Buddha's Pagoda in order to show their sincere worship and prayer to the Buddha.
From the existing sachets in our country since the Qing Dynasty, most of them are based on flowers and animals, expressing various emotional sustenance and beautiful yearning by means of metaphor and symbolism. For example, using Pisces, Double Butterflies, Jiaolong and other symbols of love, intercourse, fertility; using lotus, lotus, peony, plum and other symbols of women; using magpies of Dengmei, bees of flower to metaphorize men; pine cranes to symbolize longevity, pomegranate to symbolize many children; and using the homophonic sound of Chinese characters as a metaphor can be seen everywhere: to the newlyweds Women's "early birth of noble children" (jujube, peanut, longan, lotus seed combination pattern); to the longevity old people's "childlike charm" (cat and butterfly play peony combination pattern, meaning that the elderly life is very interesting); to the children's "longevity doll" (with the hairy doll as the main body, surrounded by bats, peaches. The group diagram implies how happy and longevity this son is in this life.
Opening up this layer of thick cultural accumulation, facing this colorful life scrolls, all the artistic treasures in front of us are simple and clumsy, primitive and vivid. In fact, this is the art of revealing human desires; the art of expressing ideas and beliefs; the art of showing vitality. It can be said that it is the true national culture, folk culture, popular culture and human nature culture.
Wallet is commonly used in modern Cantonese. Because the clothes of the ancients had no pockets, some articles that had to be carried with them (such as towels, seals, coins, etc.) could only be stored in such bags. The earliest bags, when used, can be either hand-held or shoulder-back, so they are also called "carrying bags" or "carrying bags". Later, gradually feel handheld shoulder back inconvenience, it was hung at the waist, and formed a custom, commonly known as "side bag". The material used to make the bursa is usually leather, so it is also called "bursa". For example, a piece unearthed from the ancient tomb of Subashi in Shanshan, Xinjiang, is rectangular in shape, 6.7 cm long and 3.7 cm wide, with a tied belt at the mouth for hanging. The earliest extant sac is a relic of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.
On May 5th of the lunar calendar, every household celebrates the Dragon Boat Festival, and among all the customs of the Dragon Boat Festival, the most static beauty and warmth is to make and wear sachets. In the past, because of the underdeveloped medicine, people used to make realgar, wormwood and calamus powder with bactericidal effect, wrapped it in cloth and wore it on their chest, and used its fragrance to keep the summer bugs away. This is the origin of the sachet.
In fact, the sachet itself is only a cloth bag wrapped with spices. But since ancient women all made good needles and threads, the production of sachets became more and more exquisite and more visible. Especially the sachet sewn by one stitch and one thread contains a deep feeling. Give it as a gift, that warm, is not a greeting card can be replaced.
The sachet is also called the sachet, also called the fragrance. How did it evolve? May is commonly known as the poisonous month. According to local chronicles, the fifth day of the fifth month of the lunar calendar is also called the Mid-heaven Festival. There is a custom of making all kinds of evasive objects. In the time of Jingchu, it is also recorded that on the Dragon Boat Festival, the shape of a tiger is cut from moxa grass or cloth to make a tiger to avoid some poisonous things. In addition, the custom recorded above, tied to a child's arm with five-color lines, can make him live for a long time, called it a long-lived strand.
Slowly, the two customs gradually merged into one, evolving into a small bag filled with argyrophyll, realgar and sandalwood powder, mixed with spices, hung for children, to prevent the invasion of poisonous insects, have the function of eliminating poisons and evading evil, and become a symbol of life-saving and auspicious. So the status of the sachet was determined. In the traditional agricultural society, making sachets is the best opportunity for women to show their feminine red crafts. From the pattern of sachet and embroidery worker, we can see the craftsmanship of the producer.
Eliminating evil spirits and praying for good fortune is the permanent theme of sachet culture. Metaphorical symbols and expressing aspirations are the distinctive artistic features of the sachet. The patterns and shapes of Qingyang sachets are exquisite and have rich implications: tigers and lions symbolize bravery and power, dispel evil and keep peace; Pisces, butterflies and Jiaolong symbolize love, intercourse and fertility between men and women; lotus, lotus, peony, plum and other symbolic women's steadfastness and sweetness; bees hiding with magpies and honeybees picking plum blossoms. Yu male; borrow gourd and pomegranate seeds to hope for more children and more happiness; borrow the name of jujube, peanut, longan and lotus seeds to get their homophonic sound, which implies early (jujube) and noble (cinnamon) children; give the longevity old people the "Qi Tong Yi", with the combination pattern of cat and butterfly play peony, meaning that old life is interesting; give children the "Fushou Doll Life". Doll ", with the doll as the main body, surrounded by bats, peaches group diagram, hoping for children's health and safety.
Wearing fragrant bags is quite exquisite. In order to prevent diseases and keep fit, the elderly generally like to wear plum blossom, chrysanthemum, peach, apple, lotus, doll riding fish, doll holding cock, double lotus and other shapes, symbolizing the fragrance of birds and flowers, everything goes well, husband and wife love, family harmony. Children like birds and animals, such as tigers and leopards, monkeys and cockfighting. Young people wear sachets most exquisite, if it is a lover in love, that sentimental girl early to elaborate production of one or two chic sachets, in time to give their lover before the festival. The young man wears the sachet given by his sweetheart, which naturally arouses the comments of the men and women around him, and boasts that the object of the young man is ingenious and skillful.
In the countryside of Qingyang, flowers, trees, insects, fish, birds, animals, the sun, the moon, the pavilions, pavilions, geometric patterns and figures can all be the themes of embroidery. With the help of scissors, skillful folk artists present vivid patterns of dragons, phoenixes, goldfish, tigers, lions, snakes, toads, geckos, centipedes and scorpions in front of the world, so that people can enjoy them in the fragrant world of sachets, so as to express the beauty of people's soul. Good appeal.
Method of making
Scissors, needles, pencils.
Basically, it includes fragrant powder, cotton, resin, coloured fabric, various colours of wool, various colours of embroidered silk thread,
Lining, cardboard, glue or paste, degreased cotton, paper tube, beads, gloss, bells, spices and so on.
Tools for making sachets include embroidery needles, scissors, irons, and embroidery wreaths.
Flat needle embroidery: The shape embroidered is a dotted line, which can be used to fix the joint decoration.
Back stitch embroidery: The shape of embroidery is a solid line. It is stronger than flat stitch embroidery. It can also be used for joining and decoration.
Linear embroidery: The shape embroidered is a single straight line.
Contour embroidery: The function is to embroider the outer edge of the pattern.
Chain embroidery: The embroidery thread used is thicker. It can be embroidered into petal shape and used for decoration.
Herringbone embroidery: mostly lace for handkerchiefs.
Cross embroidery: Like the figure embroidery, the cross-shaped patterns embroidered can be used for decoration. The same can be done for lace.
Button-eye rust: It is mostly used at the fixed seam edge of perfume bag.
Granular embroidery: Embroidered pattern is a small black spot, mostly embroidered into eyes or heart embroidered into flowers and so on.
Flight embroidery: Embroidered in the shape of the letter V, mostly used in the mouth shape of characters.
Fan embroidery: Unlike flying embroidery, there is a line in the middle, mostly embroidered in the shape of grass or branches.
Patch embroidery: It is usually used to fix the edge of a piece of embroidered pattern when it is attached to a larger piece of cloth.
Knowing the functions of various basic stitches, it is not difficult for us to understand the traditional Chinese handicraft of Xiangbao Ben. Embroidery is the product of the scarlet woman. Now we can try to embroider a pattern first.
Having a good understanding of needling, materials and tools, we can start making sachets. Firstly, demonstration of basic perfume bag making.
Previous perfume bags were mostly made of odd cloth left over from making clothes, and better cloth was used. Of course, the main choice was the texture of the cloth and the suitable degree for the body.
Thread is a variety of embroidery thread, can be used to sew, but also embroidered into a variety of patterns. There are two kinds, one is silk thread, the other is cotton thread.
The final fragrance is more complex, because the ingredients are different, the flavor of the final fragrance is naturally different. The ingredients include moxa powder, realgar powder, sandalwood powder, perfume powder and so on.
Cotton is used as a filler inside the bale, because cotton itself is soft and can last forever.
Paper includes cardboard and cotton paper, the former is used for drawing and typing, the latter is cut into patterns according to the former drawing, and sometimes used as a substrate.
Resin is used for fine sticking, such as sticking a pig's tail.
The accessories used for decoration are gold thread, Lian thread, sequins, beads and so on.
First select the appropriate fabric, cut into the basic type, and then choose the appropriate embroidery according to the cut fabric. The cut rectangular cloth is folded in half to face the inside. After stitching the edge of the cloth, the stitching edge is embroidered again. After stitching the opening with a flat needle, the thread head is pulled tightly. After stitching a circle, the thread head is pulled tightly, a small mouth is poured into the end of the fragrance bag. Then the cotton wool is stuffed, the closure is pulled tightly, and the stitching edge is formed, and the finished tassel is stitched at the bottom of Then glue the cut leaves and ribbons to the top of the sachet, and a basic chicken heart-shaped sachet is finished.
The fragrant bag of physical shape is first designed graphics, then traced paper-cut lining, mounted on the back of the cloth. Cut out the cloth and embroider the pattern on it. Then the two pieces of cloth that have been embroidered back to back are sewn together. When sewing, it should be noted that the gap should not be too large. Half of the sewing can be filled with spices and cotton.
The ribbon for decoration is then joined and fixed at the bottom. Then put the beads on, tie a Chinese knot and add tassels, and a sachet symbolizing happiness is ready.
In addition, there is another way of wrapping sachets. First, cut out two square patterns with scissors, then paste silver paper as the background color, then glue two square silver cardboard back to form an octagon. First, glue on the thread head, fix the thread head in the cardboard, and then begin to wrap. Each corner of the octagon is wrapped around the thread head. Then change to a yellow thread, an octagonal outer edge, and a twisted sachet with an octagonal inner shape.
Chinese doll Sachet
Use a small stocking to stuff cotton into a ball, pinch it tightly, wrap it tightly with black thread, dot out the place where you want to make your hair with a signature pen at its top, then use black thread to make diagonal sewing on the diagonal line of the circle, reserve the length of the hair, cut it and repeat until it is enough. Tighten your hair and sew it in, or tie it in a red bow.
Next, make eyes, use flight embroidery to make mouth, then choose a rectangular cloth to make body, and begin to sew edges. Cut an opening with scissors and sew the finished head on. Be careful not to show the thread. Pour in the spices and stuff in the cotton fortress.
Four corners of the gap can be filled with cotton with a hook. Then sew it up, then cut a piece of cloth as a belly pocket, you can paste sequins on the cloth, or embroider your favorite patterns. Then glue it on the back, or sew it. If there is no cotton and sweet scented, the dried flowers and artificial flavors can be used instead.
In some places, there is also the custom of the bride to give sachets to relatives and friends. The Chinese people think that the sachet made by the bride herself can dispel evil spirits and detoxify poisons better. Therefore, on the Dragon Boat Festival in her first year of marriage, the bride must sew sachets to distribute to relatives and friends. This gift, to say less, should be given to one or two hundred, in addition to giving them to relatives and friends. Of course, most of them are given to children to wear, which comes from the care of the previous generation for the next generation. We hope that children can grow up smoothly and avoid evil spirits. In the same way, we can also give them respect and filial piety.
As for the fragrance given to the lover, the implication is more profound. Every thread contains infinite tenderness. In the past, women used to sew sachets for their children's lover when they were going out. On the one hand, they would protect their traveling safety, on the other hand, they would remind them that there were people waiting at the door in their hometown and they should return as soon as possible. This kind of warm custom is relatively rare in modern times.
For one thing, with the development of medicine, the function of eliminating evil spirits and avoiding poison has disappeared. In the industrial and commercial society, people's life pace is tense, and more and more professional women have no time to study the craft of female red. Therefore, around the Dragon Boat Festival every year, a large number of fragrant bags produced will be sold on the market, although the patterns are embroidered. Beautiful, but inevitably some craftsmanship, and most of the spices used are chemical substances, not only the fragrance can not last, more importantly, because of the large number of manufacturing, has lost the traditional sachet, for people's life and the warmth of it.