Production Techniques of Black Tea
Qimen Black Tea is the only black tea among the top ten famous teas in China. It is produced in Qimen County, Anhui Province. Tea production in Qimen has a long history, which can be traced back to the Northern and Southern Dynasties. In the early years of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty, green tea was not sold well in the international tea market. Hu Yuanlong, a knowledgeable man from Guixi, Nanxiang, was the representative of Qimen Tea District. In the second year of Guangxu (1876), black tea was successfully created. Once Qihong came out, it became famous both at home and abroad for its outstanding quality. In 1915, Qihong participated in Panama International Exposition and won the highest gold medal. In 1987, Qihong won the Gold Prize of the 26th World Quality Food Selection Conference. Two of them won the highest international prize, standing on the top of the world tea. Qimen is also named by the relevant state departments as "the hometown of black tea in China". The traditional Qimen black tea is made by hand. The excellent quality depends on the hands. So Qihong is also called Qimen Gongfu. Qihong tea-making process is divided into two parts: primary processing and refinement. There are four processes: withering, kneading, fermentation and drying. Refining has screening, cutting off, air selection, picking, reheating, even stacking and other processes, without more than 10 years of experience, no less than a painstaking effort, it is impossible to make good tea. The finished Qihong has a dark and moist appearance, tightly roped and beautiful edge. The soup is red and transparent, and the bottom of the leaves is bright red. The most attractive scent is aroma. Tea makers at home and abroad call it sugar or apple fragrance, with orchid fragrance, fragrance lasting, unique, known as "Qimen fragrance", Qihong also ranks first among the world's three high-aroma black tea. More than a hundred years of history, more than a hundred years of brilliance. In July 1979, Deng Xiaoping, a great man of a generation, visited Huangshan and said, "Qihong is famous in the world!" In 1991, Jiang Zemin, then general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, visited the former Soviet Union and chose Qihong as the national ceremony. With the development of the times, Qihong's thick and brilliant history has continuously added a brilliant glory. Qimen black tea is an outstanding representative of Chinese tea. In recent years, due to the influence of domestic and foreign tea market, there have been some problems, such as poor sales, lack of successors of traditional handicraft technology. Therefore, Qimen County Committee and county government attach great importance to it, formulate development plans, take various effective measures, and strive to revitalize Qihong, the most famous brand in the world tea industry. 。
The Wechsler Dictionary of the United States, "Qimen Black Tea" records the origin of Qimen Black Tea, Qimen County, Anhui Province, China. Founding year: Qimen tea was created in Guangxunian (AD 1875), which has a production history of more than a hundred years. It can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty. Tea Saint Lu Yu left a record in the Book of Tea: "Huzhou, Changzhou, Shezhou Xia". Qimen belonged to Shezhou at that time.
Around 1875, Hu Yuanlong, a Qimen personage, drew lessons from the method of making black tea in other provinces, and processed black tea in Qimen. Later, he was introduced into Beiping by Tongshengxiang Teahouse in Peiping and succeeded in the market.
In the first year of Guangxu (1875), Hu Yuanlong planned to build Rishun Tea Factory in Peigui Shanfang. He asked Ningzhou Master Shu Jili to make black tea according to Ninghong experience.
Before the reign of Guangxu in Qing Dynasty, Qimen only produced green tea, but not black tea.
In 1875, a man named Yu Ganchen from Yixian County, Anhui Province, went back to his native place to do business. Seeing that black tea was popular and profitable, he set up a black tea farm in Yaodu Street, Dexian County. He imitated the "Fujian black tea" method and began to make black tea.
In 1876, Yu set up black tea branches successively in Qimen West Road Town and Shinli to expand his business. Because of the superior natural conditions and the superior quality of black tea produced in Qimen area, the growing origin, output and reputation of black tea have attracted great attention of tea merchants in the international black tea market. Japanese call it rose and British businessmen call it Qimen.
After eight years of Guangxu (1883), it was finally made into superior black tea with excellent color, aroma, taste and shape, which made Hu Yunlong one of the founders of Qihong.
The disciples and apprentices of Yu Ganchen include Chen Shanghao and others. Since 1875, Chen Shanghao started his own tea house in Likou. He studied in the tea house since he was a child. After many years, he was skilled in learning. Huizhengchong Village set up its own tea shop, Shanghao Square.
The natural quality of tea is the best in Likou Guxi, Shinli and Pingli of Qimen County, Huangshan City, Anhui Province. Local tea varieties have high yield and good quality. They are planted in fertile red and yellow soil, and have mild climate, abundant rainwater and moderate sunshine. Therefore, the leaves are tender and rich in water-soluble substances, and the quality harvested in March-April is the best. Qi infrared strips are tightly and uniformly shaped, with beautiful front seedlings and dark color (commonly known as "Baoguang"); fragrant endoplasm with honey flavor, the top-grade tea contains orchid fragrance (known as "Qimen fragrance"), rich and lasting; the soup is bright red, sweet and mellow taste, and the bottom of the leaves (soaked tea residue) is red and bright. Qingyin can best taste the meaningful aroma of Qihong, even if fresh milk is added. Black tea in spring is the most suitable for drinking. Afternoon tea and bedtime tea are also suitable for finished tea strips, which are tightly slim and delicate, with dark color, golden hair showing, bright red soup, fresh and mellow taste and long fragrance. Qimen fragrance, which resembles flowers, fruits and honey, is well-known in the world and ranks first among the three famous high-fragrance tea in the world.
In the international market, Qihong, Dajiling Tea of India and Ufa Tea of Sri Lanka are recognized as three high-fragrance teas in the world. Qimen Black Tea is known as "the most popular tea" because of its excellent quality, which is inseparable from the superior natural and ecological environment conditions in Qimen area. Qimen is located in the southern end of Anhui Province. Huangshan Branch is surrounded by Dahongling and Lishan in the northwest, Nanmuling in the east, Beech Root Ridge in the south. Mountain area accounts for 90% of the total area. The average altitude is about 600 meters. About 80% of tea gardens are located in the valley area of 100-350 meters above sea level. Forest area accounts for more than 80%. Temperature difference between morning and evening is large. Clouds and fog often surround them, and the sunshine time is short. Tea trees grow in a natural environment, resulting in "Qihong" special aroma and thick taste. Sort by brand Pinyin: Fusheng Ruocha Xin'an impression, barn, Hui merchant, Huixin, Likou, Mingquan Guanyin, Qunfang intoxicated Tianpin Guoxiang, Qimei, Qi Guoxiang, Runshi Qihong, Confucian Xinyuan, Tianzhihong, Yiding Tianhong, etc.
In the 18th century, the international tea market was dominated by black tea. The Anhua black tea, which rose in the early years of Xianfeng, was one of the three most authentic black tea in China, with fine workmanship and excellent quality. At that time, the black tea produced in Hunan was collectively called "Huhong", which was the same name as "Qihong" in Anhui and "Jianhong" in Fujian. It was regarded as the authentic black tea in China. In 1915, he won the gold medal at Panama World Expo. Panama World Expo 1915 is the most influential Expo to China. Chinese exhibits are displayed in eight professional pavilions and Chinese pavilions respectively.
Castanopsis carlesii is a Castanopsis species growing in Qimen County, Anhui Province. It is made of tea buds, leaves and tender stems by withering, kneading, fermentation and drying. After three processes and twelve processes, it is graded and blended. Gongfu black tea, with its main characteristics of tightness, uniformity and dark color, becomes Qimen black tea, and then according to its shape and interior. Quality is divided into: ritual tea, special tea, super-grade, first-class, second-class, third-class, fourth-class, fifth-class, sixth-class and seventh-class. The following are distinguished from the characteristics of "shape", "aroma and taste", "water color", "leaf bottom":
Rite tea - shape: tender and neat, there are many tender and sharp, moist color; fragrance and taste: high-alcohol aroma, sweet and fresh tender fragrance, forming a unique "Qihong" style; water color: red and bright; leaf bottom: most of the tender bud leaves, bright color, neat and beautiful.
Specialty - Shape: fine, tender, neat length, moist color; Aroma and taste: high alcohol aroma, tender fragrance and sweetness, with a unique "Qihong" style; Water color: bright red; Leaf bottom: tender bud leaves less than ritual tea, bright color.
Super-grade-appearance: tightness, tenderness, moist and even color; fragrance and taste: high-alcohol aroma, fresh and tender with a unique "Qihong" style; water color: bright red; bottom of leaves: tenderness is obvious, neat, bright color.
First-class-shape: tight and thin, tender, uniform length, moist color; aroma and taste: strong fragrance, with "Qihong" peculiar fructose fragrance; water color: bright red; bottom: tender leaves are whole, red.
Secondary-appearance: fine lines, less tenderness, moist color; fragrance and taste: mellow fragrance, with "Qihong" fructose fragrance; water color: red less than first-class bright; leaf bottom: sprouts are complete, moderate mellow.
Three-level-shape: tighter rope, rougher than the second-level, uniform, slightly loose face; fragrance and taste: mellow, fresh and convergent, "Qihong" features are still significant; water color: red light; leaf bottom: neat, moderate hair alcohol.
Grade 4 - Shape: Thick, slightly lighter, poorly uniform, gray in color; Aroma and taste: mellow, with the corresponding concentration, there is still "Qihong" flavor; Water color: light red; Leaf bottom: poor uniformity, red and not uniform, with anthocyanins.
Grade 5 - Shape: Thicker rope, slightly stiffened, poorly uniform, gray color; Aroma and taste: fragrance mellow and sweet, but no coarse and old taste; Water color: red and light; Leaf bottom: anthocyanin, slightly pedunculated.
Sixth-grade shape: loose strips, with a piece of plain, mixed color; fragrance and taste: weak fragrance, insufficient concentration; water color: red light, not bright enough; leaf bottom: red miscellaneous, more pedicel.
Grade 7 - Appearance: loose foam, light body, simple stem with mixed color and orange; fragrance and taste: weak fragrance, coarse old flavor; water color: light but not bright; leaf bottom: thick dark stalk.
Qimen black tea can provide abundant riboflavin, folic acid, carotene, tocopherol and chloroquinone, and is an important source of fluoride in food.
Heat: Black tea has less than 1244 kilojoules per 100 grams.
Protein: Theanine content and total amino acid content in black tea rank second in all kinds of tea, but black tea also contains a small amount of free amino acid. Carbohydrates and Fats: Most of the carbohydrates in tea are polysaccharides. The polysaccharides dissolved in boiling water only account for 4%~5% of the tea solutes. They are low-sugar beverages. The content of fat in black tea generally does not exceed 3%.
Vitamin: Black tea contains a lot of vitamin C, which is second only to green tea.
Minerals and Trace Elements: Black tea is rich in minerals and trace elements such as calcium, copper, sodium, phosphorus and zinc.
Because black tea ingredients have many pharmacological effects, tasting black tea can not only make people enjoy the elegance of calm and leisure, but also play an economic and gratifying role in health care and cosmetology, which adds to the charm of black tea.
Refreshing and exhausting
Caffeine in black tea stimulates the nerve center by stimulating the cerebral cortex, promotes refreshment and concentration of thinking, thus making the thinking more sensitive and memory enhanced. It also has exciting effects on the vascular system and the heart, and strengthens the heart beat, thus speeding up blood circulation to facilitate metabolism, at the same time promoting sweating and diuresis, thereby speeding up the excretion of lactic acid (muscle sense) in both channels. Fatigue-inducing substances) and other old waste substances in the body can eliminate fatigue.
Promoting fluid metabolism and clearing away heat
Black tea can relieve thirst and heat in summer because polyphenols, carbohydrates, amino acids and pectin in tea react with saliva and stimulate salivary secretion, which results in moisturizing and cooling of the mouth. At the same time, caffeine controls the temperature center of the optic hypothalamus and regulates body temperature. It also stimulates the kidney to promote the excretion of heat and dirt and maintain the physiological balance of the body.
Under the combined action of caffeine and aromatic substances in black tea, the blood flow of the kidney is increased, the glomerular filtration rate is increased, the renal microvessels are dilated, and the re-absorption of water by the renal tubules is inhibited, thus the urine volume is increased. This is conducive to the elimination of lactic acid, uric acid (related to gout), excessive salt (related to hypertension), harmful substances, and alleviate the edema caused by heart disease or nephritis.
Anti-inflammatory and bactericidal
The polyphenols in black tea have anti-inflammatory effects. It was found that catechins can bind to single-cell bacteria, coagulate and precipitate proteins, thereby inhibiting and eliminating pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, black tea is beneficial for patients with bacterial larvae and food poisoning, and strong tea is also commonly used to coat wounds, bedsores and Hong Kong feet.
Theophylline in black tea can absorb heavy metals and alkaloids and precipitate and decompose them, which is a good news for modern people whose drinking water and food are polluted by industry.
Nourishing the stomach
Black tea is fermented and baked. Tea polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation under the action of oxidase. The content of black tea decreases and the irritation to stomach decreases accordingly. In addition, the oxidation products of these tea polyphenols can also promote human digestion, so black tea can not only hurt the stomach, but also nourish the stomach. Frequently drinking black tea with sugar and milk can reduce inflammation and protect gastric mucosa, and has certain effect on ulcer treatment.
In addition, black tea also has anti-caries, delaying aging, lowering blood sugar, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood lipid, anti-cancer, anti-radiation, weight loss and other effects.