Qin opera

Home Culture 2019-06-10

Qin opera

Qin Opera, also known as Bangzi Opera, is a traditional drama in Northwest China and one of the national intangible cultural heritage.

In ancient times, Shaanxi and Gansu belonged to the Qin State, so they were called "Qin Opera". Because in the early stage of Qin Opera performance, jujube Bangzi was often used as accompaniment, so it is also called Bangzi Opera. After the formation of Qin Opera, it spread all over the country. Because of its mature and complete performance system, it has exerted varying degrees of influence on the local operas, and directly affected Bangzi Opera to become the ancestor of Bangzi Opera. The performance skills of Qin Opera are simple, rough and bold, full of exaggeration, strong flavor of life and rich in skills.

On May 20, 2006, it was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. Non-survivor number: IV-16.

historical origin

The emergence and development of Qin Opera has profound historical origin and profound cultural background. In all stages of the development and dissemination of Qin Opera, there are unique cultural backgrounds, which are deeply branded with the distinct imprint of the times.

Qin Opera is a folk song and dance originating from ancient Shaanxi and Gansu. It grew up in Chang'an, the political, economic and cultural center of ancient China. It was gradually formed through the creation of generations of people. Since the Zhou Dynasty, Guanzhong area has been called "Qin". Qin Opera was named after it. It is also called "Bangzi Tune" because it uses Jujube Bangzi as a percussion instrument. It is commonly known as "Eucalyptus" because it emits "flash" sound during Bangzi festival.

Li Tiaoyuan, a Qing Dynasty writer, wrote in Yucun Opera: "It is said that Qian's Baiqiu Opera is a collection of Qin Opera. Beginning in Shaanxi Province, with bangs as the board, the Yueqin should be, there are also tight and slow, commonly called Bangzi tune, Shu called the random bullet. The word "random bullet" has many meanings in the voice of Chinese opera. In the past, the operas other than Kunqu Opera and Gaoqiang Opera were called "random bullet", and Beijing Opera was also called "random bullet", while some operas were named after random bullet, such as Wenzhou random bullet and Hebei random bullet, which were still used in the general name of the Bangzi cavity system with Qin Opera as the first and the main part.

Qin Opera has a long history. In the legendary transcript of Bozhong Lian in Wanli Period of Ming Dynasty (1573-1620), there is a section of lyrics singing in the tune of "Second Offenders of Western Qin Opera", and all of them are the seven-character style of the upper and lower sentences, which shows that Qin Opera not only formed at that time or before, but also spread to other places.

However, there are different opinions about its origin. Generally speaking, it was formed in Qin Dynasty (or Pre-Qin Dynasty), Tang Dynasty and Ming Dynasty. Bozhong Lian is an anonymous work of Jiangnan, which proves that it has spread to Jiangnan. The southern part of the Yangtze River is far away from Shaanxi, and it takes time to spread. Accordingly, Qin Opera was formed in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. According to another survey, the earliest Qin Opera Ban Society in Ming Dynasty was Huaqing Ban founded by Zhou Zhiren, which was well-known in Gansu and Shaanxi. Later, in Shaanxi Province, Qin Opera developed into four routes: east, west, middle and south. The east road is Tongzhou Bangzi, the west road is Xifu Qin Opera, the South Road has evolved into Han tune mast, and the middle road is Xi'an random bomb, which is now commonly known as Qin Opera. The art of Qin Opera has a long history. Legend has it that Li Longji, Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, once set up a pear orchard specially for the training of singing children, singing not only court music, but also folk songs. Li Guinian, a musician in Liyuan, was originally a folk artist in Shaanxi Province. His work "Qin King's Breaking Front Music" is called Qin Wang Opera, or "Qin Opera" for short. This is probably the earliest Qin Opera music. Afterwards, Qin Opera was influenced by Song Ci, and became more and more perfect in content and form. During Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty, Qin Opera in Gansu and Shaanxi gradually evolved into Bangzi Opera. During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, Wei Changsheng, the famous character of Qin Opera, came to Beijing from Shu. He stirred the capital with his moving tone, popular words and exquisite acting skills. Now the Xipi running-water aria of Beijing Opera comes from Qin Opera.

Qin Opera can be divided into two ways: the West way flows into Sichuan and becomes Bangzi; the east way is Jin Opera in Shanxi, Henan Opera in Henan and Hebei Opera in Hebei. So Qin Opera can be regarded as the originator of Beijing Opera, Henan Opera, Jin Opera and Hebei Bangzi Opera. Qin opera is also known as "Qin voice", "random bullet" and "Bangzi opera". Folk opera is commonly known as "Grand Opera". After the mid-Qing Dynasty, Beijing and other places are also known as "Western Qin Opera" and "Shanshan Bangzi". In Shaanxi Province, Qin Opera evolved into four ways because of the different dialects and pronunciations: Tongzhou Bangzi (the Eastern Road Qin Opera) which is popular in Tongzhou (today's Dali) area of Guanzhong Prefecture; Xian Random Bomb (the Middle Road Qin Opera) which is popular in Xi'an area of central government; Fengxiang area of Xifu Prefecture, which is called Xifu Qin Opera (the Western Road Qin Opera); In the central part of the Han Dynasty, it is called "the mast of the Han Diao" (that is, the Qin Opera of the Southern Road). Qin Opera is very popular in Guanzhong, Shangluo and Hanzhong of Shaanxi Province. It has spread to Longzhou in the west, Tongguan in the east, Yulin in the north and Ningqiang in the south. It has spread to Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Qinghai, Ningxia, New Tibet and other provinces and regions. It also spread to Taiwan after 1949, reaching far beyond Kyrgyzstan.

The Qing Dynasty was the flourishing period of Qin Opera. During the period of Qianlong (1736-1795), there were Qin Opera Classes in many parts of the country. There were 36 Qin Opera Classes in Xi'an alone, such as Baofu Class, Jiangdong Class, Shuangzhai Class and Jinxiu Class. Zhang Dingwang's "On Qin Opera" appeared around the forty-four years of Kangxi (1705), Yan Changming's "Qin Yun Picking Ying Xiaopu" in Qianlong (1736-1795), Wu Changyuan's "Yanlan Xiaopu" and Zhou Yuanding's "On Shadow Opera" are all influential works on Qin Opera. "Qin Yun Picking Ying Xiaopu" contains: "Xian Music Department of the famous 36. These classes are all Qin Opera classes, each of which has a group of influential artists. During the reign of Qianlong and Jiaqing (1736-1820), Qin Opera actor Wei Changsheng performed in Beijing three times, leaving few of the six major classes of Beijing Opera unquestioned. Many Kunqu Opera and Jing Opera artists adapted to Qin Opera. For more than half a century, Qin Opera has been an important opera on the stage of Beijing, and it is also popular in many parts of the country. According to the statistics of the Qing Dynasty, except Shanhaiguan, there was no trace of Qin Opera in the three northeastern provinces at that time, and it was popular in other provinces. In the course of its popularity, Qin Opera, combined with other forms of opera and folk art, gradually transformed into various kinds of Bangzi Opera, and its popularity in various places was replaced and gradually diminished. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, it became a popular local opera in Northwest China.

In 1912, Shaanxi Yiyi Society was established in Xi'an with the aim of "changing customs and customs". Some innovations were made in Qin Opera, musical singing, performing art, director and stage design, and a large number of new plays reflecting bourgeois democratic revolution were produced. Under this influence, shandong, hebei, tianjin, gansu, Ningxia and other places have established opera groups imitating the system of Shaanxi Yiyi vulgar society. Such as the Yiyi Society in Shandong, Hebei and Tianjin, the Huayi Society in Gansu, the Pingle Society and the Juemin Society in Ningxia. Yi vulgar society has twice performed in Beiping, Wuhan and Gansu. Xi'an has also established the Sanyi Society and other Qin Opera Class Societies.

During the Anti-Japanese War, Qin Opera artists in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region made bold explorations to show the revolutionary real life of operas and to shape the heroic image of workers, peasants and soldiers. The Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region People's Theatre Troupe, established in July 1938, closely cooperated with the revolutionary struggle during the War of Resistance Against Japan and the War of Liberation, and created and rehearsed a large number of new Qin operas, such as "Blood and Tears Enemy". Comrade Peng Dehuai said in his letter to Ma Jianling, author of Blood and Tears Enmity, "Warmly welcome the working poor people and revolutionary fighters, and provide a powerful weapon for mobilizing the masses to organize." In 1944, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region Cultural and Educational Conference also hereby awarded Ma Jianling the title of "People's Artist", and the popular troupe won the flag of "Special Model".

Since the founding of New China, five provinces and districts in Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Xinjiang have successively established professional Qin Opera Troupes at or above the county level. By the early 1980s, there were more than 300 opera troupes belonging to Shaanxi Opera Academy, Gansu Qin Opera Troupe, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Qin Opera Troupe, Qinghai Qin Opera Troupe (later changed to Xining Qin-controlled Opera Troupe), Xinjiang Uygur. Er Autonomous Region Progressive Theatre Troupe. In addition, local opera schools have been set up to accumulate a large number of talent resources for the prosperity of Qin Opera art.

Distribution area

Qin Opera is popular in Dali and Pucheng area of Weinan area in central and Eastern Guanzhong because of its different popular areas. It is called East Road Qin Opera; West Road Qin Opera in Baoji area and Tianshui area of central and Western Guanzhong; South Road Qin Opera in central Hanzhong area; and Middle Road Qin Opera in Xi'an area.

Gansu Qin Opera is mainly spread throughout and around Gansu Province in Ningxia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. In Jiuquan area, Qin Opera is distributed in five counties, such as Suzhou, Jinta, Guazhou, Yumen and Dunhuang.

Inheritance and Protection

Inheritance value

Qin Opera is the product of the integration of Han culture and other national cultures. It can be said that Qin Opera is the crystallization of the musical and cultural exchanges of all ethnic groups on the ancient Silk Road and a wonderful flower in the treasure house of Chinese national culture.

Qin Opera is the treasure of Chinese national culture and the foundation of the development of Chinese opera music culture. It profoundly interprets the development of Chinese culture and becomes an integral part of the spiritual wealth of the Chinese nation.

Qin Opera is the living fossil of national culture. It provides an important clue for the study of Han culture and the tracing of ancient art forms.

Qin Opera, which bears the spiritual sustenance of the people in the vast western region, is a way for people to exchange feelings with each other, and fully reflects its historical and practical functions.

Current situation of inheritance

Since the 1980s, Qin Opera has been greatly impacted by modern culture. The professional performing groups are facing difficulties in survival, and there is a shortage of excellent performing talents. Traditional performing skills are in danger of being lost.

Heritage figures

Ma Youxian: Female, Han nationality, born in April 1944, was born in Heyang County, Weinan City, Shaanxi Province, and grew up in Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province. In June 2009, Ma Youxian was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Shaanxi Province. Ma Youxian is the founder of the "Ma School" of Qin Opera Art School and a national first-class actor. The State Council has awarded the certificate of "Art Expert with Special Contribution".

Pi Zonghan: Male, Han nationality, born in January 1940, born in Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province, in June 2009, Pi Zonghan was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects, which Shaanxi Province declared. Negative Zonghan is a national first-class actor.

Li Aiqin: Female, Han nationality, born in April 1939 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. In June 2009, Li Aiqin was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Shaanxi Province. Aiqin Li is a national first-class actor.

Xiao Yuling: Female, Han nationality, born in December 1939 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. In June 2009, Xiao Yuling was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Shaanxi Province. Xiao Yuling is the founder of the "Xiao School" of Qin Opera and a national first-class actor.

Kang Shaoyi: Male, Han nationality, born in May 1941, from Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. In June 2009, Kang Shaoyi was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Shaanxi Province. Kang Shaoyi is the only descendant of Qin Opera Wusheng, a national first-class actor.

Lu Mingfa: Male, Han nationality, born in March 1923, Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. In June 2009, Lu Mingfa was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Shaanxi Province. Lu Mingfa is a national first-class actor.

Yu Qiaoyun: Yu Baozhen, Yu Baozhen, female, Manchu, born in March 1932 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. In June 2009, Yu Qiaoyun was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Shaanxi Province. Yu Qiaoyun is the founder of the "Yu" School of Qin Opera Art and a national first-class actor.

protective measures

Theatre Institutions

As far as the whole northwest area is concerned, Gansu Qin Opera Troupe, Ningxia Yinchuan Qin Opera Troupe, Xinjiang Rapid Forward Qin Opera Troupe, Urumqi Qin Opera Troupe, Tianshui Qin Opera Troupe and Shaanxi Opera Research Institute, Xi'an Yiyi Society, Sanyi Society, Shangyou Society and May 1 Opera Troupe are merged into Xi'an Qin Opera Theatre Co., Ltd. while Lanzhou City merges the former Lanzhou Qin Opera Troupe and Lanzhou Henan Opera Troup Lanzhou Art Theater Co., Ltd.

Research institutions

On October 8, 2007, the Baoji Tianshui Research Institute on Western Qin Opera was established in Baoji. It was sponsored by Shaanxi Dramatists Association and co-sponsored by Baoji Drama Association and Tianshui Drama Association. The symposium aims to better inherit traditional opera culture, teach and protect intangible cultural heritage, promote the excavation, collation and protection of Western Qin Opera, and enrich modern Chinese Qin Opera culture. Treasury.

On January 6, 2018, the Ministry of Education officially announced the list of the first batch of excellent traditional Chinese cultural heritage bases in Colleges and universities nationwide, and the Qin Opera Project of Xi'an Jiaotong University was selected.

Hold festivals

In the early 1980s, the Shaanxi Provincial Party Committee and the provincial government put forward the slogan of "revitalizing the Qin Opera", and established the Shaanxi Provincial Guiding Committee for the Revitalization of the Qin Opera. As a result, a series of supporting policies were introduced and a series of activities for the revitalization of the Qin Opera were held one after another, thus achieving the goal of "making people play, inheriting and developing". In recent years, Shaanxi Province has launched the provincial young and middle-aged actors singing contest, Heritage Exchange Practice show, the first Shaanxi "Wenhua Award" Qin Opera TV contest, "Shaanxi Culture Week" and other activities. In September and October 2014, Shaanxi held the first Silk Road International Art Festival and the seventh Shaanxi Art Festival. A number of works of art emerged, and a number of outstanding artists stood out.

External display

On August 23, 2007, Lanzhou was preparing to build the Qin Opera Museum. Lanzhou is the fertile soil of Qin Opera. In 2005, Lanzhou was named "the development base of Qin Opera in China" by the Chinese Dramatists Association. Qin Opera is the mainstream culture of Gansu Opera. At present, there are more than 3000 Qin Opera scripts in Lanzhou, many of which are out of print. Lanzhou's unique Gengjia Facebook has attracted much attention from the Qin Opera circle. Lanzhou Qin Opera Museum will take "Qin Opera Culture, Broad and profound" as the basic theme, through the basic display of 12 parts, to show the audience the connotation of Qin Opera Culture. These 12 parts include Chinese opera and Qin Opera, the music and artistic characteristics of Qin Opera, the inheritance of Qin Opera and educational institutions, class clubs and troupes, the repertoire of Qin Opera, from opera house theatre to modern theatre, celebrities of Qin Opera, the heyday of development of Qin Opera, Western Qin Opera, Qin Opera puppet show, shadow play of Qin Opera, and various performance exchanges and festivals of Qin Opera.

On September 26, 2009, Shaanxi Qin Opera Museum officially opened in Xi'an Jiaotong University. More than 500 exhibits on display in the museum are introduced in 13 sections, including overview and performance repertoire, so that Qin Opera, an ancient art, can be fully displayed in front of the world.

personnel training

April 8, 2012, is a milestone in the development history of Shaanxi Opera Research Institute. The "Xi'an Jiaotong University Theatre College" jointly established by Xi'an Jiaotong University and Shaanxi Opera Research Institute is listed in the research institute, which marks the arrival of a new era. The Theatre College of Xi'an Jiaotong University will take the art students, preparatory students, undergraduates and postgraduates of Opera Major as its training objectives, and focus on training all-round specialized talents in drama creation, performance, director, composition, performance, lighting, dance design and production, and drama research, so as to build the "Qin Opera Academy" into a "super carrier" for the development of Qin Opera and develop the cause of drama. Give yourself the strength you deserve.

social influence

Honorary recognition

In 1998, Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Opera created and performed the modern drama "Late Opening Rose", which was awarded the "Wenhua Award", "China Art Festival Award", "Five-one Project Award", "Excellent Drama Award of China Drama Festival", "Caoyu Drama Literature Award" and other national-level awards. It also ranked the top ten excellent dramas of the National Stage Art Project in 2005-2006, and was confirmed by the Central Propaganda Department. As a national outstanding literary and artistic work in 2006, it has been commended.

In May 2009, the Qin Opera "Moving West of Big Trees" won the "Chinese Drama Award - Excellent Drama Award".

In 2005, Tianshui Qin Opera Troupe's large-scale modern Qin Opera "Shanli Hong" was awarded a gold medal at the Third China Qin Opera Festival.

Important activities

On the evening of November 3, 2000, the first Chinese Qin Opera Festival opened in Xi'an People's Theatre. During this period, activities such as Liyuan Calligraphy and Painting Exhibition, Drama Facebook Exhibition, Qin Opera Art Education Achievement Exhibition, and Qin Opera Famous Artists Character Photography Exhibition were also held, and the 2000 Caoyu Drama Literary Drama Award Award Award Award Award Award Award Award was held. Theories of drama and Qin Opera art were discussed, and more than 70 papers were awarded.

Important performances

In May 2009, Qin Opera "Moving West of Big Trees" came to Beijing to perform for the 60th National Day of the Republic, participated in the 11th Shanghai International Art Festival of China, and went to Xiamen to attend the 11th Chinese Drama Festival.

In 2000, Ningxia Qin Opera Troupe performed "Civet Cat for Prince" at the first Chinese Qin Opera Art Festival.

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