Pingyao Pushing Lacquerware Decoration Techniques
Pingyao Pushing Lacquerware Decoration, Pingyao County, Shanxi Province, local traditional handicraft, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Pingyao polishing lacquerware decoration technology originated in Pingyao County, central Shanxi Province, and spread to the vast northern region. Lacquerware made with this technique has been well known since the first year of Tang Dynasty. Due to the rise of Shanxi businessmen in Ming and Qing Dynasties, great progress has been made in polishing lacquerware.
On May 20, 2006, Pingyao Puguang lacquerware decoration technology was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, heritage number: _-51.
During the Spring and Autumn Period, Pingyao lacquerware had taken shape.
By the Han Dynasty, the technology had reached a high level. In 1956, the five-page painted screen of the Han Dynasty character story unearthed from Sima Jinlong tomb in Shijiazhai, Datong, Shanxi Province, was proved to be Pingyao lacquerware. The screen is painted with black lines and white, yellow and red colors. This painting style basically reflects the style and features of Pingyao lacquerware.
During the Kaiyuan period of Tang Dynasty (713 A.D.), Shanxi lacquerware production has become its own characteristics, and Pingyao lacquerware is the most representative, and the gold painting technology is unique.
Ming and Qing Dynasties, especially the prosperous times of Kang, Yong and Qian, were also the heyday of Pingyao lacquer industry. In the fourth year of Qianlong (1739), Jidulong, a native of Pingyao Liang Village, set up a "Hongjinxin" lacquerware workshop in Ma Dao, a station in the county town. It specializes in producing cabinets, boxes, tables, dishes, plates, boxes, boxes and screens for export.
From the mid-Qing Dynasty to the beginning of the Republic of China, the prosperity of Pingyao Ticket and Qianzhuang brought great business opportunities to lacquer products, and Pingyao polished lacquerware technology has made great progress.
Pingyao polishing lacquerware is mostly lacquerware furniture, which usually includes cabinets, tables, screens, boxes and so on. The craft includes gold painting, carving inlay, drum covering paint, carving gray carving and filling. The lacquerware products made by traditional lacquer and traditional lacquer are exquisite and durable. It can absorb and add gold, silver, jade, pearls, stones and other precious articles and their production process to make works of art with unique artistic value.
Pingyao Puguang lacquerware is painted with national style patterns, such as characters in classical novels and operas, characters in ancient myths and legends, or golden paintings, or knife carving mats, or stacked drums, smooth lines, harmonious tones and magnificent.
Pushing paint is also widely used in the decoration of palaces, temples, halls and study rooms. It has simple and elegant appearance, fine structure, bright paint surface, brilliant decoration, delicate and smooth handle, heat and moisture resistance, and durable.
Pingyao Pushing Paint has a complete set of exquisite techniques. Its production process mainly includes the following steps:
Paint Making Technology of Great Paint
Natural lacquer collected from lacquer trees can not be used directly. It must be refined with a special process, formula and equipment before it can be used.
Tung oil refining process
The cover paint used in traditional lacquerware is prepared from natural tung oil and natural lacquer by special refining process and certain formula before it can be used.
Ash-making and Ash-hanging Technology
The traditional lacquerware is coated with hemp and grey on the wooden tire before painting, and the traditional craft is coated with large paint and then with grey. Traditional lacquerware uses three kinds of mortar, one is raw lacquer soil seed ash, the other is pig blood ash, and the third is loess glue ash. Quick lacquer ashes need cloth, pig blood ashes need linen, and loess gum ashes need paper. Then hanging ash, hanging ash is a very important process, usually hanging more than four lines of ash, bottom ash and mortar, ash configuration and hanging ash, there is a special process.
Manufacturing technology of lacquer bolt
The use of natural lacquer, ordinary brush is not feasible, we must use a special decoration tool, called paint bolt. High-grade lacquer bolts are made of girl's hair, usually made of oxtail, large lacquer and tung oil. At first glance, they are a hard board about one foot long, three inches wide and three thirds thick. When used, they must be cut at one end with a special knife, called bolt-opening. General lacquer artists can't make such tools.
Establishment of the Ovary
The drying of natural lacquer is not only the evaporation of water, but also requires special temperature and humidity conditions. Therefore, the lacquer wares should be dried in the special vagina after each lacquer. The setting of the vagina is an indispensable and important condition for traditional lacquer wares.
Surface Decoration of Pingyao Traditional Lacquerware
Surface decoration is mainly gold-painted technology, including gold-plated black, stacked drum cover paint, rubbing, color-painted gold, tricolor gold, halo gold, gold-searching, tricolor, leaching gold and silver, soft stone inlay, eggshell inlay, etc. The first six are old traditional technology, followed by new techniques added in recent decades. The paints used in gold painting are silver beads, stone yellow, blue and other special paint-in pigments, which are blended with large paint, so ordinary brushes can not be used. Lacquerware artists use a pointed pen and a flat pen, which are specially made from the mane on the back of the bobcat. The carving knife they use is also made by themselves.
Pushing Paint Technology
Traditional polishing process, from primer to topcoat, has different technological requirements for each coat. Generally speaking, the polishing process of the last top coat is to polish it with the palm of the hand. The usual method is to polish the surface with fine sandpaper first, in order to increase the blackness of the paint surface, and then to polish it with high-quality basswood-fired charcoal block fine dipped in water, and then with hair dipped in it. Oil polishing, and eventually dip your palm in a special fine brick ash and sesame oil polishing, paint to achieve a bright mirror effect.
Embedding, sculpture, covering gold, gray carving, drum stacking and other techniques
These techniques have their own essence, lacquerware artists have their own expertise, a good lacquerware products can be added to gold, jade, teeth, stone, pearls, shells, snails and other materials, so often valuable.
Inheritance and Protection
Pingyao lacquerware craft culture not only occupies an important position in the development history of Shanxi culture, but also plays a vital role in the development history of lacquer art in the whole country. It is also an indispensable and important part of Shanxi's famous historical and cultural province. It has exerted great influence on Shanxi's society, economy and culture, and even on the whole country's society, economy and culture.
Current situation of inheritance
As a result of the impact of modern chemical paint and cashew nut paint, the glossy lacquer technology with natural lacquer as raw material is shrinking day by day, leading to the change of profession and loss of artists, the quality of lacquer products has declined, and it is in an endangered state.
Xue Shengjin, on June 9, 2011, was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Pingyao County, Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province. Declaration items: Pingyao polishing lacquerware decoration skills.
Liang Zhongxiu, selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects in December 2012, declared in Pingyao County, Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province. Declaration items: Pingyao polishing lacquerware decoration skills.
In 1997, Pingyao County established Xue Shengjin Studio and Lacquer Art Court. The materials and archives of this art will be sorted out, Pingyao Lacquer Art Museum will be established, and lacquer art training courses will be held to ensure the inheritance and development of this precious art.
The cultural industry project of Pingyao Puguang Lacquerware Cultural Creative Park is implemented by Pingyao Coal Chemical Group. A large-scale standard lacquerware production line is set up, which is suitable for tourists'sightseeing, meets the requirements of production technology and can directly reflect the production process of traditional Puguang lacquerware. The museum built is the first largest lacquerware Museum in China. Nowadays, the demonstration base of Puguang lacquer has formed a modern industrial park which integrates production, sales, exhibition and collection, R&D and training, tourism, cultural dissemination, business incubation, lacquer tree planting, food, housing, travel, shopping and entertainment, and relying on Pingyao coal-based capital advantages, inherits and develops Pingyao lacquerware technology.
In 1986, Pingyao lacquerware won the National Silver Cup Award. In 1989, he won the National Golden Cup Award.
Since 1993, Pingyao has engaged experts, scholars, artists and skilled craftsmen from all over the country. It took two years to create and complete the giant screen of Guan Gong Emperor. The full screen is composed of 48 pages, with a single page width of 0.809 meters, a height of 2.46 meters and a thickness of 0.048 meters. Each page is connected by special copper ornaments. The total length is 120.032 meters and the weight is 4550 kilograms. He has obtained Shanxi No. 1 Copyright Certificate and the "Guinness of the Great World" Certificate.
The first China Pingyao Lacquer Culture Festival was successfully held in 2007, which pioneered the Biennial Exhibition of Chinese Pingyao Pushing Lacquer Culture.
Pingyao lacquerware began to pass through Beijing Port, and then Shanxi Port. The products entered the international market and were sold to more than 30 countries and regions, such as Europe, the United States and Southeast Asia, and became influential export products for earning foreign exchange.