Qiang Mu Zashrunbu Temple Shigatse
Qiang Mu is a religious dance, also known as "Dancing God". "Semochim Qiang Mu" is a Tibetan Buddhist Gru-sect Qiang Mu performed by monks at Zashrunbu Monastery in Xikaze, Tibet. It is held in August of the Tibetan calendar every year. In Tibetan, "Semo" means to appreciate, and "Chim" means to appreciate large-scale religious dances. Semochim Qiang means to appreciate large-scale religious dances.
On May 20, 2006, Qiang Mu of Zashrunbu Temple in Shigaze was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
In 1617 A.D. (Year of the Tenth Circumferential Firesnake in Tibetan calendar), the fourth Panchen temple, Lausanne and Qujijianzan, established the Abaza Cang (Micheng Monastery); in 1647 A.D. (Year of the Eleventh Circumferential Firedog in Tibetan calendar), when the master was 78 years old, he danced the "Eight Numbers of Lotus Peanuts" held at the "Quzu" religious festival in the calendar year of Sangye Temple to serve as the patron god of Zashrub temple, Chibala (The followers of the Six-armed Ming King and one of the God generals who guarded the east of the world) formulated the ritual of exorcising evil spirits and set up the "Guduo" (exorcism) Qiang Mu performed by Zashrunbu Monastery every year on December 29, which is the predecessor of Semochim Qiang Mu. In 1862, the seventh Panchen Danbainima traveled to Lhasa many times to participate in related ceremonial activities, and became interested in the rules of the former Tibetan monastery. After returning, he built the "Deqing Gesangpo Zhang" (New Palace) at Zashrunbu Monastery, and drew lessons from the Qiang Mu of Lamu, Caigongtang, Luoza, Danjilin, Muru and Shijuelin monasteries. In many passages, on the basis of the "Gudo" performed by Abasacang, the Symochim Qiang Mu was officially established and performed by the monks of Zigongzacang, which has lasted to this day.
Origin of Qiang Mu
Qiang Mu originated in Tibet. Buddhism spread from India to Tibet in the seventh century A.D. and went hand in hand with the original religions in Tibet. The struggle between who won and who lost was quite fierce. There are different opinions about the origin of Qiang Mu. Legend has it that when Buddhism was introduced to Tibet and the first temple in Tibet, Sangye Temple, was built, birds and animals from all directions came to help, including a big green ox, who worked diligently and contributed a lot. However, Daqing Niu was forgotten only at the celebration congress after the temple was built. So, Daqing Niu was extremely angry. After roaring at the sky, he ran into the temple and died with all his strength. After the death of Daqingniu, Dama, brother of Chireba, one of the three great French kings in the Five Dynasties of Tubo, was born. After his stepbrother's throne, he ordered the killing of monks, the demolition of monasteries and the burning of scriptures. Buddhism was on the verge of collapse. Some monks who survived were unwilling to be destroyed by Buddhism and determined to revive Buddhism. Among them, a hero named Baraldolgi, who was brave and brave, came up with a way to jump Qiang Mu to get rid of the tyrant. He wears a mask, wears a black robe, hides bows and arrows in his sleeves, and dances around the palace every day. He skillfully dances and dances day by day. Every day he is more and more wonderful. Everyone who sees him praises him. The news reaches Dama. He also wants to see the strange monk's dancing posture. So he preached that Balardorgi would come down to the palace terrace to jump. Balardorgi would jump over the beauty and approach the terrace. Dama was unconsciously attracted by the graceful dancing posture, so he leaned out of the terrace. Balardorgi took the opportunity to take out the bow and arrow in his sleeve and shot the tyrant Dama. After that, he took off his tools and said, "The wind can blow the earth, the earth can cover the water, and the water can extinguish it." Fire, Phoenix can suppress the Dragon king, Buddha can suppress ghosts and exorcise evil spirits. I can also kill the evil Emperor Dama." Later, in memory of the hero who revived Buddhism, people danced Qiang Mu in temples every year, aiming at fighting ghosts and exorcising evil spirits and extinguishing bad luck. In this way, Qiang Mu passed down. Although these stories are legendary, Dama was indeed the last king of the Tubo Dynasty. He did die under the monk's arrow.
Qiang Mu originated in Tibet and is also called "Tiaoyun" in Tibetan. Because of the different sects and temples, the size of the temples is different, and the form of Qiang Mu is much the same. For example, the contents and forms of "Qiang Mu" of the Sakya Sect (commonly known as Huajiao Sect), the Gaju Sect (commonly known as Bai Sect), the Ningma Sect (commonly known as Red Sect) and the Gelu Sect (commonly known as Huang Sect) are different. However, no matter how it changes, it generally reflects people's psychology of entertaining gods, breaking disasters and worshipping totems. They all propagate religious doctrines in the form of dances, entertaining both gods and people. So in places where there are temples, this custom is still preserved. Qiang Mu's long jump also shows this point.
Qiang Mu is accomplished through solo dance, double dance and group dance. The whole dance, some see time in the legs, some see time in the waist, some see time in the shoulder, some see time in the buttocks. For example, the two swallows of Alaha column shake their shoulders, the steps of Da Rieh, Azara's dragging down the waist, Chagan Ebougen's wrestling, and so on. These dances are beautiful and difficult. Since Qiang Mu originated in Tibet, many hands-on movements in the whole dance obviously have the charm of Tibetan dance. Since its introduction into Mongolia, with the passage of time, the development of society and Mongolia's inherent customs, Mongolia has gradually formed its own style characteristics. It can be said that Qiang Mu is the theme of Tibetan stories to be Mongolianized, and has formed a dance closely combined with Mongolian life and with Mongolian style and characteristics. It is also the evolution and development of Tibetan Temple dance in the Golros grassland of Jilin Province.
The main venue of Qiang Mu Dance is in the courtyard of the temple. There is a venue half a mile away from the temple, which is mainly used for sacrificial activities. In the courtyard, there are two circles with diameters of 15 meters and 11 meters in front of the temple name. The small circle is inside and the big circle is outside. The Lamas of Qiang Mu jump from the temple and all the movements are completed on or within these two circles. That is to say, the circle line of the venue has strict restrictions on performers. Wearing masks is the most prominent feature of Qiang Mu's dress. Except for the 21 Days of Erhe wearing a helmet, the other roles are wearing masks of different looks, both physical and spiritual, lifelike and lifelike. Masks can be divided into two types: full masks and half masks, with cow head, deer head, lion head, phoenix head and so on. Half mask has skeleton, ghost, white old man and so on. It makes people look like a ghost. Qiang Mu's clothes are luxurious. Most of the clothes are Satin pythons with unique style and trumpet-shaped cuffs. It is said that it was Baladolgi Tiaoqiang Mu who was designed to make the Tibetan bow difficult to find, so this cuff has been followed. Projects are very unique, knives, axes, swords, halberds and other weapons are about a foot long, like non-similar, these props are designed and produced very delicately.
Qiang Mu, as a kind of sacrificial activities in religious temples, has its own unique style and characteristics. This kind of sacrificial activities is different from other religious activities. It dances in the courtyard of temples, with unique venues, masks, props and clothing. The whole activity is embodied by dancing. It is a large-scale dance with dancing drama factors, with specific appearance sequence, decorative characteristics and personnel structure. And the props are:
Thirteen people. The mask is Da Xiao Bra's (Brain Skull). There are five cerebellar skulls on it. On the small skull, there are three red stones with copper rings, wearing a collarless gown, pedaling long tubular boots. Among them, the gown is two black gowns with big money flowers, two gowns with various flowers, two gowns with duck eggs, two purple flowers, two gowns with light green, two gowns with water marks and two gowns with various flowers. One blue flower, two black pythons, each weapon in hand is a term passed down from Tibetan.
Twenty-one people attended and wore masks and headclothes. They wore a pair of gowns on the top of their receipt, handheld and handheld. They wore three gowns with yellow flowers, three gowns with red flowers, two gowns with yellow flowers, two gowns with duck eggs, and one gown with blue flowers. The flowers of these gowns were mostly big money flowers, water flowers and various kinds of flowers. There are no collars. Besides, there is a shoulder pad for women and boots with long barrel cloth.
Four people participated. The red skull on the mask and neck was as big as the human head, with five black beards, large black dishes on the head, red shorts, short waist skirts, net skirts outside skirts, and long boots on the feet. It looked particularly strong.
(White Man) The mask is the Master of the Land, wearing a white gown with sheep's skin outward, holding a faucet crutch and pedaling on the faucet boots. It looks very funny.
(The Qiang's name is Ijgen Qiang of the Han nationality.) Two people participated. The masks were magnificent, sporting on their heads, wearing black satin shorts, with big money flowers on them, long skirts of various colors around their waists, skirts with mesh waists, and black tucked boots.
Four people, two big and two small, with white masks and skulls and nothing on their heads, wearing white shorts and holding red sticks. A variety of colors of prominence, white boots, jumping Qiang Mu is mainly the role of clown, the most entertaining, very active scene.
Bad days and waves
(Butterfly) Eight people participated, masked skull with five small skulls, small skull with red gem (outer copper ring) between small skull and big skull with a hoop and gem, wearing striped shorts (black flower on white) and gloves (red glove palm, white back of hand) one hand rocking drum, one hand holding a small knocking stick.
(Emperor) Masked human skull, bald head, wearing a yellow Python robe, the emperor dressed up, pedaling bibcock boots.
Six participants, masked bald, dressed in colorful silk and satin, and flowery pythons, appeared with Haxing Khan.
The above nine parts of the characters all contain the image of Buddha, so their jumping and movements are bizarre images.
Qiang Mu's accompaniments are all playing music. Musical pieces include temple trumpet, sheep horn trumpet and snail trumpet. Percussion instruments include
Drums and cymbals. The trumpet is 5 meters long and has a deep voice. It emits a Song-song sound. Sheep horn snail is not often used, usually used at the beginning and end of each scene. The main pieces of the band are drums and cymbals. Among them, the cymbal is the commanding piece of Qiang Mu. Lamas who use cymbals must master the whole process and movements of the kam, because the performers of the Kam jump perform according to the rhythm of the cymbals, so the lamas who perform the cymbals usually have skipped the main role of the kam, or coach. The band of Qiang Mu is usually located on the temple terrace, and there are monks chanting sutras on the left side of the temple gate.
Qiang Mu of Zashrunbu Temple in Shigaze holds the Simochinbo Festival, or the Diamond God Dance Festival, on August 4 (the middle and late September of the Gregorian calendar) of the Tibetan calendar every year. Tibetan Vajrayana God dance is called "Qiang Mu", which is popularly known as "Dancing God". It is a religious dance performed by the Lama of Zerongkang Monastery (Protecting the Faith) directly under the Panchen Master, and accompanied by the Lama Drum. The three-day dance of gods is the most grand traditional festival in Shigaze every year. In the extremely low Lama drum sound, the Vajra God dance is dancing slowly with a solemn and mysterious atmosphere. And some mime sketches interspersed in the divine dance are humorous and often cause the audience to laugh. The god-dancing lama, wearing masks, costumes and holding drums, knives and axes, performed dozens of divine dances such as diamond, skeleton, deer and cow, birchu, crow owl and six longevity. The divine dance bands include 12 Lama drums, 4 Dafa trumpets, 4 leg bones, 4 golden locks, 4 big cymbals and 4 small cymbals, all of which have more than 60 musicians. In three days, the drum music shocked the whole world from morning to night.
Current situation of inheritance
The large-scale drama Zasi Qiang Mu, which requires more than 50 performers, was the worst, with only one Zacang and 14 performers remaining. Influenced by the Cultural Revolution, the art was interrupted for 20 years at one time. After 1986, Qiang Mu of Zashrunbu Temple began to recover. Different bunkers gathered together and developed. The number gradually expanded to more than 30 people.
In order to protect and promote this unique religious art, the higher cultural departments also allocated 200,000 yuan in 2011 to renovate the Qiang Mu performance stage in Zashlunbu Temple. By September 2011, the sound of Lama drums will be heard again in Zha Temple. The performers of Qiang Mu, wearing cow-head lion-head masks, Satin pythons and carrying axes and swords, will continue to bring an artistic feast to the audience.
Today, Qiang Mu is not only preserved in temples of different sects of Tibetan Buddhism, but also spread throughout Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, etc.
Yunnan and other Tibetan areas. Such dances are found in Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, northern India, Bangladesh and the vast areas of Mongolian Lamaism in the southeastern part of the former Soviet Union adjacent to Tibet.
Since the 1990s, the vast number of professional literary and artistic workers have actively investigated and excavated, carefully processed and sorted out, and put some parts of Qiang Mu on the stage, which has been appreciated by domestic and foreign audiences.
However, as a rare sacrificial dance in Tibetan Buddhist temples, Qiang Mu of Zashlunbu Temple has high research value.
The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, Qiang Mu of Zashrunbu Temple in Shigaze was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.