Pucheng Folk Song
Shaanxi folk song refers to folk rap music all over Shaanxi.
Shaanxi folk song is the continuous interaction, integration, creation, development and transmission of various artistic forms among the working people in the production practice and social practice of the past dynasties. Generally, Shaanxi folk songs can be divided into northern Shaanxi folk songs, southern Shaanxi folk songs and Guanzhong folk songs according to their regional and artistic characteristics. Folk songs in various regions or bold and unrestrained, or euphemistic and gentle, constitute a rich folk art in Shaanxi. The representative of Shaanxi folk songs, Ziyang folk songs (No. 49, No. II-18), Pucheng folk songs (No. 50, No. II-19), North Shaanxi folk songs (No. 572, No. II-73), Zhenba folk songs (No. 585, No. II-86) are all included in the list of intangible cultural heritage at the national level in China.
folk song of northern shaanxi
For details, please refer to the lyrics of northern Shaanxi folk songs.
North Shaanxi is a place where folk songs are gathered. There are many kinds of folk songs, commonly known as "mountain songs" or "sour songs" in the area. There are mainly more than twenty kinds of Xintianyou, minor, wine songs and ditties, among which Xintianyou is the most characteristic and representative.
Xintianyou is also called "Shuntian Tour" and "Mountain Climbing Tune". It is a popular folk song style in northern Shaanxi. Its basic form is the two sentences of the structure of the upper and lower sentences. Generally speaking, the first sentence is lively, the second sentence is meaningful, concise and concise, short and concise. Most of the lyrics are impromptu choreographies. The prominent feature of the lyrics is the use of parallelism, touching scenery and expressing feelings by borrowing scenery. The lyrics are mainly composed of seven words, which are often reduplicated, stressed and stressed. Such as "Lang Ge Ying-ying", "Bai Ge Sheng-sheng", "Red Ge Tong", "Qiao Ge Ling's Hand" and so on. Therefore, some irregular eight-character, nine-character and more than ten-character singing sentences are often mixed among them. Xintianyou's tune is basically a single piece, but its tone color and rhythm arrangement are very diverse, which can show a variety of different moods and moods. It can be roughly divided into two basic forms: one is free rhythm, wide range, large fluctuation of melody, high-pitched and unrestrained, singing in high-pitched accent; the other is regular rhythm, rigorous structure, smooth melody, meticulous and soft, and singing in flat accent.
Custom songs reflect the customs and songs of the people of northern Shaanxi at a certain historical stage. The number of such songs is relatively small. There are mainly "Wine Songs" sung at banquets. Because of the drought in northern Shaanxi, people pray for rain by singing, forming "Rain Songs", as well as sacrificial songs and witch songs. Folk songs have strong local color, vivid language, melodious melody and free rhythm, which express the feelings and wishes of the people on the Loess Plateau.
Minor tunes are popular in Yulin counties in northern Shaanxi, with a large number of subjects and a wide range of subjects. Most tunes are relatively fixed, mostly narrative style, such as "Task Task", "Go West" and "Thirty Lipu". Its lyrics are mostly segmented, with seven words as the main part, singing in plain tune. The other part has silk and bamboo, percussion accompaniment, toward rap music and opera music development, such as Qingjian County "Tao Qing", Mizhi County "bowl cavity", Shen, Fu "Er Er Tai" and so on. Most minors are plain and vivid in language, deep and graceful in melody, meticulous and accurate in emotional description and large in length.
Xiaoqu is a kind of sitting and singing song which is popular in Yulin city without makeup and performance. Its formation can be traced back at least to the Ming Dynasty. It absorbed the southern tunes of Suzhou silk bamboo and Xiangtan Xiaoqu brought by Yuguan officials in the Qing and Ming dynasties, and gradually penetrated into the local folk songs of northern Shaanxi, and evolved continuously. The theme of the song is mainly taken from the life of the citizen class, with the contents of wind, snow and moon, love between men and women, spring in the boudoir, loyalty to ministers and liang. The structure of drinking CI is rigorous, the rhetoric is gorgeous, and the rhyme of drinking CI is even, so the literati's creation is full of flavor. It is known as a clear spring in desert oasis.
Folk songs in northern Shaanxi reflect the rich content of social life. Most of the popular folk songs in northern Shaanxi came into being from the end of 19th century to the 1940s. They not only reflect the content of social change, but also reflect the content of "long-term work song". They reflect the people's resistance to the oppression and exploitation of the feudal unified class in northern Shaanxi, especially the revolutionary historical folk songs. They are a group of precious revolutionary historical materials. Such as the famous "When the Red Army's Brother Comes Back" and "Shandandandan Blossoms Red and Brilliant" are of great value. However, in more than 8,000 folk songs in northern Shaanxi, such works are a minority after all. Most works reflect the ordinary things of ordinary people. For example: the little daughter-in-law misses her mother's home, the big girl wants to get married, the girl calculates hexagrams, the drummer greets relatives, the traveller misses his hometown, the young people talk about love, the husband and wife quarrel and tease, etc. Moreover, masons decorate the monotonous stone hammer with singing; farmers expel loneliness and sorrow with singing; cattle chasers sprinkle the melodious song on the rugged lanes of sheep's intestines; sentimental little daughters-in-law pours out her sorrow with singing. These are basically emotional expressions. In addition, people in northern Shaanxi also use folk songs to serve their daily life: salesmen use singing to sell, farmers use singing to pray for rain, celebrating and entertaining at festivals, married men and women use song to hold ceremonies, drinking to guess boxing, using song to tell historical stories, using song to engage in social intercourse, using song to narrate major historical events, young men and women use song to talk about love, and using song to tell love. Songs are used to narrate new people and events, and even to go to the grave to cry. Even scandals are spread by song, strange things by singing.
Embroidered Golden Plaque is a revolutionary folk song developed from the words of Embroidered Lotus Bag in Shaanxi traditional minor. As early as the Anti-Japanese War, it was prevalent in northern Shaanxi. With the liberation of the whole country, it quickly spread to all parts of the country. The structure of the song is short. The whole song consists of two sentences. The tune skeleton of the next sentence is the four-degree change of the last sentence. The melody is lively, fluent, natural, well-structured and rigorous. In a cordial and meticulous tone, it profoundly expresses the people's love for Chairman Mao and Commander Zhu and their deep affection for the Eighth Route Army, the people's children and soldiers. After the death of Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou and Commander-in-Chief Zhu in 1976, the singer Guo Lanying sang the song again with deep condolences and gave it a new explanation. In particular, the fifth paragraph was replaced by the words: "Premier Zhou, a good prime minister of the people, who has devoted himself to revolution, we love you." Leading the song to a climax deeply touched the hearts of hundreds of millions of people.
Southern Shaanxi Folk Songs
For more details, please refer to the lyrics of Southern Shaanxi folk songs.
Southern Shaanxi folk song is a traditional folk custom in the Qinba Mountains of Southern Shaanxi, which is represented by Hanzhong folk song and Ankang folk song. There has been a custom of singing folk songs and folk songs since ancient times. Folk songs are rich in content and diverse in form, either singing alone or singing in pairs. There are Tongshan Song (also known as Mao Shan Song, Fang Niu Song, Sister's Children's Song), folk song, minor tune, chant, ritual song (greeting song, wedding song, longevity song, toast song, boxing song, protocol song, exhortation song, incense worship song, Buddhist sentence, etc.) and pan song, children's song, and so on. They are funny, humorous, implicit, euphemistic and relaxed in tune, with high tone, plain tone, tender and delicate feelings, and are mostly Chuchu style 。
Southern Shaanxi is a mountainous structure with two mountains and one Sichuan. It is influenced by Han culture, Shu culture and the Three Kingdoms culture. The people of Southern Shaanxi are simple, hard-working and plain. Folk songs in Southern Shaanxi are beautiful in melody, delicate in emotion and smooth in structure, which give people a feeling of beautiful mountains and rivers. In terms of singing style, folk songs in southern Shaanxi use fewer falsetto and more high-pitched and peaceful tunes to sing, giving people a euphemistic and delicate sense of the fresh mountain wind; in terms of singing methods, folk songs in southern Shaanxi also use the singing skills of combination of up-and-down glide and minor tremolo, which adds some elegance and lyric emotion to the songs.
For several years, the people have no other recreational activities except planting land and working every day. Heavy physical labor has made them suffer terribly. There is no way to tell them the bitterness, sweetness and bitterness of their hearts. Only by roaring a few trumpets and singing a few folk songs, can they express their different feelings in their hearts, and can also eliminate the dullness and fatigue brought to them by labor. In the folk song of Southern Shaanxi, the tune of sheep grazing: "The first month of sheep grazing is the first month .This folk song is about the people of southern Shaanxi who go to herd sheep to the landlords during the day and work late into the night when they come back, singing out the miserable life and tragic fate of the poor working people at that time, and telling them their yearning for and pursuit of a better life. / Poverty is also very poor/sleep till midnight/listen to the noise outside/it's Razhuang/open the door to run/the guard sees/the handle of the pusher flicks into the slot/see where your ghost is running... / Walk to the dam/turn your face back/your wife is as white as a face/your heart is as sharp as a knife..." This folk song describes the situation of Baochang and Jiachang pulling soldiers everywhere before liberation, and the poor working people dare not speak out in anger. Only through this form of folk song can we directly point to the darkness and cruelty of the society at that time. At last, the song reflects the strong resistance of the working people to the dark society in the depths of their hearts through the abuse of Baochang and Jiachang.
Love songs are the essence of folk songs in southern Shaanxi. They show people's love view at that time. For example, "The Sun is Bigger than a Fire": "The Sun is Bigger than a Fire/ How is the slave's house sunned properly (dialect substitution, meaning listlessness)/ I'll wear straw hat to you/beg the sun to shine on me..." In order to keep her lover out of the sun and wear her straw hat to him, she can't stand it, which also reflects the tender and beautiful side of women in southern Shaanxi. Although the meaning of the words is very colloquial, the content is tactful and lingering, giving people a warm and romantic feeling; reflecting the bitterness of love, there is "Yelang did not come last night": "I did not come last night / burned overnight. Jiuluo Chai/Sand Tank Stewed Wine into Vinegar/Pan Fried Oil into a Screen/I do not want you to come..." It's a little exaggerated. It's delicious prepared carefully for my lover. The result is that wine is simmered into vinegar, the pot is boiled into a sieve, and my lover hasn't come. The bitterness of missing is very emotional. / Four send Xiaolang to the river side/hand hold willow call ferry/boat brothers prop up/Lang cross the river to sister to give money... / Ten to send Xiaolang Orange Garden/one orange twelve/Lang Six to Sister Six/no orange is reunited", which shows that sending the lover out, sending a journey after a journey, reluctant to part, melodious and melodious and melodious; Song of Little Daughter-in-law:"In the first month come to the first lunar month/hateful father and mother lost conscience/virtuous mother's house, he is not allowed to/admit slaves to the bitter bamboo grove/three bundles of firewood during the day/at night. The chicken opens/the door is on the ramp/the spring equinox is coming in February/the hateful matchmaker is blind/praise his children today/praise his house and courtyard/praise his housework again/praise his family countless tomorrow..." This song reflects the social phenomenon of the arranged marriage of the parents in feudal society, pushing their own daughters into the pit of fire. Finally, the little daughter-in-law was unbearable and hanged herself. The little daughter-in-law used the most foolish way but had no choice at that time, and launched the strongest resistance to the society.
Folklore is a true portrayal of the local humanistic spirit. Whenever the festival or large-scale festival gatherings are held, people in southern Shaanxi play the lion dragon lantern and sing the flower drum tune of southern Shaanxi to celebrate the joy of harvest and the expectation of the coming year, such as the flower drum tune in southern Shaanxi: "Ah... / Today's day is really good / Every household is really busy / Lion Dragon Lantern is playing / The harvest is good this year..... The main characteristics of this kind of folk songs are active and warm atmosphere, free and lively singing tone, strong improvisation of lyrics, no fixed tune format. They are singing and dancing in the cheerful sound of gongs, drums and firecrackers, what they see, what they want to sing, funny and humorous, usually in the form of solo singing, pair singing or leading the crowd.
Guanzhong Folk Songs
Guanzhong folk songs are popular to the north of Qinling Mountains and Weihe River.
Guanzhong folk music has a long history and many varieties. There are boatman's chant, tamping chant, carrying chant, box master song, the most influential is minor. There are popular "general minors" in Guanzhong tunes, and "silk minors" accompanied by silk strings. There are "social fire minors" such as Yangko tune, dry boat, bamboo horse, tiexiang, and Yangko tune. There are "folk minors" such as praying for rain, admonishing good tune, begging Qiao song, guessing boxing tune, reciting words, and "children's songs" such as nursery rhymes and hypnotic ballads.
The subject matter of Guanzhong folk songs covers a wide range of subjects, but mostly reflects various social contradictions, love life and legendary stories. The lyrics of Guanzhong folk songs are mainly composed of five words and seven words, while those in minor songs are mostly connected in the order of "number".