Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine, one of the means of preparation or extraction of traditional Chinese medicine, is declared by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Chinese Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and is one of the national intangible cultural heritages.
Processing of traditional Chinese medicine refers to the traditional methods and techniques of processing Chinese medicinal materials into pieces of Chinese medicinal herbs according to the requirements of traditional Chinese medicine under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. In ancient times, it was also called "processing", "repairing things" and "curing things". Drugs processed can not only improve the efficacy and reduce the toxic and side effects of drugs, but also facilitate storage, which is a necessary procedure for clinical medication of traditional Chinese medicine.
In May 2006, traditional Chinese medicine processing technology was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list of traditional medicine, item number IX-3.
Origin of Technology
With the discovery and application of traditional Chinese medicine, the processing of traditional Chinese medicine comes into being, and its history can be traced back to the primitive society. The processing of traditional Chinese medicine is produced on the premise that the following conditions are met.
Discovery and application of traditional Chinese medicine
In order to live and survive, human beings must work and produce, and hunt for food. People sometimes eat some poisonous plants and animals by mistake, resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, coma and even death. Sometimes they eat to alleviate or disappear their illness. Over time, this perceptual knowledge accumulated more and became the initial knowledge of medicine. With the progress of medical technology, in order to better play the role of pharmacodynamics, these natural drugs are collected and processed. In order to take medicine conveniently, simple processing such as cleaning, shaping into small pieces or judging, shaping into rough end, etc. has become the "washing method", "cutting method" and "tamping method" of the early preparation of Chinese herbal slices after accumulation and development. This is the germination of traditional Chinese medicine processing. Therefore, with the discovery and application of traditional Chinese medicine, the processing of traditional Chinese medicine began to emerge.
The emergence and application of fire
"Han Feizi, Wu Ji Pian" contains: "Ancient times... Fruit-fried clam, a popular food, stinks and injures stomach and abdomen, causing many diseases. There are saints who make drills and fires to melt the fishy spots, while the people are happy to make the king's world, the day of the name of the people's family. "Liwei Hanwenjia" clearly pointed out: "Suiren's drilling wood to make fire, artillery is familiar, people have no abdominal disease, is different from animals."
Traditional Chinese medicine processing, known as "processing", refers to the method of processing medicinal materials by fire. Because of the application of fire by human beings, it created the basic conditions for the emergence of high-temperature processing "processing method" and "stir-frying method" of early Chinese medicines.
According to Shuo Wen, it says, "Gun, roast meat with wool." Duan Note: "Fried meat, that is not to go Fried also." Li Ji Nei Ze: "Paint it carefully (Jin) Paint it, gun it." Zheng Xuan commented, "Gunners are also known for burning." Sun Xidan assembled: "The gun that burns wrapped things is called gun." Shuowen: "Broiled, broiled meat, from the meat on the fire." "The Book of Songs, Xiaoya, Biography of Popular Leaves": "Fire is burning." "Gun" and "roast" are derived from food processing. The source of Chinese traditional medicine processing lies in the cooked food. Therefore, the early processing mainly used fire processing to treat drugs. This kind of knowledge, which is familiar with artillery, is gradually applied to the treatment of drugs, thus forming the embryonic form of traditional Chinese medicine processing.
3. Invention and Application of Wine
Liquor is one of the important excipients and solvent used in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine. The invention and application of liquor has a very long history in China. It originated in the Paleolithic Age and made progress in the Neolithic Age. It was widely used in the period of slavery society. In the late Neolithic Longshan culture, special wine vessels were found. More special wine vessels were found in the Yin and Shang cultures. In the oracle bone inscriptions unearthed from Yin Ruins, the word "yu" was used as aromatic medicinal wine for ancestors'sacrifice. People use alcohol directly to treat diseases or as a solvent in pharmaceuticals to make "medicinal liquor" to fight diseases. The invention and application of wine enriched the experience of medication and was cited in pharmaceuticals, which resulted in excipient preparation and enriched the content of pharmaceuticals.
The invention and application of pottery
In the process of long-term use of fire, human beings have gradually realized the plasticity of soil, which has prepared the conditions for the invention of pottery. During the Yangshao Culture (around 5000 BC), there were casseroles, pots and other cookers and storage devices, which created the necessary tools for the steaming, boiling, calcination (pottery calcining pots) and the storage of traditional Chinese medicine decoction. The invention and application of pottery greatly enrich and expand the content of processing.
Traditional Chinese medicine processing is a unique pharmaceutical technology accumulated and developed by Chinese pharmacists in the long-term medical activities. It has a long history and rich content, and is the characteristic of traditional Chinese medicine. With the development of modern science and technology, the processing of traditional Chinese medicine is also advancing in constant exploration.
By sorting out the literature on Chinese traditional medicine processing, we can find that the development of Chinese traditional medicine processing can be roughly divided into four periods: the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period to the Song Dynasty (5th century B.C. to 12th century A.D.) is the beginning and formation period of Chinese traditional medicine processing technology; the Jin and Ming Dynasties (13th to 16th century A.D.) are the formation time of processing theory. Period: The Qing Dynasty (17th to 18th centuries A.D.) was a period of expanded application of processed products and technologies; the modern era (after 19th century A.D.) was a period of revitalization and development of processed products. The processing characteristics and main literature in this period are as follows.
1. Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period to Song Dynasty
Before the Han Dynasty, ancient documents recorded relatively simple processing content.
"Fifty-two prescriptions" is the earliest medical prescription book in China, which contains the contents of purification, cutting, water, fire, water-fire co-processing and other processing contents. It also has the records of specific operation methods, such as "taking Shangdao (Lu) stain (vinegar)"; "Chen Huo, steaming and extracting its juice" and so on. The processing effects of some drugs, such as burnt hair for hemostasis, were also explained.
The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic is the earliest encyclopedia in ancient China. There is a record of "governing Pinellia ternata" in the chapter of "Lingshu Jing-Xieke". "Treatment" refers to "repair", referring to the processing of attenuated drugs. It can be seen that the processing of toxic drugs had been noticed at that time. The "horn hair" and "burnt treatment" mentioned in "Su Q. Fallacy" are the earliest charcoal remnants of blood. "Puzui" was cut into pieces at that time. In Han Dynasty, the purpose and principle of Chinese traditional medicine processing had been initially established, and a large number of processing methods and products appeared.
The preface to Shennong Herbal Medicine Classic, China's first pharmacy monograph, contains: "All these seven emotions should be regarded as one of harmony... If poisonous and appropriate, you can use murderers in fear of each other. This was the explanation of the method and mechanism of the preparation of toxic drugs at that time. The book also points out that "medicines have... And poisonous and non-toxic, dry and dry, mining time, ripe, land out, authenticity and new, and have their own laws. Dry-in-the-dark refers to the origin of the Canadian Communist Party, while ripe refers to the processing of drugs. For the processing of mineral drugs, it is proposed that "red sand can convert mercury, bauxite can be used as bait, and gallstone can turn iron into copper" to change its medicinal properties by processing.
Zhang Zhongjing, in the "General Cases of Syndrome and Treatment" of the Jinkui Jade Letter, carried the drug "It is necessary to burn and roast, and it is ripe and definite". He pioneered the theory of different uses of drugs. It is also pointed out that "if the bean is big, the crude drug is inefficient" and the relationship between drug properties and pharmacodynamics is clarified. And "don't make such an order as ointment, but slightly accept the end of the medicine, much more rough." It is also regarded as the beginning of making Croton cream by dilution method in current pharmacopoeia.
In the Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, the preparation of related drugs is more scattered in the footnotes of prescription drugs, which is related to drug compatibility, dosage forms, Decoction and administration. If Tidang soup: leeches 30, boil; tadpoles 13, go wings, feet, boil; peaches 20, peel tip; rhubarb 32, wine soak. The use of poisonous drugs is more cautious and appropriate. If the aconite requires "gun", "peeled gun, broken eight pieces". Some of the processing methods have matured. It is different to put forward "burning, refining and boiling" on the fires of pharmaceuticals.
Gehong in the Eastern Jin Dynasty wrote "the prescriptions for eliminating poisons caused by various drugs" in "The Emergency Prescription for Elbow Reserve". He proposed that ginger juice could dissolve the poisons caused by Pinellia ternata, soybean juice could dissolve the poisons caused by Achyranthes bidentata and Changshan wine stained clothes. He also remembered that bamboo juice was prepared by dry distillation
Liang Dynasty is the second summary in the history of Chinese pharmacy. The Annotation of Materia Medica Classics is the second monograph of Chinese traditional medicine written by Tao Hongjing. For the first time, it systematically summarizes the scattered processing techniques and illustrates some of the processing effects. For example, "Everything used up in soup is broken", "Every insect is slightly baked first", "Every stone is fine tampered", "Ejiao, baking makes the whole body boil" and so on. Changing "Puzui" into cutting system has rich content and many methods.
In the Liu and Song Dynasties of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Lei Dun summed up the technology and experience of the predecessors in processing, and compiled three volumes of "On Lei Gong's Artillery" which is the first monograph on processing in China. The book describes various processing methods of medicines, such as picking, nail-removing, peeling, jointing and foaming, wiping, wiping, brushing, scraping, cutting, peeling, cutting, cutting, filing, grinding, grinding, water-flying, drying methods such as drying, shading, air-drying, drying, baking, drying, steaming and so on. Soaking, boiling, frying, refining, stir-frying, boiling, roasting, baking, processing, calcining and other water-fire methods; bitter wine soaking, honey coating, fried with glutinous rice, crisp fried, sesame oil boiling, glutinous soaking, medicinal juice preparation and other methods, widely used adjuvant processing pharmaceuticals. The book also gives more introduction to the function of processing, such as "... Use this boiling water to fly over the chalk, so as not to be astringent. "... Pinellia ternata... If it's not washed clean, it's irritating and the liver is full of anger." This book has a great influence on the development of Chinese traditional medicine processing in later generations, many of which have scientific rationality. If rhubarb steamed to ease its diarrhea effect. Scopola and Evodia rutaecarpa contain alkaloids, which can be salted by vinegar and increase the solubility in water. For volatile drugs, it is pointed out that "do not make fire", that is, to prevent high temperature treatment. Some tannin-containing drugs, such as Paeonia lactiflora, need to be scraped off with bamboo knife. Anemarrhena asphodeloides and galls should not be allowed to commit ironware. It still has guiding significance until 2016.
The Tang Dynasty recorded in detail the systematization of processing principles and new processing methods, and made great progress in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine.
In the chapter of "He He He", Sun Simiao wrote the earliest practical Encyclopedia of clinical practice in China, which included "all kinds of fried tobacco with liquorice, Magnolia officinalis, Fructus aurantii, photinia, taro, veratrum, soap pod and so on", "all kinds of fried with wheat tiller, koji, soybean yellow roll, zelan, turnip are slightly fried, dry paint fried to break the tobacco." Record. In terms of new processing methods, it proposed Zhushiyao "drift", Ophiopogon japonicus and Ginger "mash and extract juice", "Qianjin Yifang" has the method of repeatedly exposing cooked Rehmannia glutinosa; "Dietetic Herbs" began to treat medicinal materials with children's stools; "Outside Secret Yao" began to contain bran stirring method; "Xianxue Lihuo Divided Formula" added Tiannanxing ginger juice soaking, Caosu Wu. Ginger juice boiled or vinegar boiled, natural copper fire calcined vinegar quenched, Polygonum multiflorum black bean steamed, etc.
New Materia Medica is the earliest pharmacopoeia in the world revised by Su Jing in Tang Dynasty. For the first time, only rice wine and rice vinegar were prescribed as medicines. The contents of processing were listed as legal contents, including tillering, composing music, making soybean rolls and mirabilite extracting. The processing methods of mineral drugs have been recorded in detail, and the content of processing is richer than that of the previous period.
In the Song Dynasty, the processing methods were greatly improved, and the processing purposes were also diversified. From reducing side effects to increasing and changing curative effects, the processing of decoction pieces was emphasized, while the new stage of preparing prepared medicine pieces was also emphasized.
Wang Huaiyin's large-scale prescription book "Taiping Shenghui Fang" not only records a large number of concocted contents, but also contains the method of milk production. In the chapter of "On He He", it is pointed out that "Where Hehe decoction is used properly, it must be specialized, distinguish the new and the old, distinguish the state soil, repair the suitable degree, the weight is not bad, and the disease is cured all the time." Despite the name of curing diseases, there is no cure for them. The importance of drug preparation was explained.
"Syndrome Materia Medica" was compiled by Tang Shenwei. The book extensively compiled the literature on pharmacy before Song Dynasty, and partly preserved the lost medical books, such as "Leigong Gubao Lun" and so on. Before the publication of Compendium of Materia Medica, it had been used as a model for the study of Materia Medica. Each drug is followed by a processing method, which provides information for future pharmaceutical industry.
The Song Dynasty's "Taiping Huimin Heji Prescription" emphasizes that "all things that have been repaired should be processed according to law..." The special chapter on processing technology includes 185 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine processing methods and requirements, and gradually notices the changes of the efficacy of drugs after processing, such as Puhuang "breaking blood and detumescence, tonifying blood and stopping bleeding is stir-frying", which has become an important part of the national legal pharmaceutical technical standards. Some of them play a very important role in ensuring the quality of drugs. Because the book screened out the general prescriptions and processing methods at that time, it has strong practicality. Many methods used in modern times, especially in the preparation of medicines, are similar to those listed in the book. Such as water flying, vinegar quenching, pounds, paper simmering, noodle simmering, Croton frost making, Atractylodes macrocephala soaking in water, etc.
In a word, before the Song Dynasty, the principles and methods of processing and the suitable varieties had begun to take shape, which was the formation period of processing technology.
2. Jinyuan and Ming Dynasty
During the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, famous doctors had their own expertise. Zhang element, Li Dongyuan, Wang Haogu and Zhu Danxi all paid special attention to the different applications of drugs before and after processing. The role of processing excipients began to summarize the various processing functions. The Ming Dynasty further systematically arranged, and gradually formed the traditional processing theory.
In Tangye Materia Medica, Wang Haogu of Yuan Dynasty quoted Li Dongyuan's "medication heart method" as "Scutellaria baicalensis, Coptis chinensis, Berberis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides". Those who suffered from head and hand skin diseases should be stir-fried with wine, and use the power of liquor to make them free. Below the throat and above the umbilical cord, they should be washed with wine and used in the next life. Every raw and ripe, rhubarb must be simmered, fear of cold is damaging stomach gas. As for Radix Aconiti Sinensis and Radix Aconiti, they should be processed to make poison. He also said, "To damp with ginger" and "to remove phlegm from diaphragm with honey". Zhang element in "Pearl Sac" said that Paeonia lactiflora "wine immersion menstruation, to the central abdominal pain." "Wood incense can be used for liver-qi and fire-simmering, which can consolidate the large intestine. "Ge Kejiu first put forward the theory of charcoal hemostasis in the Ten Drugs Divine Book:" In most cases, blood heat will do, blood cooling will condensate... When it's dark, it stops. The famous "Shi Hui San" is one of the prescriptions of the book. From the point of view of many methods of drug processing and significant improvements in theory and practice, we can see that the prosperous Ming Dynasty of the Jin and Yuan Dynasties paid more attention to medicine, made great progress in the processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine, and made remarkable achievements in the processing theory.
Xu Yanchun's Materia Medica Exertion is compiled from the works of Jin and Yuan Dynasties. It expounds the principle of artillery production, such as "Shenqu fire stir-frying to supplement the Qi of the five heavens and enter the stomach meridian of Yangming Dynasty". It also puts forward the functions of children's stool and salt system, that is, "those who use aconite and aconite should be immersed in children's stool to kill their poison, and help them to go down, so that salt is more convenient", "heart deficiency is salt stir-fried", "heart and lung stir-fried with salt" and so on, which are all important expositions of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine processing.
Chen Jiamo pointed out in "Making Resources, Water and Fire" in "Materia Medica Mengqi": "All medicines are manufactured in a moderate way, but if they are not as good as they are, their efficacy will be difficult to obtain, and if they are too excessive, their odor will be lost... Bandits have their own intentions. Liquor, ginger, salt, kidney, still rely on soft, vinegar injection of liver meridians and pain, children's stool to eliminate inferiority, rice soap to remove dryness and moderate, milk moistening back to withered to promote Yin and blood, honey to slow down the difficulty of gaining Yuanyang, Chen Bitu stealing genuine Qi to suddenly fill the medium coke, wheat bran to inhibit cruelty do not hurt the upper diaphragm, black bean soup, black bean soup, etc. Licorice soup soaked and detoxified caused by Ping, Yang butter, pig fat oil burning, salty and osmotic bone easy to brittle broken, there is gouge to remove the flesh without bloating, there is a heart out of trouble. For the first time, the principle of excipient preparation was systematically summarized. The preparation method of "Baiyaojian" contained in the article "Galla Chinensis" deserves special attention in processing technology. In fact, it is the preparation method of gallic acid, which is more than 200 years earlier than the co-production of gallic acid by Swedish pharmacist Scheler.
Li Shizhen's Compendium of Materia Medica in Ming Dynasty is the largest pharmacy work in ancient China. It contains 1892 kinds of medicines, among which 330 kinds of medicines have the special subject of "curing". In the special item "Xiuzhi", we summarized the experience of previous generations of processing, and there are many medicines, such as wood incense, Alpinia officinalis, fennel seed, maple resin, camphor and other processing methods, which are recorded by Li Shizhen. There are some developments in the processing methods, such as Duhuo Tiao, Lei Jiao Days: "picking fine files, mixing with Epimedium,..." On the second day, dry up and use it, so as not to annoy people for a long time. Li Shizhen thinks this method is not practical, and thinks that "this is a method of eating, peeling or baking." Li Shizhen also corrected the problematic methods of his predecessors. For example, arsenic strip, "doctors say that arsenic is poisonous when it comes to fire, while Reyton's method of treatment is calcined by fire. Today, most of the people who use it are flying alchemists, and all of them want to have quick effects, at any cost." There are nearly 20 kinds of processing methods in the whole book, including water, fire, water-fire co-production, supplementary materials, frost and koji-making, etc. Most of them are still used in processing production up to 2016, such as Pinellia ternata, Arisaema, Dannanxing and so on.
Gong Yanxian once said in his book Shoushibaoyuan that "fried to slow down its nature, soaked to dissect its poison, soaked to nourish Yin, refined to help Yang, but the system has too many disadvantages."
Li Zhongzi's "Tongxuan of Materia Medica" has made a penetrating summary of the points needing attention in processing operation and the purpose of excipient preparation, and the purpose of net selection, referring to m "pharmaceuticals are expensive in the middle, less reactive, too harmful." Lifting wine, salt moistening, ginger warming powder, vinegar convergence... Those who go to the dumplings are wide and those who take heart are easy to get rid of.
Mu Xiyong's "The Great Fired Law" is the second monograph after "On Fired Fired by Lei Gong". The preparation methods of 439 kinds of drugs were collected. The sources, collection time, identification of advantages and disadvantages, processing excipients, operation procedures and storage of drugs were described in a concise way. Most of the contents could reflect the actual production of the society at that time and developed on the basis of the predecessors. As the author said, "self-elucidation can benefit the predecessors'unprecedented achievements." Capture." And the former processing methods are summarized as: processing, alkene, bo, roasting, simmering, stir-frying, calcining, refining, processing, degree, flying, volt, pound, moving, drying, exposing and exposing 17 methods, namely, Leigong's 17 methods.
In short, the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, on the basis of the explanation of the function of the previous artillery, formed the theory through systematic summary, which was the formation period of the theory of Chinese traditional medicine processing.
3. Qing Dynasty
In the Qing Dynasty, artifacts were added to the theoretical basis of Ming Dynasty, and there were special records of processing methods and functions, but there were also different understandings and views on some processing.
In the Qing Dynasty, Liu Ruojin's "Materia Medica Commentary" contains more than 300 kinds of processed medicines, describing the various processing methods, functions, purposes and theoretical explanations of the medicines. It is rich in content. It was revised and deleted by Yang Shitai as "Materia Medica Commentary hook yuan", which makes the original intention more clear and easy to understand. For example, Astragalus membranaceus is used to treat carbuncle and gangrene, to treat deficiency of lung qi and honey, to treat deficiency of saline water or steaming or stir-frying, etc.
Zhang Zhongyan's "Guide to Practice" is a special manuscript of the Qing Dynasty, which contains 232 kinds of medicines and is the third manufactured monograph of China. It describes all kinds of processing methods systematically and considers that processing is very important in traditional Chinese medicine. It points out that "if the processing is not clear and the medicinal properties are not clear, the decoction prescription is not accurate and the disease is not verified." In the processing theory, it also plays a role, such as: "Wu Zhuyu juice to suppress the bitter cold and help stomach qi, the pig bile to purge the gallbladder fire and the Mu Yu, the cow bile is made to be dry and moist, the autumn stone system suppressing yang and nourishing Yin, the Chinese wolfberry soup suppressing Yin and Yang Yang......" The frier takes the neutrality, the frier takes the fragrance..." Wait for artillery.
Zhao Xuemin's Compendium of Materia Medica and Tang Rongchuan's Theory of Blood Syndrome not only recorded many processing methods at that time, but also recorded a considerable number of charcoal medicines. On the basis of Zhang Zhongjing's "burning ash storage", the requirement of "charcoal storage" was clearly put forward. The preparation and application of charcoal medicines had a considerable development in the Qing Dynasty. It's very distinctive. Different opinions on the long-term immersion of Pinellia ternata were also put forward in the Compendium of Materia Medica. It is believed that "the immortal Pinellia ternata sold in today's pharmacy can only be soaked in the water to get rid of its juicy taste, and then soaked in liquorice... It's totally out of character... It's the residue of Pinellia ternata without any special food. What's good for it?
In a word, the Qing Dynasty played an important role in some artifacts and increased the number of artifacts, which was a period of further expanding the application of artifacts and technologies.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in terms of inheritance, various regions have sorted out the processing experience scattered in the region with a long history, and on this basis, formulated and published the provincial and municipal standards for the processing of traditional Chinese medicine. At the same time, the national pharmacopoeia also contains the processing content, formulated the "General Principles for the Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicine" and published them one after another. Some monographs were produced. For example, "Integration of Processing Experience of Chinese Medicine", "Collection of Processing Law of Chinese Medicine of All Dynasties" and "Complete Book of Processing of Chinese Medicine of Camphor Tree", etc., the processing methods scattered in folk and medical books of all dynasties and local processing methods were systematically sorted out, and a relatively complete literature was formed. In recent years, the inheritance and collation of historical documents of traditional Chinese medicine processing has carried out a systematic collation of key classical documents and the evolution of single herbal medicine processing, which has promoted the collation of the research on the literature of traditional Chinese medicine processing.
By the end of 2016, Chinese medicine processing courses have been offered in Chinese medicine majors in Chinese medicine colleges and universities all over the country, and they have been listed as one of the professional courses. In teaching practice, textbooks have been compiled according to regional characteristics. After trial and revision, textbooks have been continuously enriched and improved. In 1979, a unified trial textbook of Processing Science of Traditional Chinese Medicine was compiled for the first time. In 1985, the second edition of textbooks was published, in 1996, the third edition of planned textbooks was published, and in 2001, the textbooks of Processing Science of Traditional Chinese Medicine were published. The series of textbooks "Processing Science of Traditional Chinese Medicine" has laid a good foundation for inheriting and developing the process of traditional Chinese medicine.
During the Eighth Five-Year Plan and Ninth Five-Year Plan period, the research on the processing of traditional Chinese medicine was included in the national key projects. The research on the processing technology and quality of 40 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine pieces, such as Polygonum multiflorum, Paeonia lactiflora, Radix Aconiti and Pinellia ternata, was completed successively. The modern science and technology was adopted to optimize the processing evolution, screen and optimize the processing technology, formulate the quality standard of the pieces, and make the basic processing. Systematic and multi-disciplinary comprehensive research has been made in principle and other aspects, and great progress has been made. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan, 30 varieties of Ligusticum chuanxiong, Morinda officinalis, Euphorbia officinalis and Euphorbia officinalis were included in the National Science and Technology Tackling Program. The processing technology and quality standard of Chinese herbal slices were studied to reveal the scientific connotation of Chinese herbal processing.
Overview of Technology
Traditional Chinese medicine comes from plants, animals and minerals in nature. There are 12807 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine resources, but the clinical application and preparation of traditional Chinese medicine generally do not use crude drugs, but use processed and processed mature products that are Decoction pieces.
Traditional Chinese medicines must be processed into pieces of Chinese medicines before they can be used. This is a characteristic of clinical medication of traditional Chinese medicine, and also a major feature of traditional Chinese medicine. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, according to the different needs of traditional Chinese medicine, dispensing of traditional Chinese medicine and preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, combined with the nature of traditional Chinese medicine, the processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine is a set of pharmaceutical technology.
According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and the different requirements of medical treatment, dispensing and storage as well as the nature of Chinese medicinal materials, the processing of Chinese medicinal materials is based on the special techniques of remediation, water, fire and supplementary materials, which can be traced back to the cultivation, collection or feeding of Chinese medicinal materials, among which stir-frying, roasting, scalding and adding auxiliary materials. Calcination, simmering and fire are the most commonly used methods, so they are called "processing".
Processing of traditional Chinese medicine is a special term in traditional Chinese medicine. It is also called "processing", "manufacturing", "repair", "repair", "repair", "repair", "repair", "harmony" and "cure" in history. From the word meaning, "gun" and "roast" are inseparable from fire, and these two words only represent the two fire treatment methods in the whole processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine.
With the progress of society and the accumulation of medical knowledge, the processing technology of medicinal materials has already gone beyond the scope of fire. In order to preserve the original meaning and to cover a wide range of pharmaceutical processing technologies, the word "processing" is widely used in modern times. "Gun" represents a variety of fire-related processing technologies, while "system" represents a variety of broader processing methods.
Following the guidance of TCM theory and the need of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment
The most important characteristic of the use of traditional Chinese medicine is "medication under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory". These theories mainly include the theory of five ambiguities, the theory of action trend (ups and downs), the theory of toxicity, the theory of seven emotions and so on. The application of the theory of five flavors in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine mainly refers to the application of the theory of "five flavors into the liver". That is to say, "sour, bitter, sweet, spicy and salty are respectively the five main organs of the liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney". Therefore, the clinical use of Bupleurum, Xiangfu, Yuanhu and other vinegar systems is aimed at increasing the effect of entering the liver. Honey system is used to increase the function of invigorating spleen and invigorating qi, and the clinical use of phellodendron, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, plantain seeds and other salt systems is used to enhance the effect of human kidney.
Multipurpose use of one medicine is another characteristic of traditional Chinese medicine. Processing of traditional Chinese medicine is an important means to meet the needs of syndrome differentiation and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine. Drug blindness is often used in the treatment of many diseases clinically. Doctors can either enhance some medicinal properties of the drug according to the needs of the disease, or reduce or ease some medicinal properties of the drug, or eliminate some medicinal properties of the drug, so as to meet the specific needs of clinical syndrome differentiation and treatment. For example, Ephedra sinensis has strong ability to relieve cough, asthma and diuresis, which is mainly used for external cold surface syndrome, but not for the elderly, the deficient and children; Ephedra velvet has milder effect than Ephedra sinensis, and is suitable for the elderly, children and the deficient people's cold and cold; Ephedra sinensis has weak ability to relieve cough, asthma and diuresis, and stops under the synergistic effect of honey. The cough and asthma relieving power is relatively improved, mainly used for cough and asthma patients with mild symptoms but obstruction of lung-qi; the sweating and surface relieving effect of roasted ephedra velvet is more relaxed, mainly used for patients with cough and asthma that has been solved and has not been cured.
Ensuring the safety of clinical medication
Some drugs are poisonous, only after processing can we ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication. For example, nux vomica, Aconitum and Pinellia ternata need sand scalding or frying, steaming or boiling, soaking and bleaching or duplicating respectively before they can be used; ephedra Xin is too dispersive, prone to sweating too much, and can be reduced after pounding down; Coptis chinensis is too bitter to hurt the spleen and stomach, and it can be relieved after wine roasting, etc. It is another characteristic of the use of traditional Chinese medicine to ensure the safety of drug use by processing method. In addition, some medicines can only be effective after processing, such as malt (germination method), blood charcoal (deduction calcination method) without processing, they are not medicated, after processing, they produce pharmacodynamics, they can be used as medicines.
3. Needs for dispensing and preparation of traditional Chinese medicine
A considerable part of traditional Chinese medicine is used in decoction, which requires dispensing. Bulk or whole medicines such as grass roots, bark, shells and ores can not enter the venue directly. It is necessary to clean, cut or crush them in order to divide the dosage and benefit the decoction of medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations need to be crushed. Some medicines, such as mineral drugs, bone fossils, shellfish, need to be calcined or processed before crushing.
In addition, the processing of traditional Chinese medicine is unique and ancient. The application of natural medicines such as plant, animal and mineral drugs in China is different from that in other countries of China. First, they are applied under the guidance of the theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine; second, they are used after processing. In addition to China, many countries also use natural medicines, but they do not have the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. The list of medicinal plants in the Far East of the Soviet Union contains 115 kinds of natural medicines. They attach great importance to the use and research of medicinal plants. The research results are very fruitful and they attach great importance to the development and utilization of natural medicines. However, the theoretical system of using natural medicines is quite different from that of using natural medicines in China: in some areas and in some areas. Some natural medicines are also processed by the state, but they do not have a complete theoretical system of processing, so they are different from China. The theoretical system of TCM is unique, which makes the traditional discipline of processing TCM unique. The key to the safe and effective use of Chinese medicines, including a large number of toxic ones, lies in the important role of the preparation of Chinese medicines.
The processing of traditional Chinese medicine is ancient. Processing is the accumulation of life experience of the vast majority of working people in China and the crystallization of medication experience in past dynasties. Its origin, theoretical system and mode of production are ancient. The formation of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine processing is based on the long-term experience of predecessors. It is just like a black box controlled by experience or clinical trials. It has played an important and irreplaceable role in the application and development of Chinese medicine. However, it is restricted by historical conditions and has its essence and its dross inevitably. To deal with this medical heritage, we should study it and excavate it from the viewpoint of historical materialism and seek the combination of traditional theory and modern scientific research.
On the basis of inheriting the traditional processing technology and theory of traditional Chinese medicine, modern science and technology are applied to discuss the processing principle, improve the processing technology and formulate the quality standard of Chinese medicine pieces, so as to improve the quality of Chinese medicine pieces and ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication. It mainly proceeds from the following three aspects:
Discuss the principle of processing
Processing principle refers to the scientific basis of drug processing and the role of drug processing. The physical and chemical changes in the process of processing of traditional Chinese medicine under certain technological conditions, the changes of pharmacological effects caused by these changes and the clinical significance of these changes are discussed, so as to make certain processing methods. Scientific evaluation.
Improving Processing Technology
There are many kinds and varieties of traditional Chinese medicine, and the processing methods are not quite the same in different places. Due to the limitation of historical conditions, the processing technology mostly belongs to handicraft workshop production, and it is difficult to adapt to the advanced industrial production. Therefore, it is urgent to study the processing technology and improve the processing technology.
Establishment of Quality Standards for Traditional Chinese Medicine Pieces
Because of the different production conditions and links, the quality difference of decoction pieces directly affects the curative effect. The primary task of the quality standard research of Chinese herbal slices is to make full use of modern experimental means to objectify and digitalize the traditional quality standards so as to meet the new needs. By formulating a unified quality standard for Chinese herbal slices, modern scientific means are gradually used to combine objectified indexes with experiential indexes of sensory control. Establish more reasonable quality standards in order to better control the quality of decoction pieces and ensure the effect of clinical medication.
The complex chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the main material basis for TCM to play its clinical therapeutic role. After various processing, the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine can change. The increase or decrease of some components and the increase or decrease of components will affect the curative effect of the medicine. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the effect of processing on the chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine, to explore the function and principle of the processing of traditional Chinese medicine, to understand the purpose of the processing of traditional Chinese medicine, to optimize the processing technology, and to formulate the quality standard of Decoction pieces.
The influence of processing on alkaloid-containing drugs
Alkaloids are a class of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, which exist in organisms. They are similar to alkaloids and have obvious physiological activities. Not only plant-derived Chinese medicines contain alkaloids. Some animal-derived Chinese medicines also contain alkaloids (such as toad venom). Free alkaloids are insoluble or insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and trichloromethane. It is also soluble in acid water (forming salt). Most alkaloid salts are soluble in water, insoluble or insoluble in organic solvents.
Purification: Alkaloids are distributed differently in different parts of the same plant. The non-medicinal parts which do not contain alkaloids should be removed or the parts containing different alkaloids should be applied separately in the net separation process. For example, berberine is mainly concentrated in phloem of Phellodendron amurense, and the content of xylem and cork is very low. Therefore, the xylem and cork should be removed as non-medicinal parts when selecting Phellodendron amurense. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are abundant in the rhizome of Ephedra sinensis, which can increase blood pressure. Ephedra root contains several alkaloids, such as macrocyclospermine, which have the opposite pharmacological effect and the effect of lowering blood pressure. Therefore, different parts of Ephedra root should be separated and used differently.
Water treatment: Most free alkaloids are insoluble in water. Some small molecular alkaloids (such as arecoline, etc.) and quaternary ammonium alkaloids (such as berberine) are soluble in water. Therefore, when softening, the time of contact with water should be minimized, and the principle of "less foaming and more moistening" should be adopted to reduce the loss of alkaloids, so as to avoid affecting the clinical efficacy.
Alcohol system: Free alkaloids or alkaloid salts can be dissolved in ethanol. Drugs can improve the dissolution rate of alkaloids after alcohol processing, thereby improving the curative effect of drugs. For example, the dissolution rate of berberine in Coptis chinensis in water is 58.2%, and that of Jiuhuanglian can reach 90%. The dissolution rate of berberine in Coptis chinensis chinensis is much higher than that of raw products.
Vinegar: Free alkaloids can dissolve in acidic water to form alkaloid salts. Vinegar is weak acid and is often used as processing accessories to improve the dissolution rate of alkaloids. For example, the water-insoluble components of Corydalis Yanhusuo are Corydalis B and dehydrocorydalis A. These free alkaloids combine with acetic acid to form acetate, which increases the solubility in water and enhances the sedative and analgesic effects. In plants. The alkaloids often combine with organic and inorganic acids to form tannins and oxalates, which are insoluble in water. When acetic acid is added, acetic acid can replace some of the acids in the compound salt to form water-soluble acetate compound salt, thus increasing the solubility in water.
Heating Processing: Alkaloids have different heat resistance. Some alkaloids are unstable at high temperature, which can produce hydrolysis, decomposition and other changes. The processing temperature and time should be controlled according to the processing purpose. The alkaloids in some medicines are effective substances, and their thermal activity decreases. The heating process should be minimized or not heated. It is suitable for biological use, such as pomegranate peel, gentian grass, soybean root and so on. Some medicines are processed by heating, and the alkaloids will hydrolyze or decompose to reduce toxicity and ensure safe and effective clinical medication, such as Radix Aconiti, Radix Aconiti Sichuanensis, Semen Strychni, etc.
2. Effect of Processing on Glycoside-containing Drugs
Glycosides are compounds formed by the ligation of sugar or its derivatives with another group of non-sugar substances (aglycones) through carbons of carbohydrate end groups. Glycosides are widely distributed in nature and widely exist in plants, especially in fruits, bark and roots. Generally soluble in water and ethanol, some glycosides are also soluble in trichloromethane and ethyl acetate, but insoluble in ether and benzene. It is easy to hydrolyze under acidic conditions, and it is easy to be hydrolyzed by corresponding enzymes under certain temperature and humidity conditions.
Water treatment: Because the glycosides are easily soluble in water, the medicinal materials with glycosides as the main ingredients should be treated with less foam and moist water before cutting, so as to avoid the loss of glycosides with water, such as rhubarb, licorice, Qinpi and so on.
Excipient preparation: Alcohol preparation can improve the solubility of glycosides and enhance the efficacy of drugs. For example, the content of Baicalin in water decoction was higher than that of raw products. Glycosides are easy to hydrolyze under acidic conditions, which can reduce the content of glycosides and increase the complexity of the components. Therefore, glycosides are usually treated with little or no vinegar to avoid acid hydrolysis and reduce the curative effect.
Heating treatment: It is beneficial to the preservation of glycosides. Drugs containing glycosides often contain corresponding catabolic enzymes. Glycosides can be decomposed by corresponding decomposing enzymes under certain temperature and humidity conditions. Therefore, the effective ingredients can be reduced and the curative effect can be affected. Some medicines are not suitable for long-term storage or processing after harvesting. Under appropriate conditions, glycosides can be decomposed, such as rutin in Sophora flower, amygdalin in bitter almond, baicalin in baicalensis, etc., which reduces the efficacy of drugs. Anthocyanins in anthers can also be discolored and discolored by enzymes. By stir-frying, steaming, baking or sun exposure, the activity of degrading enzymes in glycoside-containing drugs can be destroyed or inhibited, so as to ensure that the active ingredients of drugs are not enzymatically hydrolyzed and preserve their pharmacodynamics.
3. Effect of Processing on Volatile Oil-Containing Drugs
Volatile oil is the generic name of volatile oily components obtained by steam distillation, and it is also a kind of common active ingredients with therapeutic effect. Most of the volatile oils are aromatic and volatile. They can volatilize themselves at room temperature without leaving any trace of oil. Most of them are lighter than water, have very little solubility in water and are easily soluble in organic solvents and fat oils.
Water treatment: Most of the volatile oils in plants exist in free state, while others exist in combined state. Drugs existing in free state should be processed and cut quickly after harvesting or spraying, and should not be stored with water for a long time to avoid fermentation deterioration and affect quality, such as mint, schizonepeta, etc. Drugs existing in combined state can only escape after accumulation and fermentation, such as Magnolia officinalis, iris, etc.
Heating processing: If volatile oil has therapeutic effect, heating treatment should be avoided. When drying, it should be dried in shade or below 50 C, such as mint, Yinchen, etc. If volatile oil has obvious toxicity or strong irritation, most of it can be removed by heating, which is conducive to clinical application. For example, Atractylodes Atractylodes contains more volatile oil and has strong irritation. The volatile oil can be reduced and "dryness" can be reduced by stir-frying with bran. In order to meet medical needs, some medicines are often processed to reduce or remove volatile oils, such as honey-roasted ephedra, through honey-roasted processing. The volatile oil with sweating effect can be reduced by more than 1/2, and the ephedrine content with asthmatic effect is basically unaffected. It is suitable for the treatment of asthma and cough.
After processing, not only the content of volatile oil has changed, but also some of them have changed qualitatively, such as color deepening, refractive index increasing, new ingredients producing, pharmacological effects changing, etc.
4. The effect of processing on tannin-containing drugs
Tannin, also known as tannin and tannic acid, is a kind of complex polyphenolic compounds with certain physiological activity. Tannin widely exists in plants, has the functions of astringency, hemostasis, diarrhea control, mucosal protection, and sometimes is also used as an antidote for alkaloids and heavy metal poisoning.
Water treatment: Tannins contain polyphenolic hydroxyl groups, which are easily soluble in water, especially in hot water. Therefore, tannins should be used as the main pharmacodynamic ingredients in water treatment to minimize contact time with water, less foaming and moist, so as to reduce the loss of effective ingredients, such as elm, Polygonum cuspidatum, Oriental Platycladus leaf, pomegranate peel, etc.
Heating Processing: Tannins are heat resistant. Heating treatment has little effect on it. Like rhubarb. Its main component, anthraquinone glycoside, has diarrhea-inducing effect and tannin has astringent effect. After being heated by steaming and stir-frying, the content of anthraquinone glycoside decreases obviously, while the content of tannin changes little, so the diarrhea-inducing effect of rhubarb can be weakened, while the astringent effect is relatively enhanced. There are also some tannins whose temperature is too high, which will affect the curative effect. For example, when the temperature is appropriate, the content of tannins will increase. If the temperature is too high, the content of tannins will decrease, or even be destroyed. Therefore, the processing time should be mastered.
Tannin is a strong reductant, which is easy to be oxidized when exposed to sunlight and air, resulting in tannin red, which leads to the deepening of one-sided color of drugs. If areca nut, Paeonia lactiflora and other slices are exposed to the air, if not dried in time, they will make the slices reddish.
Tannin reacts with iron to form black-green precipitation of tannin iron salts. Therefore, iron should not be used in the preparation of tannin-containing medicines. To avoid tannin reacting with iron, bamboo knife, steel knife, copper knife should be used to cut, wash in wooden basin when washing, and use casserole or stainless steel pan when decocting medicine.
Fifth, the influence of processing on organic acid-containing drugs
Organic acids are carboxylic compounds (excluding amino acids) that generally have an acidic taste. It widely exists in all parts of plants, especially in immature fleshy fruits. The content of fleshy fruits decreases with the maturation of fruits. Some are free. Others exist in the form of salt.
Water treatment: Small molecules of organic acids can be dissolved in water, so water treatment should be less foaming and moist, in order to avoid the loss of effective ingredients. On the contrary, if organic acids are toxic components, they should be soaked for a long time and removed. If Oxalis, Oxalis alba and other plants contain toxic soluble oxalates, they should be removed.
Heating: Heating can destroy organic acids. It contains strong acidic organic acid, which is highly irritating to the mouth and stomach. After heating treatment, part of the organic acid is destroyed and the acidity is reduced, thus reducing the irritation, such as hawthorn.
6. The effect of processing on lipid-containing drugs
The main component of oil is glycerol ester of long chain fatty acid, which mostly exists in the seeds of plants. It usually has the functions of moistening intestines, relieving constipation or causing diarrhea, such as cannabis seed and plum seed.
Heating Processing: Some drugs have severe effects and toxicity, alleviate diarrhea caused by the synovium, or reduce toxic and side effects. For example, thousands of gold, by heating, pressing to remove some of the grease components. Deoiling and frosting of cocoa bean can reduce toxicity and alleviate purgative effect, while deoiling and frosting of cypress seed and melon withered seed can reduce or eliminate the effect of sausage.
7. The effect of processing on resin-containing drugs
Resin is a kind of complex mixture, which is formed by terpenoids through oxidation and polymerization in plants. It usually exists in the resin channels of plant tissues. Under the stimulation of trauma, plants can secrete resin to form solid or semi-solid substances. Resins are generally insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol.
Supplementary material preparation: Wine and vinegar commonly used in the processing of resin-containing drugs are used as excipients to improve the solubility of resin components and enhance the curative effect. If Schisandra chinensis is processed with wine and vinegar, the dissolution of its active ingredients can be enhanced; frankincense and myrrh can be processed with vinegar to enhance the effect of activating blood circulation and relieving pain.
Heating processing: Heating can enhance the efficacy of some resin-containing drugs, such as gamboge after heating treatment, bacteriostasis enhanced. If the temperature is too high, it can also destroy some resins to denaturate and reduce the curative effect, such as frankincense, myrrh and so on. Some medicines can destroy the resin composition by heating, which meets the medical needs. If morning glory resin has the function of purging and depositing, some resin is destroyed after stir-frying, which can alleviate the purging effect.
8. The effect of processing on protein-containing and amino acid-containing drugs
Protein is the most complex substance of all compounds in organism. Hydrolysis can produce a variety of amino acids, many of which are essential for human life activities.
Water treatment: Protein is a kind of macromolecule substance, most of which can dissolve in water to form colloidal solution. Generally, after boiling, protein ceases to dissolve in water because of its coagulation. Pure amino acids are mostly colourless crystals and soluble in water. Because both protein and amino acid are water-soluble, it is not appropriate to immerse drugs containing these components in water for a long time in order to avoid losing the active ingredients and affecting the curative effect.
Heating process: Heating can make protein coagulate denaturation or produce new substances. Most amino acids are unstable when heated. If protein and amino acid are active ingredients, heating should be avoided, such as thunderbolt, bee venom, snake venom, etc. If the protein is a toxic component, it can be denatured by heating to reduce or eliminate the toxicity, such as croton, lentil and so on. Some drugs containing glycosides can destroy the activity of enzymes coexisting with glycosides when heated, thus avoiding the hydrolysis of glycosides, such as bitter almond and Scutellaria baicalensis. After heat treatment of protein, some new substances can be produced, and some therapeutic effects can be obtained, such as pyridine and porphyrin derivatives containing nitrogen after distillation of egg yolk and black soybean, which have the functions of detoxification, antimicrobial, antiallergic, antispasmodic and antipruritic.
9. The effect of processing on inorganic compounds
Minerals, fossils of animals and plants and crustaceans all contain a large number of inorganic components. Plant medicines also contain more inorganic salts such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, which mostly coexist with organic acids in tissues and cells to form salts.
Mineral drugs usually change their physical properties by calcination or acetic quenching, which makes them easy to crush and easy to decoct the active ingredients. It is also conducive to the absorption of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby enhancing the curative effect, such as natural copper, magnet, calamine and so on. Some mineral medicines containing crystalline water will lose crystalline water after calcination and change or enhance their efficacy, such as alum calcination, loss of crystalline water, enhance dryness and wetness, convergence and so on.
In the process of drug preparation, if the water treatment time is too long, the inorganic salts dissolved in water will be lost and the curative effect will be reduced. If the treatment time of Prunella vulgaris is too long, the loss of potassium content reduces its hypotensive and diuretic effects. For poisonous drugs containing mercury or arsenic, the water-flying method should be adopted, which can make very fine powder for dispensing and remove poisonous inorganic salts. For example, arsenic sulfide, the main component of realgar, is less toxic, and the highly toxic component, As203, is soluble in water. The water-flying method can effectively reduce the content of As2O2 and is convenient for clinical use. 。
Minerals, animal and plant fossils and crustaceans are rich in trace elements. It is generally stable to heat. These active ingredients are easy to dissolve after high temperature processing, which is conducive to the development of clinical efficacy.
10. The effect of processing on sugar-containing drugs
Sugars, also known as carbohydrates, are important nutrients and supporting substances in plant cells and tissues. It is of great significance to plants. There are many kinds of sugars in plants, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the biological activities of carbohydrates. It has been found that many plant polysaccharides have the functions of anti-virus, anti-tumor and improving immunity.
Monosaccharides and small molecular oligosaccharides are soluble in water, while polysaccharides are insoluble in water, but can be hydrolyzed into oligosaccharides and monosaccharides. Therefore, in the preparation of sugar-containing drugs, water treatment should be minimized, bubbles should be less and moist, and more attention should be paid to the treatment of co-heating with water.
In a word, after processing, the physicochemical properties of the components of traditional Chinese medicine can be changed. Some of them have been known by people, but most of them need to be further explored.
Establishment of document confidentiality
1. On May 17, 1990, the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine promulgated the Regulations on the Specific Scope of State Secrets and Secret Levels of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Industry. Among them, the special production technology of traditional Chinese patent medicines and the key technology of the processing of Chinese patent medicines (including the processing technology of pretreatment of Chinese patent medicines). It belongs to the level of confidentiality. Key technologies or drug formulations in TCM projects rewarded by national, provincial and ministerial scientific and technological achievements. It belongs to the secret class.
2. In 1994, the State Science and Technology Commission established the State Secret Technology Review Committee, including the Secret Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The processing technology of Chinese herbal pieces has been listed in the Catalogue of Technical Guidance for State Secrets formulated by the State Science and Technology Secret Office.
3. On March 4, 2002, the General Office of the State Council issued the Catalogue of Industry Guidance for Foreign Investment, which was jointly issued by the former State Planning Commission, the Economic and Trade Commission and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation. The catalogue clearly prohibits foreign investment in industries: processing of Chinese medicinal materials (musk, liquorice, ephedra, etc.) listed in the national protected resources, and processing techniques of traditional Chinese medicinal pieces. The application of technique and the production of Chinese patent medicine secret prescription products.
4. In the Catalogue of Technologies for Prohibiting and Restricting Export in China, some "Processing Technologies of Chinese Herbal Medicine Pieces" are explicitly included in the scope of prohibited export. The main points of control are: first, the processing technology and origin processing technology of toxic traditional Chinese medicine, including more than a dozen kinds of processed Radix Aconiti, Radix Aconiti, Pinellia ternata and so on; second, the processing technology and origin processing technology of commonly used bulk Chinese medicine, including dozens of kinds of prepared rhubarb, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, etc.
Protection of intellectual property rights
Application for Patent
Patents for the invention cover such fields as processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine, processing engineering of traditional Chinese medicine, new uses of Chinese medicine pieces, packaging technology of traditional Chinese medicine, processing equipment of traditional Chinese medicine, etc. Especially on the basis of inheritance, the results of innovative research should pay special attention to the application for intellectual property protection. The utility model patents mainly involve CNC or mechanical equipment for processing Chinese herbal medicines, the creation and improvement of mechanical equipment for processing Chinese herbal medicines, quality testing equipment for Chinese herbal medicines, pollution treatment equipment for processing Chinese herbal medicines, packaging equipment for Chinese herbal medicines, etc. Patents for appearance design mainly involve packaging and decoration technology, advertisement, publicity materials and so on. Patents can be applied for the innovative technology of the processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine pieces, including a large number of innovative research results based on inheritance, but how to protect intellectual property rights of some classical traditional processing technology is a more complex problem.
Trademarks are the marks used by producers and operators in their commodities. The function of trademarks is to enable consumers to distinguish the source of goods. China's Trademark Law stipulates that pharmaceuticals for human use must use registered trademarks, and that they may not be sold on the market without registration. Drug trademarks should be put on the track of compulsory registration.
As a special commodity, Chinese medicine consumers can not distinguish the quality by their own ability. They can only decide which brand to use through the trust degree of products. For drinks, the significance of trademark is that its registered trademark can be used as the basis for standardizing the production of drinks. Trademark registration of drinks is of great significance for enterprises to create famous brands, strive for benefits, ensure the quality of drinks and improve competitiveness. The supervision and management of drinks can also bring convenience.
Processing is the centralized embodiment and core of traditional Chinese medicine pharmaceutical technology. After processing, the pharmacodynamics is improved, the toxicity and side effects are reduced, and the storage is convenient. It is a necessary procedure for clinical medication of traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional processing methods mainly include steaming, boiling, stir-frying, roasting, gunning, calcining, soaking, flying and so on. For example, steaming, steamed, steamed, steamed, steamed with medicine, boiled, boiled in salt water, boiled with licorice, boiled with black bean juice, broiled, divided into honey fried, crispy honey fried, pork fat baking, medicine juice coated and baking.
Commonly used processing and processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine should reflect the inherent organic connection of professional technology of traditional Chinese medicine processing. It should not only embody the inheritance of traditional processing methods, but also be conducive to the induction and research with modern scientific methods. Therefore, the classification must be systematic, complete and scientific, easy to learn and master the content of Chinese traditional medicine processing, which is helpful to teaching and guiding production.
Up to 2016, the processing and processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine mainly includes three links: net processing, cutting, processing (stir-frying, roasting, calcining, cooking, fermentation, frosting and other methods).
1. Net Selection Processing
Purification is the first processing procedure of traditional Chinese medicine. Almost every medicinal material must be purified before use. Its main purposes are: separating medicinal parts, classifying them, removing non-medicinal parts, removing mud and sand impurities and moth-eaten and mildew products, etc.
2. Slice preparation
Cutting is the process of softening the purified medicines and cutting them into pieces, silks, blocks and segments of certain specifications. The main purpose is to decoct the active ingredients, to facilitate processing, preparation and preparation, and to facilitate identification and storage.
3. Stir-frying method
The stir-frying method is to sift and remove the ash from the net or cut medicines, divide them into different sizes, place them in preheated containers, add or not add supplementary materials, heat them continuously with different firepower, and stir or turn them over to a certain extent. The stir-frying method is divided into micro-stir-frying, stir-frying sweat, stir-frying incense, stir-frying yellow, stir-frying, stir-frying, stir-frying black. The principle of adding auxiliary materials to stir-fry has been widely used since the Song Dynasty. According to the medical requirements, combined with the nature of drugs, stir-frying method can be divided into two categories: stir-frying method and stir-frying method with excipients (solid excipients). Each category includes several methods of operation. The stir-frying method includes stir-frying yellow, coke and charcoal. The stir-frying method with supplementary materials includes bran, rice, earth, sand, clam and talc. Its purpose is to enhance the efficacy of drugs, alleviate or change their properties, reduce toxicity or irritation, correct odor and odor, and facilitate storage and preparation.
Fourth, baking method
Stir-frying is a method of stirring a certain amount of liquid excipients to make the excipients gradually penetrate into the interior of the drug tissue. Because of the different accessories, it can be divided into wine roasting, vinegar roasting, salt roasting, ginger roasting, honey roasting, oil roasting and so on. In order to reduce toxicity, inhibit bias, enhance curative effect, correct odor, taste and make the active ingredients easy to dissolve.
Calcination is a method of calcining drugs directly in smokeless stove fires or in appropriate refractory containers. It is mainly divided into open calcination method, calcination quenching method and button pot calcination method (field calcination). In order to facilitate changes in the texture, properties and efficacy of drugs, make the texture of drugs loose, conducive to crushing and dissolving the active ingredients easily, reduce or eliminate side effects, so as to improve the efficacy or produce new drug effects.
6. Steaming Closing Law
Steaming, boiling and cicada method are a kind of "water-fire co-production" method. The "water" here can be pure water, or wine, vinegar or medicinal juice (such as liquorice juice, black soybean juice).
Seventh, Reproduction Law
Reproduction method refers to the method of adding one or more excipients to the net-selected drugs and repeating them according to the prescribed operating procedures. Its purpose is: 1. to reduce or eliminate the toxicity of drugs; 2. to change the drug properties; 3. to enhance the efficacy; 4. to correct odor and odor.
Fermentation and germination
Fermentation and germination depend on the function of enzymes to change the original properties of drugs through fermentation and germination, enhance or produce new effects, and expand the varieties of drugs to meet the needs of clinical medication. Both methods must rely on the role of enzymes and microorganisms. They must have certain environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, air, water, etc.
9. Frost Making Method
Frost-making method refers to the method of making loose powder or precipitating fine crystals or sublimation and boiling into powder residue by removing oil. It can be classified into degreasing, dialysis, sublimation and decoction.
10. Other systems of law
Other methods of preparation refer to the process of baking, roasting, simmering, extracting, water flying and distillation of certain medicines. Its main purpose is to enhance the efficacy of drugs, change or alleviate the original performance, reduce or eliminate the toxicity or side effects of drugs, so as to achieve a certain purity of drugs, easy to crush and store.
Inheritance and Protection
For thousands of years, not only has rich processing methods and techniques been accumulated, but also a set of traditional processing tools has been formed. Processing is the centralized embodiment and core of traditional pharmaceutical technology of traditional Chinese medicine. The distinct characteristics and advantages of traditional Chinese medicine are "slices into medicine, raw and ripe for different treatment". The processing technology of Chinese herbal slices is unique to China, the crystallization of thousands of years of traditional Chinese culture and the treasure of Chinese culture.
Chinese medicine is the treasure of China, the main body of clinical medication of traditional Chinese medicine, and the prerequisite for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the healthy development of the cause of traditional Chinese medicine, the country has carried out the research of "source engineering" of traditional Chinese medicine, and "processing research" is one of the key contents of the source engineering of traditional Chinese medicine.
Wang Xiaotao, male, was born in June 1928. In June 2007, Wang Xiaotao was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Project Name: Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Jin Shiyuan, male, was born in December 1926. In June 2007, Wang Xiaotao was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by the Chinese Traditional Medicine Association. Project Name: Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Sun Shuwu, male, was born in August 1947. On May 26, 2009, Wang Yansheng was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects. He declared it in Wuzhu County, Jiaozuo City, Henan Province. Project Name: Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Planting and Processing of Four Huaiyao Drugs).
Li Chengjie, male, was born in 1932. On May 26, 2009, Wang Yansheng was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects. Jiaozuo City, Henan Province, declared it. Project Name: Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Planting and Processing of Four Huaiyao Drugs).
On November 1, 2016, the Jilin Provincial Government organized a press conference to interpret the "Jilin Provincial Government's Opinions on Implementing and Implementing the Spirit of the National Health and Health Congress and Accelerating the Reform and Development of Health and Health Careers". The Opinion emphasized that it was necessary to "attach equal importance to both Chinese and Western medicine and promote the revitalization and development of traditional Chinese medicine". One of them is to promote the protection and development of traditional Chinese medicines, formulate the processing specifications of authentic Chinese medicines in Jilin Province, and establish a base for the inheritance of processing technology of traditional Chinese medicines.
On August 15, 2018, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ningbo Mingbei Traditional Chinese Medicine Industry Co., Ltd. signed a contract to build Zhejiang Ningbo Mingbeitang Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Education Center and Chinese Medicine Processing Technology Inheritance Training Base. Xu Jianguang, president of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, believes that the Shanghai-Ningbo cooperation is to take the initiative to dock with the national and regional strategic planning, take teaching as the lead, and focus on personnel training, and take this platform as the convergence place of TCM health service technology, thus radiating the Yangtze River Delta region. The leaders of Yinzhou District believe that this cooperation will give full play to the linkage and driving role of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the development of traditional Chinese medicine in the Yangtze River Delta region, break down various resource barriers and mechanism barriers, closely integrate university education and industrial bases, and further promote the development of folk technology of traditional Chinese medicine in Ningbo.
The purpose of traditional Chinese medicine processing is to reduce or eliminate the toxicity and side effects of drugs, alleviate or change the properties of drugs, so as to improve the curative effect and facilitate the dispensing, storage and taking. Its core is to reduce toxicity and increase efficiency. As of 2018, the Chinese medicine industry has accumulated a lot of experience in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine, summarized a set of theories, invented many technologies, formed many schools, compiled a large number of books, and the processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine has become one of the important contents of traditional Chinese medicine.
Processing technology of traditional Chinese medicine: planting and processing of four Huaiyao medicines
Four Huaiyao medicines are planted and processed. They are declared to be areas or units: Jiaozuo City, Henan Province.
Huai Yam, Huai Dihuang, Huai Chrysanthemum and Huai Niu Achyranthes bidentata have been planted in Jiaozuo District of Henan Province for nearly three thousand years. Because Jiaozuo City of Henan Province is under the jurisdiction of Huaiqing Prefecture in ancient times, Huai Yam, Huai Dihuang, Huai Chrysanthemum and Huai Niu Achyranthes are collectively referred to as "four Huai
The cultivation of four Huaiyao medicines, including breeding, site selection, soil preparation, seedling cultivation, fertilization, pest control and so on, has strict requirements. The processing of medicinal materials also has strict traditional technological standards. The nine steaming and nine drying processes of Huaihuang, repeated soaking and fumigation, air drying and rubbing of Huaiyao medicines have made the medicinal materials have superior quality. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the rise of Huaiyao merchants greatly promoted the standardization of Huaiyao processing and the formation of Huaiyao cultural brand, making the four Huaiyao medicines the first-class genuine medicinal materials in Henan Province. In Liuwei Dihuang Pills, the proportion of Huaihuang and Huaiyao is 48%, and the cultural customs produced by Huaiyao also widely affect the production and life of local people.
Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Processing Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Processing skills of traditional Chinese medicine, declared area or unit: Chengdu City, Sichuan Province.
Sichuan has the reputation of "Tianfu Country" and "Township of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Treasure of Traditional Chinese Medicine". There are more than 5,000 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Sichuan, accounting for about 75% of all Chinese herbal medicine species, among which there are more than 30 famous genuine medicinal materials and main medicinal materials. The application of traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese patent medicine is the main means for Sichuan people to prevent and treat diseases.
Processing of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a pharmaceutical technology based on the theory of TCM, according to the needs of differentiating symptoms and treating drugs, the nature of drugs and the different requirements of dispensing and preparations. It is a major feature of TCM. There are many processing methods, such as steaming, frying, roasting, calcining, canning, refining, boiling, boiling, burning, chopping, grinding, filing, mashing, liquor washing, wine frying, wine boiling, water soaking, soup washing, scraping, core removal, wing foot removal, hair removal and so on. Processing of traditional Chinese medicine plays an important role in the theory and application of traditional Chinese medicine. First, it can improve the effect of clinical medicine, that is, doctors can select appropriate processed products according to different etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and patients'health, in order to enhance the accuracy, reliability and practical efficacy of prescriptions. Second, the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine can fully ensure the safety of clinical medication, reduce or eliminate the toxic and side effects of drugs, thereby ensuring the safety of patients'lives.
Due to the inconsistency of natural resources, medication habits and living customs of medicinal materials in different regions, Chinese medicine doctors and pharmacists in different regions have gathered unique traditional skills in the processing and processing of Chinese medicinal materials. In the aspects of "bubbling, forging, simmering, frying, roasting, steaming and cooking", they have unique skills, elaborate production and pay attention to pharmacodynamics. As a result, different processing technology groups were formed, such as "Zhang Gang", "Jianchang Gang", "Jing Gang", "Chuan Gang" and so on.
Zhangshu Pharmaceutical Merchants and Xinyu, Xingan, Xiajiang and Fengcheng Pharmaceutical Merchants set up the "Zhangshu Pharmaceutical Band", or "Zhangshu Pharmaceutical Band" for short, which began in the Han and Jin Dynasties, became in the Tang and Song Dynasties, flourished in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and enjoyed the reputation of "medicine is not uniform as camphor trees" and "medicine is not effective as camphor
"Jianchang Band" originated in Jianchang Prefecture, Jiangxi Province. It originated in Jin and Tang Dynasties, flourished in Song and Yuan Dynasties, flourished in Ming Dynasty and became a group in Qing Dynasty. It was called "Jiangxi Band" together with "Zhangshu Band" with the prestige of the old Chinese name.
"Jianchang Gang" enjoys the reputation of "the road of Zhangshu, the frying of Jianchang", and "medicine can't do without Jianchang". "Zhang Gang" attaches importance to the selection of excipients in combination with clinical practice. Its solid excipients include brown rice, honey bran, alum and so on. Liquid braids are characterized by goat blood, pig heart blood, soft shelled turtle blood, and Tong Bian "Jianchang Gang". There is a difference.
On May 13, 2016, the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Processing Technology Inheritance Base of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the School of Pharmacy of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, held a teacher-visiting ceremony.
November 17-19, 2017, sponsored by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Project Office of Traditional Chinese Medicine Processing Technology Inheritance Base (Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the Pharmaceutical College of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the First Affiliated Hospital, and the Second National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, co-sponsored by Sichuan New Green Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Development Co., Ltd. The training course on theory and technology of division processing was held in Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
From May to June 2018, Professor Jin Shiyuan, Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine, gave a lecture on Traditional Chinese Medicine Processing in Beijing Sifang Traditional Chinese Medicine Pieces Co., Ltd.
On July 26, 2018, the National Achievement Exchange Meeting of Traditional Chinese Medicine Processing Technology Inheritance Base was held in Yuzhou City, Henan Province. The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine won the first prize of the National Achievement Exchange Meeting of Traditional Chinese Medicine Processing Technology Inheritance Base, and Li Huifen, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, won the second prize of the Processing Theory Competition. Wang Xin and Yang Tianyi, affiliated hospitals of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, were awarded the second and third prizes respectively in the processing operation competition.