Production Techniques of Oolong Tea
Oolong tea production technology is a local traditional handicraft in Anxi County, Fujian Province. Historically, during the reign of Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty (1723-1735), tea farmers in Anxi County absorbed the principles of full fermentation of black tea and non-fermentation of green tea, combined with the reality of Tieguanyin in Anxi, created a set of unique tea-making technology of "semi-fermentation" of Tieguanyin Oolong Tea, and adopted flexible technology of "seeing green as green" and "seeing sky as green" according to different conditions such as season, climate and fresh leaves. The origin of Oolong Tea (Tieguanyin) production technology has beautiful legends of "Oolong Hunting", "Oolong Prince", and now known to women and children as "Wei Shuo" and "Wang Shuo". Anxi Oolong tea traditional production techniques, mainly distributed in the early Qing Dynasty Xiping, Huqiu, Lutian, Gande and other towns, to the end of the Qing Dynasty has spread throughout the country. Oolong Tea (Tieguanyin) has become a popular traditional production technology, and its production technology is becoming more and more mature. From the initial foot rubbing and hand twisting, Oolong Tea has developed into three parts: picking, preliminary production and refinement. Among them, there are ten processes in the primary production, such as sun-drying, kneading and drying, and six processes in the refined part, such as screening, baking and packaging. Nowadays, it has developed into a competition for the benefit of the people.
On June 7, 2008, Oolong Tea production technology was approved by the State Council and listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Zhao Li Qiao brick tea, which is similar to square brick, was formed in the middle and late Qing Dynasty. Its appearance is inseparable from the long history of tea industry development in southern Hubei.
Legend has it that during the Three Kingdoms, Shixie, Pang Tong and Huatuo, the divine doctors of the Eastern Wu Dynasty, used to collect tea as medicine in southern Hubei. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the tea industry had developed initially.
In Tang Dynasty, tea drinking was prevalent, and tea industry began to flourish in southern Hubei. In Song Dynasty, because of the system of tea horse trading and tea discussing (national monopoly of tea), tea production in southern Hubei was more prosperous. At that time, the State stipulated that the main varieties of tea were "loose tea" and "sliced tea". The "sliced tea" was to steam tea and press it into cakes, which is the embryonic form of Zhao Li Qiao brick tea.
From cake tea to green brick tea, another six or seven hundred years have passed. Meanwhile, southern Hubei has become the most important tea production area in Huguang area, and Chibi Yangloudong (now Zhao Li Qiao) has become the tea production and marketing distribution center in southern Hubei, with two changes in tea production technology.
For the first time in the Ming Dynasty, in order to facilitate transportation, tea merchants in Yangloudong area changed the method of sticking tea into cakes with rice pulp since the Song Dynasty into cap boxes made by steaming and stepping on their feet after heating. The second transformation was in the Qing Dynasty. The Qing Dynasty opened up the folk trade of the Han and Mongolian nationalities, and the manufacturing industry of cap-box tea for border sale in Yangloudong was more prosperous. In the long process of transportation, tea is naturally fermented. People find that the fermented tea tastes better and has a longer storage time. Therefore, they begin to improve the technology and shape, and eventually form today's green brick tea.
As for the record of Zhao Liqiao brick tea making technology, we can see the revised "Chongyang County Records" in Tongzhi years: "Tea is grown in all the mountains today, and the mountain people take it as their occupation. Shanxi businessmen purchased in Puqi Yanglou Cave and extended to Yixi Shaping in the past. They made rough leaves, fried them in hot pots, put them in cloth bags, kneaded them, then steamed them in steamers, took fine leaves and sprinkled noodles, and pressed them into bricks. Bamboo is stored. Trafficking to the Northwest mouth, known as black tea. Daoguang season, year-old merchant elk gathering, picking fine leaves exposed to the sun, kneading without fire. Rain is baked with charcoal." It can be seen that the green brick tea which had been formed at the end of Daoguang appeared
Oolong tea, also known as green tea and semi-fermented tea, is named after the founder of this tea. It is one of the most distinctive tea products in China.
There are some legendary colors in the production of Oolong tea. According to Fujian Tea and Fujian Tea Folk Legend, there was a tea farmer in Nanyan Village, Xiping Township, Anxi County, Fujian Province. His name was Su Minglong. Because he was dark and strong, his villagers called him "oolong". One spring, Oolong hangs a tea basket on his waist, goes up to the mountain with a shotgun on his back to collect tea. At noon, a mountain deer suddenly slips by. Oolong raises a gun and shoots but the wounded Mountain Deer runs desperately into the forest. Oolong also chases after him, and finally catches the prey. When the mountain deer is carried home, Oolong and the whole family are busy. Slaughtering and tasting game have completely forgotten the tea-making. The next morning, the whole family was busy stir-frying the tea green picked up yesterday. Unexpectedly, the fresh leaves that had been placed overnight had been set with red edges and emitted fragrance. When the tea was made, the taste was very fragrant and strong, without the bitterness and astringency of the past. After careful consideration and repeated experiments, after withering carving, shaking green, semi-fermentation, baking and other processes, a new tea product with excellent quality was finally produced. Oolong tea. Anxi became a famous tea town of Oolong tea.
Oolong tea combines green tea and black tea. Its quality is between green tea and black tea. It has both strong and delicious flavor of black tea and fragrant fragrance of green tea, and has the reputation of "green leaf red edge". Taste the back teeth and cheeks to leave a fragrant aftertaste. The pharmacological effects of Oolong tea are mainly manifested in fat decomposition, weight loss and body building. It is called "beauty tea" and "health tea" in Japan.
To form the excellent quality of Oolong tea, firstly, the fresh leaves of excellent tea varieties are selected as raw materials, and the picking standards are strictly controlled; secondly, the production technology is extremely fine. Oolong tea can be divided into three sub-categories, vibrant green, shaking green and hand green, because of its different ways of making green. Business habits can be divided into: northern Fujian Oolong, southern Fujian Oolong, Guangdong Oolong, Taiwan Oolong and other sub-categories according to their producing areas. Oolong tea is a special kind of tea in our country. It is mainly produced in northern Fujian, southern Fujian, Guangdong, Taiwan, Sichuan and Hunan provinces, but also in a small amount.
Method of making
Oolong tea production process, withering shaking green fried green kneading baking.
Withering: sunlight withering and indoor withering. Sunlight withering, also known as sunshine, allows fresh leaves to emit part of water, so that the material in the leaves can be moderately transformed to a suitable degree of fermentation; indoor withering, also known as cool green, allows fresh leaves to wither naturally indoors, is also a common method of Oolong tea withering.
Shaoqing: It is the key to make oolong tea green. The withered tea leaves undergo a series of biochemical changes after 4 to 5 times of shaking, forming the unique "green leaf red edge" characteristics of Oolong tea bottom and the unique aroma of Oolong tea.
Fried green: Fried green machine destroys the tea enzymes in tea, prevents the leaves from turning red, makes the green taste of tea fade and tea aroma emerges.
Kneading: It belongs to the modeling step, that is, tea is made into spherical or strip-like shape to form the shape structure of Oolong tea.
Baking: that is, drying, removing excess moisture and bitter taste, baking tea stalks broken and crisp, pure smell, make tea aroma high alcohol.
Oolong is popular nowadays. Ginseng Oolong and frozen-topped Oolong are hot in the tea market. In fact, Oolong's "stereotyped eyes" are quite a lot, so it is not easy to drink Oolong in place.
The process of Oolong tea can be divided into four steps: sun-drying, air-drying, shaking, rolling, drying and stalk picking. The necessary conditions for making a pot of Oolong tea are as follows:
1. Good tea, good water and good tea sets
As the saying goes, "Water is the mother of tea and utensils are the father of tea." With good tea, it is more necessary to have good water and tea sets in order to express its charm vividly and vividly. Water is best purified water or mineral water, while tea sets are preferable to "Yixing pottery, Jingdezhen pottery".
2. Pot Shape and Tea Delivery
According to the number of tea drinkers, the type of teapot is selected, and the quantity of tea is determined according to the capacity of the teapot. If the tea is a tight hemispheric oolong, the tea needs to account for 1/3-1/4 of the teapot volume; if the tea is loose, it needs to account for half of the pot.
III. Water Temperature Requirements
Oolong tea contains some special aromatic substances which need to be fully developed under high temperature, so it must be brewed with boiling water.
4. Soup time
The first soaking time of Oolong tea in southern Fujian and Taiwan is about 45 seconds, and the second soaking time is about 60 seconds. After that, each soaking time can be added 10 seconds later. Oolong tea in northern Fujian and Chaozhou is much quicker to start soup. The first 15 seconds is enough.
5. Brewing Number
Green tea is generally the best three times, while Oolong tea has the saying that "seven soaks have fragrance" and the method is appropriate. It can be brewed more than seven times per pot.
Oolong tea on the market can be divided into southern Fujian, northern Fujian, Chaozhou in Guangdong and Taiwan according to the origin of tea.
South Fujian Oolong Tea is also known as Xicha Tea, and the representative famous teas are Tieguanyin, Jingui, Benshan and Mao Crab; North Fujian Oolong Tea is also known as rock tea, mainly produced in Wuyi Mountain, Fujian Province, representing famous teas such as Dahongpao, cinnamon, Tielohan and Narcissue; Chaozhou Oolong Tea in Guangdong is known as Phoenix Danju; Taiwanese Oolong Tea is mainly produced in Taiwan because of the different fermentation processes, it is divided into Taiwan Oolong and Narcissus. There are two main types of enclosed species in Taiwan. Frozen top Oolong, Qingxin Oolong and Wenshan Bao are well-known, but Tai Tea such as Jinxuan and Cuiyu are also becoming popular.
Oolong tea is rich and full-bodied in aroma, mellow in taste, refreshing and sweet; the edge of the bottom of the leaf is reddish brown, and the middle part is light green, forming a peculiar "green leaf red edge". But in terms of soup color, there are differences between northern Fujian tea and southern Fujian tea: the soup of northern Fujian oolong tea is darker and the soup of southern Fujian oolong tea is clear and bright.
Strictly speaking, ginseng oolong tea is not the original tea. It is a kind of reprocessed tea, which is made by grinding the leaves of Panax quinquefolium and adding some other auxiliary materials into the tea. High quality Panax ginseng oolong tea has certain health effects.
There is a simple way to distinguish the quality of ginseng Oolong tea, that is, the faster the tea bottom disperses during brewing, the better the tea quality. Ginseng Oolong on the market is mostly made by Chen Tea. Consumers should be careful when choosing and purchasing it.
Application of Skills
Tieguanyin Tea is a treasure of Oolong Tea, which is produced in Anxi County, Fujian Province. It has a history of more than 200 years. On the fragrant land of Anxi, the natural environment is unique, the climate is mild, the rain scenery is abundant, the four seasons are evergreen and the clouds are shrouded, which is very conducive to the growth of Tieguanyin. Tieguanyin is made with rigorous craftsmanship and exquisite craftsmanship. It is made in four seasons in a year, spring tea from the autumn equinox to the beginning of summer, summer tea from the summer solstice to the summer heat, summer tea from the beginning of autumn solstice to the beginning of summer, and autumn tea from the autumn equinox to the cold dew. Spring tea is the best quality tea, autumn tea is the best aroma; Tieguanyin strip curl, strong knot, heavy, green belly and clear cockroach head; bright color, green sand, bright red dots, leaves with frost, golden soup, thick and clear, thick and bright bottom of leaves, with silk gloss. Tea soup is mellow and delicious, with honey in its entrance; its fragrance is rich and persistent, and it has the reputation of "green leaves with red edges, seven bubbles with fragrance".
Tieguanyin's drinking still follows the traditional way of "Kungfu Tea". It is best to use pottery pots, white pottery cups and Yixing purple clay pots. According to its procedure, brewing can be divided into eight ways:
1. Baihe Bath (Cup Washing): Wash tea sets with boiling water;
2. Goddess of Mercy into the Palace (drop tea): Tieguanyin into the tea set, tea volume accounts for about five points of the capacity of the tea set;
3. High-flushing (tea-making) in a canteen: Rise the boiling water into a teapot or an urn to turn the tea.
4, spring breeze to face (chaotic bubble): use the lid or cover to gently wipe the floating white foam to make it fresh and clean.
5. Guan Gong's tour (pouring tea): Put the tea after one or two minutes into the side-by-side cups in turn.
6. Han Xin ordered soldiers (tea): When tea is poured to a small amount, it should drip evenly to each cup bit by bit.
7. Appreciate the color of the soup (see tea): taste the color of the tea in the cup;
8. Lu Dingganlin (drinking tea): Take a sip in hot water, first smell its fragrance, then taste its taste, while sipping while sniffing, shallowly pour it. Although the amount of drinking is not much, it can retain fragrance on the cheeks, return to the bottom, be relaxed and happy, not interesting; indeed, it is a kind of life art enjoyment.
(For example, when drinking Tieguanyin with glasses or other products, please place appropriate amount of tea according to personal taste, which is worse than the taste and aroma of the formal Kungfu tea set.)
Tieguanyin tea has always been cherished by tea travellers and overseas Chinese in Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan. Once the tea is tasted, it is difficult to let go. Tieguanyin also has some effects on reducing weight, blood lipid and cholesterol. Since the 1950s, Tieguanyin tea has gradually become a favorite of the people of North China. Its reputation has spread all over the country, and its consumption has been increasing. In Japan, Tieguanyin has become a synonym for oolong tea.
Inheritance of Production Skills
The oolong tea production in China sprouted in sixteenth Century and perfected in seventeenth Century. It absorbed and inherited the essence of all kinds of tea making in China. It was a great invention of the epoch. Oolong tea not only retains the fragrance of green tea, but also the glycol of black tea. It is a semi-fermented tea. Its production process is complex and the conditions are demanding. Oolong tea is known as the most exquisite tea-making technology in the world.
As a traditional skill with a long history, Oolong tea production has developed into a beneficiary skill for tea farmers to get rid of poverty and become rich. While promoting the development of new tea processing technology, the county Party committee and the county government pay attention to the protection of traditional production technology and take various protective measures to protect the intellectual property rights of Tieguanyin geographical indications in Anxi.
Wei Yuede is displaying the plaque of the tea processing factory he started at the beginning of his business. The planting technology of Tieguanyin tea plant was introduced. Since Wei Yin, the ancestor of Tieguanyin, discovered Tieguanyin in 1723, the Wei Yin family inherited the traditional tea-making technology and spread Oolong tea (Tieguanyin) to the world. As the ninth generation inheritor of Wei Yin, Wei Yuede is the representative inheritor of the production technology of the national intangible cultural heritage Oolong tea (Tieguanyin). Wei Yuede has been engaged in the production and sale of Oolong Tea (Tieguanyin) for more than 30 years since he came into contact with tea at the age of 15 or 6. In addition to the establishment of tea enterprises, he also invested heavily in the construction of Tieguanyin Cultural Park, which has become an important window for the dissemination of Chinese tea culture.